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外文翻译--一种全方位移动机器人的控制设计 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--一种全方位移动机器人的控制设计 英文版.pdf

AbstractAmobilelaboratorywasdevelopedforstudentsoftheECE5320MechatronicsandECE7750DistributedControlSystemscoursesatUtahStateUniversity.Aserialserverwasconnectedtotheembeddedcontrollerofastandalone3axesroboticwheelassembly.Thisenabledcommunicationbetweenthewheelandanyinternetenabledcomputer.AtelepresencecontrolsystemandaprototypenetworkedcontrolsystemNCSweredevelopedandtested.Thissystemwassuitablymodifiedtoaccommodatetheneedsofthecourselaboratories,therebyenablingstudentstodesign,debugandtesttheirlaboratoryprojectsinrealtimeattheirchosentimeandlocations.Afullyfunctionaldemonstrationofthisremotelaboratoryisavailablefromhttp//www.csois.usu.edu/people/smartwheel/CompleteInfoPage.htmI.INTRODUCTIONAPIDstridesintheuseoftelepresencesystemsfordistancelearningandremoteexperimentationpurposeshaveresultedthroughproliferationoftheInternet,advancesinmobilecommunicationstechnologyandavailabilityofhighspeedcomputers.ThesedevelopmentshavealsogreatlybenefitedthefieldofControlSystemseducationandproprietaryplatformslikeNationalInstrumentsLabVIEW1andQuansersWinconhavebeenusedinteachinglaboratories.TheDepartmentofElectricalComputerEngineeringatUtahStateUniversityoffersagraduatelevelcourseinDistributedControlSystems2.Thiscoursedealswiththedesign,implementationandstabilityissuesinnetworkedcontrolsystems,wirelesssensornetworks,anddistributedparametersystems.ThedepartmentalsooffersacourseinMechatronics3,whichdealswiththeprinciples,interfacing,andsignalconditioningofmotionsensorsandactuators,themodeling,analysis,andidentificationofdiscretetimesystems,andManuscriptreceivedSeptember14,2005.YangQuanChenisActingDirector,CenterforSelfOrganizingandIntelligentSystems,andAssistantProfessor,DepartmentofElectricalandComputerEngineering,UtahStateUniversity,Logan,UT84322USAphone4357970148fax4357973054emailyqchenece.usu.edu.BharathRamaswamywasGraduateResearchAssistantatCenterforSelfOrganizingandIntelligentSystems,DepartmentofElectricalandComputerEngineering,UtahStateUniversity,Logan,UT84322USA.HeisnowEngineeratQualcommIncorporated,SanDiego,CA92121USAemailbharath.ramaswamyqualcomm.com.KevinMoorewasDirector,CenterforSelfOrganizingandIntelligentSystems,UtahStateUniversity,Logan,UT84322USA.HeisnowtheG.A.DobelmanDistinguishedChairandProfessorofEngineering,DivisionofEngineering,ColoradoSchoolofMines,GoldenCO80401USAemailkmooremines.edu.digitalcontrollerdesignmethods.ThispaperdescribesalowcostremotelaboratorysolutiondevelopedatUtahStateUniversityfortheMechatronicsandDistributedControlSystemscourses.Thepaperisorganizedintoeightsections.SectionIIaddressestheneedforaremotelaboratoryfromapedagogicalperspective.SectionIIIgivesbackgroundinformationontheSmartWheelsystemwhichistheplanttobecontrolledduringthelaboratorysessions.SectionIVprovidestheobjectivesandoverallstructureofthecourselaboratory.SectionVdescribesthehardwareandsoftwarearchitectureofthesystem.SectionVIprovidesdetailsonhowastudentofthecoursecanperformthelaboratoryonthego.Finally,SectionVIIandSectionVIIIsummarizetheresultsandoutlinesfutureprojectgoals.II.PEDAGOGICALMOTIVATIONItisimperativethatengineeringcoursesespeciallythoseintheareaofcontrolsystemsincludeahandsonlaboratorycomponenttoextendtheclassroomexperience.However,thesetup,operationandmaintenanceoflaboratoryequipmentbecomeresourceintensive,timeconsumingandexpensive.Virtuallaboratoriesofferacosteffectivealternativehowevertheyoftenfailtomodelthepracticaleffects,andcannotsubstituteforexperiencewiththerealsystem.Remotelaboratoriesofferdistinctadvantagesoverconventionalandvirtuallaboratories.Apartfromcostreduction,moreefficientusageoflaboratoryequipment,reducedmaintenance,flexibleandselfpacedlearning,thereistheabilitytogivestudentsthesamekindofexperiencetheywouldordinarilyobtaininatraditionallaboratorysettingwithuseofversatile,realworldequipment.AremotelearningapplicationcalledSecondBesttoBeingThereSBBTwasdevelopedatOregonStateUniversity4.Thissolutionincorporatesseveralfeaturessuchasdatacollectionfacility,livevideoandaudiostreaming,safetyandstabilitymeasures,regulationofaccess,andcollaborationsupportallofwhichmaketheremotelaboratoryapleasantandimmersiveexperienceforthestudent.III.PLANTBACKGROUNDINFORMATIONTheCenterforSelfOrganizingandIntelligentSystemsOmnidirectionalRoboticWheelAMobileRealTimeControlSystemsLaboratoryBharathRamaswamy,YangQuanChenandKevinMooreRProceedingsofthe2006AmericanControlConferenceMinneapolis,Minnesota,USA,June1416,2006WeI21.51424402107/06/20.00©2006IEEE719CSOISatUtahStateUniversityhasdesignedanddevelopedseveralprototyperoboticvehiclesbasedonakeyenablingconceptcalledtheSmartWheel.Itisaselfcontainedroboticwheelmodulewith3independentaxesnamelythesteeringaxis,thedriveaxis,andthezaxis.Whenmultiplesmartwheelsareattachedtoachassis,theresultingvehicleiscalledanomnidirectionalvehicle5.CSOIShasastandalonesmartwheelassemblyshowninfig.1equippedwithsteeringanddrivemotors,alinearactuatorforzaxismovement,drivecircuitryforthemotorsandactuator,encodersfordriveandsteeringfeedback,amicrocontroller,andapowerdistributionunit.Thesmartwheelassemblywasmodifiedandaugmentedforuseinthetwocoursesmentioned.Theintendedoutcomesweretoenablestudentstodesignandtesttheirowncontrollersforthesteeringanddriveaxesofthewheel.Theassemblyalsodoublesupasademonstrationsystem6toshowcasethecapabilitiesofthesmartwheeltovisitors,insituandvisitorstotheCSOISwebsite.IV.SYSTEMOVERVIEWA.IntroductiontotheLaboratorySincebothcoursesmentionedearlierincludeastudyofnetworkedcontrolsystemsatvaryinglevels,itwasnecessarytodevelopalaboratorycomponentinordertoaugmenttheclassroomtheory.Anetworkedcontrolsystemisafeedbackcontrolsysteminwhichthecontrolloopisclosedthroughacommunicationnetwork7.Itisimperativethatremoteexperimentationbeusedforthislaboratory.Inthiscase,theplantandfeedbacksensorissituatedinsidetheuniversitysresearchcenter,thecontrollerislocatedontheremotestudentscomputer,andthecommunicationnetworkistheIPnetworkbetweentheplant/sensorandthecontroller.However,dedicatedequipmentforsuchaspecializedlaboratoryisexpensiveandplanningandinstallationistimeconsuming.Alowcostsolution,inwhichaserialserverwasusedtomakethesmartwheelassemblyteleoperable,wasconceivedandimplemented.B.DistributedControlSystemsDesignLaboratoryInthiscourse,thestudentisexpectedtodesignandtestanetworkedcontrolsystemforthesteeringaxisofthesmartwheel.TheserialportRS232onthesmartwheelsembeddedcontrollerwasconnectedtoanEthernetHubviaaSerialServer,whichtranslatesmessagesbetweenEthernetandRS232formats.Themicrocontrolleronthewheelwasprogrammedtopollthepositionencoderandtransmitthesevaluesthroughitsserialport.ItalsoacceptsvelocityvaluesviatheserialportandconvertsitintopulsewidthmodulatedPWMsignalstodrivethemotor.ThestudentwiththeInternetenabledcomputeratanyremotelocationwillinstallavirtualCOMdriver,inordertocommunicatewiththesmartwheelsserialserver.Hecandevelophiscontrollerprogramonthecomputer,whichwilltransmitvelocityvaluestothesmartwheel,calculatedbasedontheencoderreadingsreceivedfromthesmartwheel.TheInternetintroducesrandomtimedelaysandperturbations.Thesenetworkinducedeffectsneedtobetakenintoconsiderationwhiledesigningthecontroller,throughtheuseofsuitabletechniquessuchasnetworkpredictionanddelaycompensation.Theperformanceofthecontrolsystemcanbeexamined,byparsingandplottingtheencoderdataontheremotecomputer.Anywindowsbasedenvironmentmaybeusedfordevelopment.Fig.2showstheuserinterfaceforaprototypenetworkedcontrolsystemimplementedforthesteeringaxisofthesmartwheeldevelopedinVisualBasic.ThesetpointsteeringangleandcontrollergainsPIDcontrollerareuserselectableandtheusercanviewthesystemperformancebyobservingtheangularpositionplotthatappearsinrealtimeonthegraphicaldisplay.AnInternetcamerastreaminglivevideoandaudioenablesthestudenttoviewandhearthewheelmotioninrealtimeonthecontrolpanel.C.MechatronicsDesignProjectLaboratorySincethisisacourseattheundergraduatelevel,thestudentscandesignandtestsimplePIDnetworkedcontrollersforthesteeringanddriveaxesontheirinternetenabledcomputers,butwithoutconsideringnetworkinducedeffectsintotheirdesign.ItisproposedtoextendtheuseofthesmartwheelassemblyfortheMechatronicscourseintheyear2006.Fig.1.SmartWheelAssemblyonaMobileRig.720D.DemonstrationSystemThemicrocontrolleronthesmartwheelalsohasitsownsetofcontrolalgorithmsforthesteering,driveandzaxes.Inthiscase,themicrocontrolleracceptssetpointsfromapairofjoysticksortheremotecomputerforeachofthethreeaxesandcontrolsthewheelaccordingtoitsonboardcontrolprogram.ThisfeatureenablesthecapabilitiesofthewheeltobeshowcasedtovisitorsinsituandvisitorstotheCSOISwebsitewhenthewheelisnotbeingusedforthecourselaboratories.Fig.3showstheuserinterfaceforthesmartwheelstelepresencecontrolsystem.Suitablehandshaking,controlandarbitrationprotocolscoordinatebetweenjoystick,telepresenceandnetworkedcontrolmodes,andalsoensurepredictablebehaviorwhenmultipleusersattempttoaccessthesystem.V.SYSTEMDESCRIPTIONA.ArchitectureThearchitectureofthestandalonesmartwheeldemonstrationsystem6isshowninfig.4.Thesteeringmotor,drivemotor,andlinearactuatorcontrolthesteeringaxis,driveaxis,andzaxisofthesmartwheel,respectively.ThesteeringanddrivemotorsarecontrolledbyPWManddirectionsignalsfromtheirrespectivemotordrivers.Thesteeringmotoriscoupledtoanabsoluteencoder,whichmeasurestheabsoluteangularpositionofthewheel.Thedrivemotorisattachedtoaquadratureencoderthatmeasurestherelativemotionofthewheel.Thelinearactuatormovestheentiresteeringcolumnupordownalongthelinearslide.Thelinearpotentiometerprovidesfeedbackaboutthezpositionofthesteeringcolumn.ThezaxiscontrolboxcommandsthelinearactuatorbasedonthevoltagevaluefromthedigitaltoanalogconverterDACandthefeedbackfromthelinearpotentiometer.ThewheelnodedigitalinterfaceboardconsistsoftheTattletaleModel8TT8,amicrocontrollerbyOnsetComputerCorporation8basedonMotorolasMC68332microprocessor.Italsoprovidesinterfacesforserialcommunication,motordrivers,DAC,absoluteandquadratureencoders,circuitsforpowersupplyandregulation,levelshifting,andopticalisolation,andthehardwarewatchdogunit.Thesteeringanddrivemotorsareeachdrivenbya50A8DDSeriesPWMservoamplifierormotordriverfromAdvancedMotionControls.ThedutycycleofthepulsewidthmodulatedPWMsignalsdeterminesthespeedofthemotorandlogiclevelofthedirectionsignaldeterminesthedirectionofrotation.Fig.2.ScreenshotofthePrototypeNetworkedControlSystemApplication.Fig.4.SmartWheelSystemOverview.Fig.3.ScreenshotoftheTelepresenceControlSystemApplication.721Twojoystickshavebeenprovidedinordertoenablevisitorstocontrolthe3axesofthewheelinsitu.Duringthistime,thesystemissaidtobeinJoystickmode.OneofthemJoystick1isa3axisjoystickwhereinthexaxisisusedtosetthedrivespeedandthetwistaxisisusedtosetthesteeringspeed.AnothersingleaxisjoystickJoystick2isusedtosetthezaxisposition.Theremoteoperatorcommunicateswiththesmartwheelthroughadeviceknownastheserialserver,whichconvertsmessagesfromRS232formatintoEthernetformatandviceversa.TheDE311serialserverfromMoxaTechnologieswasselectedforuseinthesystem9onaccountofitslowcost,easytoinstallsoftwaredrivers,andthroughput50bpsto230.4Kbps.ADLinkDCS5300Internetcamera10locatednearthesmartwheelassemblydirectlysendsstreamingvideoupto30fpsat640480resolutionandaudioofthesmartwheelmotiontotheremoteoperator.Itallowsupto20userstoviewthelabactivitywhileonlyoneofthemisinteractingwiththeplant.TheremoteoperatorcancommunicatewiththesystemeitherinTelepresencemode,duringwhichtheonboardcontrolalgorithmonthewheelcontrolsthe3axesofthewheelbasedonsetpointsreceivedfromtheremotecomputerorinNetworkedControlSystemLaboratorymode,duringwhichthecontrolalgorithmontheremotecomputercommandsthewheelsaxesbasedonsampledencodefeedbackreadingsreceivedfromthemicrocontrolleronthewheel.B.MechanicalHardwareDescriptionAcrosssectionalviewofthesmartwheelassemblywithoutzaxisactuatorfeaturesisshowninfig.5.Thesteeringsuspensionsupportstheentiresteeringmechanismandwheelelectronicsystems.Thesteeringspindleisdirectlycoupledtothesteeringmotor.Theyokefastensthedriveassemblytothesteeringspindle.Theyokealsohousesthepowerandcommunicationscables,whichgodowntothewheel.Acustomslipringallowsinfiniterotationofthewheelaboutthesteeringaxis.Theentiredriveassemblyincludingthedrivespindle,motor,failsafebrake,andencoderisenclosedinsidethewheelshell.ThedrivemotorisaKollmorgenmodelQT6407framelesstorquermotorandthesteeringmotorisaMicroMoseriesGNM5440PMDCmotor.ACP560quadratureencoderfromComputerOpticalProductsisusedtomeasurerelativewheelposition.TheabsoluteencoderusedtomeasureabsoluteangularpositionofthesteeringmotorinbodyfixedcoordinatesisaModel40HfromSequentialElectronicSystems.Zaxisactuationcapabilitywasaddedbymountingtheassemblyshowninfig.5onanElectraklinearactuatorfromWarnerElectric.Alinearpotentiometerismountedadjacenttothelinearactuatornearthetop.Thepowerdistributionunitsareenclosedbehindthedamper.Acontrolboxforthezaxismovementismountedononesideofthepowerdistributionunithousing.Thewheelelectronicsandmotordriversaremountedoneithersideofthesteeringcolumn.Theentireassemblyismountedonawheeledstand.Refertofig.1againtoseeacompletepictureofthesystem.C.SoftwareDescriptionSoftwareforthestandalonesmartwheeldemonstrationsystemcomprisesthefollowingEmbeddedsoftwareontheTT8microcontrollerboard.VideoandaudiobufferingandstreamingsoftwareontheInternetcameraswebserver.EmbeddedsoftwareontheserialservertoperformconversionofmessagesbetweenEthernetandRS232formats.VirtualCOMdriverthatallowscommunicationbetweenthestudentsremotecomputerandtheserialserver.ApplicationsoftwareforNetworkedControlofthesmartwheelsaxesonthestudentscomputer.Thesoftwarearchitectureofthesystemisdepictedinfig.6.Ofthese,theVirtualCOMdriverMoxatech.,theserialFig.6.SmartWheelSoftwareArchitecture.Fig.5.SmartWheelMechanicalAssembly.722

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