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外文翻译--C#介绍.doc

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外文翻译--C#介绍.doc

英文原文INTRODUCINGCCPRONOUNCED“SEESHARP”ISAPROGRAMMINGLANGUAGEDESIGNEDFORMICROSOFT’SNETPLATFORMSINCEITSFIRSTRELEASEIN2002,CHASFOUNDMANYROLESITISWIDELYUSEDONTHESERVERSIDEOFWEBSITES,ANDALSOONBOTHTHECLIENTANDSERVERINLINEOFBUSINESSWINDOWSDESKTOPAPPLICATIONSYOUCANWRITESMARTPHONEUSERINTERFACESANDXBOX360GAMESINCMORERECENTLY,MICROSOFT’SSILVERLIGHTPLATFORMHASMADECANOPTIONFORWRITINGRICHINTERNETAPPLICATIONSTHATRUNINAWEBBROWSERBUTWHATKINDOFLANGUAGEISCTOUNDERSTANDALANGUAGEWELLENOUGHTOUSEITEFFECTIVELY,IT’SNOTENOUGHTOFOCUSPURELYONTHEDETAILSANDMECHANISMS,ALTHOUGHWE’LLBESPENDINGPLENTYOFTIMEONTHOSEINTHISBOOKITISEQUALLYIMPORTANTTOUNDERSTANDTHETHINKINGBEHINDTHEDETAILSSOINTHISCHAPTER,WE’LLLOOKATWHATPROBLEMSCWASBUILTTOSOLVETHENWE’LLEXPLORETHESTYLEOFTHELANGUAGE,THROUGHASPECTSTHATDISTINGUISHITFROMOTHERLANGUAGESANDWE’LLFINISHTHECHAPTERWITHALOOKATTHELATESTSTEPINTHEEVOLUTIONOFC,ITSFOURTHVERSIONWHYCWHYNETPROGRAMMINGLANGUAGESEXISTTOHELPDEVELOPERSBEMOREPRODUCTIVEMANYSUCCESSFULLANGUAGESSIMPLIFYORAUTOMATETEDIOUSTASKSTHATPREVIOUSLYHADTOBEDONEBYHANDSOMEOFFERNEWTECHNIQUESTHATALLOWOLDPROBLEMSTOBETACKLEDMOREEFFECTIVELY,ORONALARGERSCALETHANBEFOREHOWMUCHDIFFERENCECCANMAKETOYOUWILLDEPENDONYOURPROGRAMMINGBACKGROUND,OFCOURSE,SOIT’SWORTHCONSIDERINGWHATSORTSOFPEOPLETHELANGUAGEDESIGNERSHADINMINDWHENTHEYCREATEDCCISAIMEDATDEVELOPERSWORKINGONTHEWINDOWSPLATFORM,ANDITSSYNTAXISINSTANTLYFAMILIARTOUSERSOFCORC,OROTHERLANGUAGESTHATDRAWFROMTHESAMETRADITION,SUCHASJAVASCRIPTANDJAVAFUNDAMENTALLANGUAGEELEMENTSSUCHASSTATEMENTS,EXPRESSIONS,FUNCTIONDECLARATIONS,ANDFLOWCONTROLAREMODELEDASCLOSELYASPOSSIBLEONTHEIREQUIVALENTSINCFAMILYLANGUAGESAFAMILIARSYNTAXISNOTENOUGHOFAREASONTOPICKALANGUAGE,OFCOURSE,SOCOFFERSPRODUCTIVITYENHANCINGFEATURESNOTFOUNDINSOMEOFITSPREDECESSORSGARBAGECOLLECTIONFREESDEVELOPERSFROMTHETYRANNYOFCOMMONMEMORYMANAGEMENTPROBLEMSSUCHASMEMORYLEAKSANDCIRCULARREFERENCESVERIFIABLETYPESAFETYOFCOMPILEDCODERULESOUTAWIDERANGEOFBUGSANDPOTENTIALSECURITYFLAWSWHILECORCWINDOWSDEVELOPERSMAYNOTBEACCUSTOMEDTOTHOSEFEATURES,THEYWILLSEEMOLDHATTOJAVAVETERANS,BUTJAVAHASNOTHINGTOCOMPETEWITHTHE“LINQ”FEATURESCOFFERSFORWORKINGWITHCOLLECTIONSOFINFORMATION,WHETHERINOBJECTMODELS,XMLDOCUMENTS,ORDATABASESINTEGRATINGCODEFROMEXTERNALCOMPONENTSISREMARKABLYPAINLESS,EVENTHOSEWRITTENINOTHERLANGUAGESCALSOINCORPORATESSUPPORTFORFUNCTIONALPROGRAMMING,APOWERFULFEATUREPREVIOUSLYMOSTCOMMONLYSEENINACADEMICLANGUAGESMANYOFTHEMOSTUSEFULFEATURESAVAILABLETOCDEVELOPERSCOMEFROMTHENETFRAMEWORK,WHICHPROVIDESTHERUNTIMEENVIRONMENTANDLIBRARIESFORC,ANDALLOTHERNETLANGUAGES,SUCHASVBNETCWASDESIGNEDFORNET,ANDONEOFTHEMAINBENEFITSOFITSCLOSERELATIONSHIPWITHTHENETFRAMEWORKISTHATWORKINGWITHFRAMEWORKFEATURESSUCHASTHECLASSLIBRARYFEELSVERYNATURALTHENETFRAMEWORKCLASSLIBRARYWORKINGINCMEANSMORETHANUSINGJUSTTHELANGUAGETHECLASSESOFFEREDBYTHENETFRAMEWORKAREANEXTREMELYIMPORTANTPARTOFTHECDEVELOPER’SEVERYDAYEXPERIENCEANDTHEYACCOUNTFORALOTOFTHISBOOK’SCONTENTMOSTOFTHELIBRARYFUNCTIONALITYFALLSINTOONEOFTHREECATEGORIESUTILITYFEATURESWRITTENINNET,WRAPPERSAROUNDWINDOWSFUNCTIONALITY,ANDFRAMEWORKSTHEFIRSTGROUPCOMPRISESUTILITYTYPESSUCHASDICTIONARIES,LISTS,ANDOTHERCOLLECTIONCLASSES,ASWELLASSTRINGMANIPULATIONFACILITIESSUCHASAREGULAREXPRESSIONENGINETHEREAREALSOFEATURESTHATOPERATEONASLIGHTLYLARGERSCALE,SUCHASTHEOBJECTMODELSFORREPRESENTINGXMLDOCUMENTSSOMELIBRARYFEATURESAREWRAPPERSAROUNDUNDERLYINGOSFUNCTIONALITYFOREXAMPLE,THEREARECLASSESFORACCESSINGTHEFILESYSTEM,ANDFORUSINGNETWORKFEATURESSUCHASSOCKETSANDTHEREARECLASSESFORWRITINGOUTPUTTOTHECONSOLE,WHICHWECANILLUSTRATEWITHTHEOBLIGATORYFIRSTEXAMPLEOFANYPROGRAMMINGLANGUAGEBOOK,SHOWNINEXAMPLE11EXAMPLE11THEINEVITABLE“HELLO,WORLD”EXAMPLECLASSPROGRAM{STATICVOIDMAIN{SYSTEMCONSOLEWRITELINEHELLO,WORLD;}}WE’LLEXAMINEALLTHEPIECESSHOWNHEREINDUECOURSE,BUTFORNOW,NOTETHATEVENTHISSIMPLESTOFEXAMPLESDEPENDSONACLASSFROMTHELIBRARYTHESYSTEMCONSOLECLASSINTHISCASETODOITSJOBFINALLY,THECLASSLIBRARYOFFERSWHOLEFRAMEWORKSTOSUPPORTBUILDINGCERTAINKINDSOFAPPLICATIONSFOREXAMPLE,WINDOWSPRESENTATIONFOUNDATIONWPFISAFRAMEWORKFORBUILDINGWINDOWSDESKTOPSOFTWARE;ASPNETWHICHISNOTANACRONYM,DESPITEAPPEARANCESISAFRAMEWORKFORBUILDINGWEBAPPLICATIONSNOTALLFRAMEWORKSAREABOUTUSERINTERFACESWINDOWSCOMMUNICATIONFOUNDATIONWCFISDESIGNEDFORBUILDINGSERVICESACCESSEDOVERTHENETWORKBYOTHERCOMPUTERSYSTEMS,FORINSTANCETHESETHREECATEGORIESARENOTSTRICT,ASQUITEAFEWCLASSESFITINTOTWOFOREXAMPLE,THEPARTSOFTHECLASSLIBRARYTHATPROVIDEACCESSTOTHEFILESYSTEMARENOTJUSTTHINWRAPPERSAROUNDEXISTINGWIN32APISTHEYADDNEWOBJECTORIENTEDABSTRACTIONS,PROVIDINGSIGNIFICANTFUNCTIONALITYBEYONDTHEBASICFILEI/OSERVICES,SOTHESETYPESFITINTOBOTHTHEFIRSTANDSECONDCATEGORIESLIKEWISE,FRAMEWORKSUSUALLYNEEDTOINTEGRATEWITHUNDERLYINGSERVICESTOSOMEEXTENTFOREXAMPLE,ALTHOUGHTHEWINDOWSFORMSUIFRAMEWORKHASADISTINCTIVEAPIOFITSOWN,ALOTOFTHEUNDERLYINGFUNCTIONALITYISPROVIDEDBYWIN32COMPONENTSSOTHETHREECATEGORIESHEREARENOTSTRICTTHEYJUSTOFFERAUSEFULIDEAOFWHATSORTSOFTHINGSYOUCANFINDINTHECLASSLIBRARIESLANGUAGESTYLECISNOTTHEONLYLANGUAGETHATRUNSONTHENETFRAMEWORKINDEED,SUPPORTFORMULTIPLELANGUAGESHASALWAYSBEENAKEYFEATUREOFNET,REFLECTEDINTHENAMEOFITSRUNTIMEENGINE,THECLRORCOMMONLANGUAGERUNTIMEASTHISNAMEIMPLIES,NETISNOTJUSTFORONELANGUAGENUMEROUSLANGUAGESHAVEACCESSTOTHESERVICESOFTHENETFRAMEWORKCLASSLIBRARYWHYMIGHTYOUCHOOSECOVERTHEOTHERSWEALREADYMENTIONEDONEIMPORTANTREASONCWASDESIGNEDSPECIFICALLYFORNETIFYOUAREWORKINGWITHNETTECHNOLOGIESSUCHASWPFORASPNET,YOU’LLBESPEAKINGTHEIRLANGUAGEIFYOUWORKINCCOMPARETHISWITHC,WHICHSUPPORTSNETTHROUGHEXTENSIONSTOTHEORIGINALLANGUAGETHEEXTENSIONSARECAREFULLYTHOUGHTOUTANDWORKWELL,BUTCODETHATUSESNETLIBRARIESJUSTLOOKSDIFFERENTFROMNORMALC,SOPROGRAMSTHATBRIDGETHEWORLDSOFNETANDSTANDARDCNEVERFEELCOMPLETELYCOHERENTANDTHEDUALPERSONALITYOFTENPRESENTSDILEMMASSHOULDYOUUSESTANDARDCCOLLECTIONCLASSESORTHEONESINTHENETCLASSLIBRARY,FOREXAMPLEINNATIVENETLANGUAGESSUCHASC,SUCHQUESTIONSDONOTEMERGEFISTHEODDONEOUTHEREIT’SAFUNCTIONALPROGRAMMINGLANGUAGE,HEAVILYINFLUENCEDBYALANGUAGECALLEDMLBACKIN1991,WHENYOURAUTHORSWEREFIRSTYEARSTUDENTS,OURUNIVERSITY’SCOMPUTERSCIENCECOURSECHOSEMLFORTHEFIRSTPROGRAMMINGLANGUAGELECTURESINPARTBECAUSEITWASSOACADEMICTHATNONEOFTHESTUDENTSWOULDPREVIOUSLYHAVECOMEACROSSANYTHINGLIKEITFISSTILLATTHEACADEMICENDOFTHESPECTRUMDESPITEHAVINGCLIMBEDFARENOUGHDOWNTHEIVORYTOWERTOBEASTANDARDPARTOFAMAINSTREAMDEVELOPMENTENVIRONMENTITEXCELSATCOMPLICATEDCALCULATIONSANDALGORITHMS,ANDHASSOMECHARACTERISTICSTHATCANHELPWITHPARALLELEXECUTIONHOWEVER,ASWITHMANYFUNCTIONALLANGUAGES,THECOSTOFMAKINGSOMEHARDPROBLEMSEASIERISTHATALOTOFTHINGSTHATAREEASYINMORETRADITIONALLANGUAGESAREREMARKABLYHARDINFFUNCTIONALLANGUAGESAREADEPTATCOMPLEXPROBLEMS,BUTCANBECLUMSYWITHSIMPLEONESITSEEMSLIKELYTHATFWILLMOSTLYBEUSEDINSCIENTIFICORFINANCIALAPPLICATIONSWHERETHECOMPLEXITYOFTHECOMPUTATIONTOBEPERFORMEDDWARFSTHECOMPLEXITYOFTHECODETHATNEEDSTOACTONTHERESULTSOFTHOSECALCULATIONSMANAGEDCODETHENETFRAMEWORKPROVIDESMORETHANJUSTACLASSLIBRARYITALSOPROVIDESSERVICESINSUBTLERWAYSTHATARENOTACCESSEDEXPLICITLYTHROUGHLIBRARYCALLSFOREXAMPLE,EARLIERWEMENTIONEDTHATCCANAUTOMATESOMEASPECTSOFMEMORYMANAGEMENT,ANOTORIOUSSOURCEOFBUGSINCCODEABANDONINGHEAPALLOCATEDOBJECTSONCEYOU’REDONEWITHTHEMISACODINGERRORINC,BUTIT’STHENORMALWAYTOFREETHEMINNETTHISSERVICEISPROVIDEDBYTHECLRTHENETFRAMEWORK’SRUNTIMEENVIRONMENTALTHOUGHTHECCOMPILERWORKSCLOSELYWITHTHERUNTIMETOMAKETHISPOSSIBLE,PROVIDINGTHENECESSARYINFORMATIONABOUTHOWYOURCODEUSESOBJECTSANDDATA,IT’SULTIMATELYTHERUNTIMETHATDOESTHEWORKOFGARBAGECOLLECTIONDEPENDINGONWHATSORTSOFLANGUAGESYOUMAYHAVEWORKEDWITHBEFORE,THEIDEATHATTHELANGUAGEDEPENDSHEAVILYONTHERUNTIMEMIGHTSEEMEITHERCOMPLETELYNATURALORSOMEWHATDISCONCERTINGIT’SCERTAINLYDIFFERENTFROMHOWCANDCWORKWITHTHOSELANGUAGES,THECOMPILER’SOUTPUTCANBEEXECUTEDDIRECTLYBYTHECOMPUTER,ANDALTHOUGHTHOSELANGUAGESHAVESOMERUNTIMESERVICES,IT’SPOSSIBLETOWRITECODETHATCANRUNWITHOUTTHEMBUTCCODECANNOTEVENEXECUTEWITHOUTTHEHELPOFTHERUNTIMECODETHATDEPENDSENTIRELYONTHERUNTIMEISCALLEDMANAGEDCODEMANAGEDCOMPILERSDONOTPRODUCERAWEXECUTABLECODEINSTEAD,THEYPRODUCEANINTERMEDIATEFORMOFCODECALLEDIL,THEINTERMEDIATELANGUAGETHERUNTIMEDECIDESEXACTLYHOWTOCONVERTITINTOSOMETHINGEXECUTABLEONEPRACTICALUPSHOTOFMANAGEDCODEISTHATACOMPILEDCPROGRAMCANRUNONBOTH32BITAND64BITSYSTEMSWITHOUTMODIFICATION,ANDCANEVENRUNONDIFFERENTPROCESSORARCHITECTURESIT’SOFTENPOSSIBLEFORCODETHATRUNSONANARMBASEDHANDHELDDEVICETORUNUNMODIFIEDONINTELBASEDPCS,ORONTHEPOWERPCARCHITECTUREFOUNDINTHEXBOX360GAMECONSOLEIFYOU’REAJAVADEVELOPER,ALLOFTHISWILLSOUNDRATHERFAMILIARJUSTSUBSTITUTEBYTECODEFORILANDTHESTORYISVERYSIMILARINDEED,APOPULARBUTSOMEWHATIGNORANT“JOKE”AMONGTHELESSTHOUGHTFULMEMBERSOFTHEJAVACOMMUNITYISTODESCRIBECASAPOORIMITATIONOFJAVAWHENTHEFIRSTVERSIONOFCAPPEARED,THEDIFFERENCESWERESUBTLE,BUTTHEFACTTHATJAVAWENTONTOCOPYSEVERALFEATURESFROMCILLUSTRATESTHATCWASALWAYSMORETHANAMERECLONETHELANGUAGESHAVEGROWNMOREOBVIOUSLYDIFFERENTWITHEACHNEWVERSION,BUTONEDIFFERENCE,PRESENTFROMTHESTART,ISPARTICULARLYIMPORTANTFORWINDOWSDEVELOPERSCHASALWAYSMADEITEASYTOGETATTHEFEATURESOFTHEUNDERLYINGWINDOWSPLATFORMCONTINUITYANDTHEWINDOWSECOSYSTEMSOFTWAREDEVELOPMENTPLATFORMSDONOTSUCCEEDPURELYONTHEIROWNMERITSCONTEXTMATTERSFOREXAMPLE,WIDESPREADAVAILABILITYOFTHIRDPARTYCOMPONENTSANDTOOLSCANMAKEAPLATFORMSIGNIFICANTLYMORECOMPELLINGWINDOWSISPERHAPSTHEMOSTSTRIKINGEXAMPLEOFTHISPHENOMENONANYNEWPROGRAMMINGSYSTEMATTEMPTINGTOGAINACCEPTANCEHASACONSIDERABLEADVANTAGEIFITCANPLUGINTOSOMEEXISTINGECOSYSTEM,ANDONEOFTHEBIGGESTDIFFERENCESBETWEENCANDJAVAISTHATCANDTHENETFRAMEWORKPOSITIVELYEMBRACETHEWINDOWSPLATFORM,WHILEJAVAGOESOUTOFITSWAYTOINSULATEDEVELOPERSFROMTHEUNDERLYINGOSWHILENETOFFERSFEATURESTOEASEINTEGRATIONWITHTHEUNDERLYINGPLATFORM,THEREISSTILLSUPPORTFORNONWINDOWSSYSTEMSMICROSOFT’SSILVERLIGHTCANRUNCANDVBNETCODEONMAC

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