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外文翻译--PLC控制系统设计的要点.doc

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外文翻译--PLC控制系统设计的要点.doc

英文原文PLCCONTROLSYSTEMDESIGNELEMENTSSUBMITTED;ACCEPTEDMARCH27,2002;PUBLISHEDSEPTEMBER25,2002PAVANKHEDA1,KAPIAMBAMUTEBA2ANDLARRYLAUGSBURGER21PERSONALPRODUCTSCOMPANY,DIVISIONOFMCNEILPPC,SKILLMAN,NJ085582DEPARTMENTOFPHARMACEUTICALSCIENCES,UNIVERSITYOFMARYLAND,SCHOOLOFPHARMACY,BALTIMORE,MD21201ABSTRACTORIGINALLY,THEPLCWASREPRESENTEDBYTHEACRONYMPCTHEREWASSOMECONFUSIONWITHUSINGTHISACRONYMASITISCOMMONLYACCEPTEDTOREPRESENTPERSONALCOMPUTERTHEREFORE,PLCISNOWCOMMONLYACCEPTEDTOMEANPROGRAMMABLELOGICCONTOLLERAPLCISAUSERFRIENDLY,MICROPROCESSORBASEDSPECIALIZEDCOMPUTERTHATCARRIESOUTCONTROLFUNCTIONSOFMANYTYPESANDLEVESOFCOMPLEXITYITSPURPOSEISTOMONITORCRUCIALPROCESSPARAMETERSANDADJUSTPROCESSOPERATIONSACCORDINGLYITCANBEPROGRAMMED,CONTROLLED,ANDOPERATEDBYAPERSONUNSKILLEDINOPERATINGCOMPUTERESSENTIALLY,APLC’SOPERATORDRAWSTHELINESANDDEVICESOFLADDERDIAGRAMSWITHAKEYBOARDONTOADISPLAYSCREENTHERESULTINGDRAWINGISCONVERTEDINTOCOMPUTERMACHINELANGUAGEANDRUNASAUSERPROGRAM1THECOMPUTERTAKESTHEPLACEOFMUCHOFTHEEXTERNALWIRINGREQUIREDFORCONTROLOFAPROCESSTHEPLCWILLOPERATEANYSYSTEMTHATHASOUTPUTDEVICESTHATGOONANDOFFKNOWNASDISCRETE,ORDIGITAL,OUTPUTSITCANALSOOPERATEANYSYSTEMWITHVARIABLEANALOGOUTPUTSTHEPLCCANBEOPERATEDONTHEINPUTSIDEBYONOFFDEVICESDISCRETE,ORDIGITALORBYVARIABLEANALOGINPUTDEVICESKEYWORDSPLC,PROGRAMMABLELOGICCONTOLLERINTHEAUTOMATEDCONTROLDOMAIN,PLCISONEKINDOFIMPORTANTCONTROLDEVICEATPRESENT,INTHEWORLDHASMORETHAN200FACTORIESTOPRODUCEMORETHAN300VARIETIESPLCPRODUCT,APPLIESINTHEAUTOMOBILE23,THEGRAINPROCESSING164,CHEMISTRY/DRUGSMANUFACTURE146,THEMETAL/MINE115,THEPAPERPULP/PAPERMAKING113ANDSOONTHEPROFESSIONINORDERTOMAKEFELLOWBEGINNERSCONVENIENTLYTOUNDERSTANDPLC,THISARTICLETOTHEPLCDEVELOPMENT,THEBASICSTRUCTURE,THEDISPOSITION,USINGANDSOONTHEELEMENTARYKNOWLEDGEMAKESASYNOPSISFIRST,PLCDEVELOPMENTCOURSEINTHEINDUSTRIALPRODUCTIONPROCESS,THEMASSIVESWITCHESQUANTITYSEQUENTIALCONTROL,ITCARRIESONTHESMOOTHMOVEMENTACCORDINGTOTHELOGICALCONDITION,ANDDEFERSTOTHELOGICALRELATIONSTOCARRYONTHECHAINLIKEPROTECTIONMOVEMENTTHECONTROL,ANDMASSIVEDATAACQUISITIONINTHETRADITION,THESEFUNCTIONSAREREALIZETHROUGHAIROPERATEDORTHEELECTRICITYCONTROLSYSTEMIN1968AMERICANGMGENERALAUTOMOBILETHECOMPANYPROPOSEDTHESUBSTITUTIONCONTINUESTHEELECTRICITYCONTROLDEVICETHEREQUEST,THESECONDYEAR,THEAMERICANNUMERALCOMPANYDEVELOPEDBASEDONTHEINTEGRATEDCIRCUITANDTHEELECTRONICTECHNOLOGYCONTROLDEVICE,USEDSEQUENCEDTHEMETHODTOAPPLYFORTHEFIRSTTIMETOTHEELECTRICALCONTROL,THISWASTHEFIRSTGENERATIONOFPROGRAMMABLEFOREWORDCONTROLLER,CALLEDPROGRAMMABLECONTROLLERPC2AFTERTHEPERSONALCOMPUTERISCALLEDPCTODEVELOP,INORDERTOBECONVENIENT,ALSOINORDERTOREFLECTTHEPROGRAMMABLECONTROLLERTHEFUNCTIONCHARACTERISTIC,THEPROGRAMMABLEFOREWORDCONTROLLERCHOOSESANAMEISPROGRAMMABLELOGICCONTROLLERPLC,NOW,STILLFREQUENTLYWASCALLEDPLCPCTHEPLCDEFINITIONHASMANYKINDSTHEINTERNATIONALELECTRICIANCOMMITTEEIECTOPLCTHEDEFINITIONISTHEPROGRAMMABLECONTROLLERISONEKINDOFDIGITALOPERATIONOPERATIONELECTRONICSYSTEM,SPECIALLYFORAPPLIESUNDERTHEINDUSTRYENVIRONMENTDESIGNS3ITUSESTHEPROGRAMMABLEFOREWORDTHEMEMORY,USESFORTOCARRYOUTTHELOGICOPERATION,THESEQUENTIALCONTROLINITSINTERNALSTORAGE,FIXEDTIME,COUNTSWITHOPERATIONTHEANDSOONARITHMETICOPERATIONINSTRUCTION,ANDTHROUGHDIGITAL,THESIMULATIONINPUTANDTHEOUTPUT,CONTROLSEACHKINDOFTYPETHEMACHINERYORTHEPRODUCTIONPROCESSTHEPROGRAMMABLEFOREWORDCONTROLLERANDITSTHERELATEDEQUIPMENT,ALLSHOULDACCORDINGTOEASYFORMAWHOLEWITHTHEINDUSTRYCONTROLSYSTEM,ISEASYTOEXPANDITSFUNCTIONTHEPRINCIPLEDESIGNONTHECENTURY80STOTHE90SINTERMEDIATESTAGES,AREPLCDEVELOPTHEQUICKESTTIME,THEYEARLYRATECONTINUOUSLYMAINTENANCEARE3040INTHISTIME,PLCINTHEPROCESSINGSIMULATIONQUANTITYABILITY,THEDIGITALOPERATIONABILITY,THEMANMACHINECONNECTIONABILITYANDTHENETWORKINGCAPABILITYOBTAINSTHELARGESCALEENHANCEMENT,PLCGRADUALLYENTERSTHEPROCESSCONTROLDOMAIN,SUBSTITUTEDINCERTAINAPPLICATIONSHASBEENATTHEDOMINANTPOSITIONINTHEPROCESSCONTROLDOMAINTHEDCSSYSTEMPLCHASTHEVERSATILITYSTRONGLY,THEEASYTOOPERATE,THEADAPTIONSURFACEBROAD,THERELIABILITYHIGH,THEANTIJAMMINGABILITYSTRONG,THEPROGRAMMINGISSIMPLEANDSOONTHECHARACTERISTICPLCINTHEINDUSTRIALAUTOMATIONCONTROLSPECIALLYISINTHESEQUENTIALCONTROLSTATUS,INFUTUREWHICHMAYFORESEE,ISUNABLETOSUBSTITUTESECOND,PLCCONSTITUTIONFROMTHESTRUCTURETHEMINUTE,PLCDIVIDESINTOTHESTATIONARYTYPEANDTHECOMBINEDTYPEMODULETYPETWOKINDSSTATIONARYPLCINCLUDINGTHECPUBOARD,THEI/OBOARD,DEMONSTRATEDTHEKNEADINGBOARD,THEMEMORYBLOCK,THEPOWERSOURCEANDSOON,THESEELEMENTGROUPSSYNTHESIZEANOTDISMANTABLEWHOLEMODULETYPEPLCINCLUDINGTHECPUMODULE,THEI/OMODULE,THEMEMORY,THEPOWERSOURCEMODULE,THELEDGERWALLORTHERACK,THESEMODULESMAYDEFERTOTHECERTAINRULECOMBINATIONDISPOSITIONSECOND,PLCCONSTITUTION4THIRD,CPUCONSTITUTIONCPUISTHEPLCCORE,PLAYSNERVECENTERSROLE,EVERYTIMEWRAPSPLCATLEASTTOHAVECPU,ITFUNCTIONRECEIVEANDSTORAGEUSERPROGRAMANDDATAWHICHENTRUSTSWITHACCORDINGTOTHEPLCSYSTEMPROGRAM,WITHSCANNINGWAYGATHERINGTHECONDITIONORTHEDATAWHICHSENDSBYTHESCENEINPUTDEVICE,ANDSTORESTHESTIPULATIONINTHEREGISTER,SIMULTANEOUSLY,DIAGNOSESTHEPOWERSOURCEANDINTHEPLCINTERNALCIRCUITACTIVESTATUSANDTHEPROGRAMMINGPROCESSGRAMMATICALERRORANDSOONAFTERENTERSTHEMOVEMENT,READSFROMTHEUSERPROGRAMMEMORYBYTHESTRIPTAKESTHEINSTRUCTION,THEDUTYWHICHSTIPULATEDACCORDINGTOTHEINSTRUCTIONPRODUCESTHECORRESPONDINGCONTROLSIGNALAGAINAFTERTHEANALYSIS,DIRECTSTHERELATEDCONTROLCIRCUIT5CPUMAINLYBYTHELOGICUNIT,THECONTROLLER,THEREGISTERANDREALIZESTHEDATA,THECONTROLANDTHECONDITIONMAINLINECONSTITUTIONWHICHBETWEENTHEMRELATES,THECPUUNITALSOINCLUDESTHEPERIPHERYCHIP,THEMAINLINECONNECTIONANDTHERELATEDELECTRICCIRCUITTHEMEMORYMAINLYUSESINTHESTOREDROUTINEANDTHEDATA,ISTHEPLCESSENTIALCOMPOSITIONUNITLOOKEDLIKEINTHEUSER,NONESSENTIALMULTIANALYSISCPUINTERNALCIRCUIT,BUTORSHOULDHAVETHEENOUGHUNDERSTANDINGTOEACHPARTOFWORKMECHANISMTHECPUCONTROLLERCONTROLSTHECPUWORK,READSBYITTAKESTHEINSTRUCTION,THEINTERPRETIVEORDERANDCARRIESOUTTHEINSTRUCTIONBUTTHEWORKRHYTHMBYSHAKESTHESIGNALCONTROLTHELOGICUNITUSESINTOCARRYONTHENUMERALORTHELOGICOPERATION,WORKSUNDERTHECONTROLLERDIRECTIONTHEREGISTERPARTICIPATIONOPERATION,COEXISTSSTORESTHEOPERATIONTHEINTERMEDIATERESULT,ITALSOISWORKSUNDERTHECONTROLLERDIRECTIONTHECPUSPEEDANDTHEMEMORYCAPACITYARETHEPLCIMPORTANTPARAMETER,THEYAREDECIDINGTHEPLCWORKINGSPEED,THEIOQUANTITYANDTHESOFTWARECAPACITYANDSOON,THEREFOREISLIMITINGTHECONTROLSCALEFOURTH,I/OMODULEPLCANDTHEELECTRICALRETURNROUTECONNECTION,ISI/OCOMPLETESTHROUGHTHEINPUTOUTPUTUNITTHEI/OMODULEINTEGRATEDTHEPLCI/OELECTRICCIRCUIT,ITSINPUTTEMPORARYSTORAGEDEVICEREFLECTIONINPUTSIGNALCONDITION,OUTPUTPOINTREFLECTIONOUTPUTLATCHCONDITIONTHELOADMODULETRANSFORMSTHEELECTRICALSIGNALTHEDIGITALSIGNALTOENTERTHEPLCSYSTEM,THEOUTPUTMODULEISOPPOSITEI/ODIVIDESINTOTHESWITCHQUANTITYINPUTDI,SWITCHQUANTITYOUTPUTDO,SIMULATIONQUANTITYINPUTAI,SIMULATIONQUANTITYOUTPUTAOANDSOONMODULETHESWITCHQUANTITYISREFERSHASANDCLOSESOR1AND0TWOKINDOFCONDITIONSSIGNALS,THESIMULATIONQUANTITYISONLYAQUANTITYWHICHREFERSCONTINUOUSLYCHANGESCOMMONLYUSEDI/OCLASSIFIESASFOLLOWSSWITCHQUANTITYDIVIDESEQUALLYACCORDINGTOTHEVOLTAGEWATER,HAS220VAC,110VAC,24VDC,DIVIDESACCORDINGTOTHEISOLATIONWAY,HASTHERELAYISOLATIONANDTHETRANSISTORISOLATIONSIMULATIONQUANTITYDIVIDESACCORDINGTOTHESIGNALTYPE,HASTHEELECTRICCURRENT420MA,020MA,THEVOLTAGE010V,05V,1010VANDSOON,DIVIDESACCORDINGTOTHEPRECISION,HAS12BIT,14BIT,16BITANDSOONBESIDESABOVEGENERALI/O,BUTALSOHASTHESPECIALI/OMODULE,LIKEMODULEANDSOONTHERMALRESISTANCE,THERMOELEMENT,PULSEACCORDINGTOTHEI/OPOINTSDETERMINATIONMODULESPECIFICATIONANDTHEQUANTITY,THEI/OMODULEMAYBEMANYMAYBEFEW,BUTITSBIGGESTNUMBERTHEBASICDISPOSITIONABILITYWHICHCANMANAGECPU,NAMELYBIGGESTLEDGERWALLORRACKKEYSLOTNUMBERLIMITFIFTH,POWERSOURCEMODULETHEPLCPOWERSOURCEUSESINISTHEPLCVARIOUSMODULESINTEGRATEDCIRCUITPROVIDESTHEWORKPOWERSOURCEATTHESAMETIME,SOMEALSOPROVIDES24VFORTHEINPUTCIRCUITTHEWORKPOWERSOURCETHEMAINSINPUTTYPEINCLUDESWHATTHEALTERNATINGCURRENTSUPPLY220VACOR110VAC,THEDIRECTCURRENTPOWERSUPPLYISCOMMONLYUSEDIS24VACSIXTH,LEDGERWALLORRACKTHEMAJORITYMODULETYPEPLCUSELEDGERWALLORTHERACK,ITSFUNCTIONISONTHEELECTRICITY,REALIZESDURINGVARIOUSMODULESRELATION,ENABLESCPUTOVISITONTHELEDGERWALLALLMODULES,ONTHEMACHINERY,REALIZESDURINGVARIOUSMODULESCONNECTION,ENABLEVARIOUSMODULESTOCONSTITUTEAWHOLESEVENTH,PLCSYSTEMOTHEREQUIPMENT1ST,PROGRAMSTHEEQUIPMENTTHEPROGRAMMINGISTHEPLCDEVELOPMENTAPPLICATION,THEMONITORMOVEMENT,THEINSPECTIONMAINTAINSTHEESSENTIALCOMPONENT,USESINTOPROGRAM,MAKESSOMEHYPOTHESESTOTHESYSTEM,MONITORSTHESYSTEMWORKINGCONDITIONWHICHPLCANDPLCCONTROLS,BUTITNOTDIRECTLYPARTICIPATESINTHESCENECONTROLMOVEMENTSMALLPROGRAMMINGPLCGENERALLYHASTHEGRASPINGPROGRAMMING,ATPRESENTGENERALLYMOVEMENTPROGRAMMINGSOFTWAREACTSASTHEPROGRAMMINGBYTHECOMPUTER2ND,MANMACHINECONTACTSURFACETHESIMPLESTMANMACHINECONTACTSURFACEISTHEINDICATINGLAMPANDTHEBUTTON,ATPRESENTTHELIQUIDCRYSTALSCREENORTOUCHESSCREENAFORMULAWRITINGSTYLEOPERATORTERMINALAPPLICATIONTOBEMOREANDMOREWIDESPREAD,MOVEMENTCONFIGURATIONSOFTWAREACTSASTHEMANMACHINECONTACTSURFACEBYTHECOMPUTEREXTREMELYTOPOPULARIZE3RD,INPUTOUTPUTDEVICEUSESINPERMANENTLYTHEMEMORYUSERDATA,LIKEEPROM,EEPROMREADINGIN,BARCODEMICROREADER,INPUTSIMULATIONQUANTITYPOTENTIOMETER,PRINTERANDSOONEIGHTH,PLCCORRESPONDENCENETWORKINGDEPENDSUPONTHEADVANCEDINDUSTRYNETWORKTECHNOLOGYTOBEALLOWEDRAPIDLYEFFECTIVELYTOCOLLECT,THETRANSMISSIONPRODUCESANDMANAGESTHEDATATHEREFORE,THENETWORKISMOREANDMOREREMARKABLEINTHEAUTOMATEDSYSTEMINTEGRATIONPROJECTIMPORTANCE,EVENSOMEPEOPLEPROPOSEDTHENETWORKISTHECONTROLLERVIEWPOINTVIEWPLCHASTHECORRESPONDENCENETWORKINGTHEFUNCTION,ITCAUSESBETWEENPLCANDPLC,PLCANDONBETWEENTHEPOSITIONCOMPUTERANDALLTHATINTELLIGENTEQUIPMENTCANEXCHANGETHEINFORMATION,FORMSAUNIFIEDWHOLE,THEREALIZATIONDISPERSERCOMMONCONTROLMOSTPLCHASTHERS232CONNECTION,BUTALSOHASSOMEINSETSHASSUPPORTSRESPECTIVECORRESPONDENCEAGREEMENTTHECONNECTIONPLCCORRESPONDENCE,BUTALSOTHEREALIZATIONMUTUALLYHASNOTBEENOPERATIONAL,IECHAD

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