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外文翻译--一种用 CCD 检测活塞环漏光度的新方法.doc

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外文翻译--一种用 CCD 检测活塞环漏光度的新方法.doc

翻译材料学生姓名学系专班号部机电工程系业机械工程自动化级二零一一年四月ANEWDETECTIONMETHODOFLIGHTLEAKAGEDEGREEOFPISTONRINGSBASEDONCCDLILIN,WANGZHONG,SUNYANSTATEKEYLABORATORYOFPRECISIONMEASURINGTECHNOLOGYANDINSTRUMENTSOFTIANJINUNIVERSITYTIANJINUNIVERSITYTIANJIN,CHINAABSTRACTINCOMPARISONTOTHETRADITIONALMANUALMEASUREMENTOFTHELIGHTLEAKAGEDEGREEOFPISTONRINGSANEWDETECTIONIIPRINCIPLESOFCCDDETECTIONMETHODOFLIGHTSEALDEGREELSDBASEDONCCDIMAGESENSORSISPRESENTEDTHEFEATURESOFCCDAREDEEPLYANALYZEDINTHISPAPERTHESIMILARITIESANDDIFFERENCESBETWEENTHEAREAARRAYCCDIMAGINGPLANANDTHELINEARCCDSCANNINGPLANAREDISCUSSEDINTHEDETECTIONOFLSDOFAPISTONRINGFINALLY,ITISPOINTEDOUTTHATTHEAREAARRAYCCDWHICHCOULDCOLLECTSINGLEIMAGEISUSEDINTHELIGHTLEAKAGEMEASUREMENTAPPROACHANDTHEDATAOFLIGHTLEAKAGEAREMATCHEDAROUNDACIRCLETHEHIGHLYRELIABILITYOFTHISAPPROACH,FORDETERMININGWHETHERTHELIGHTLEAKAGEOFPISTONRINGSISQUALIFIED,HASBEENPROVEDBYTHEREPETITIVEEXPERIMENTSWHAT’SMORE,THEMOSTPRACTICALAPPLICATIONOFTHISWORKISITPROVIDESASOLIDFOUNDATIONFORTHENONCONTACTONLINEDETECTIONOFLIGHTLEAKAGEOFPISTONRINGSKEYWORDSPISTONRING;LIGHTLEAKAGE;LINEARCCD;AREAARRAYCCD;SMEARIINTRODUCTIONAPISTONRINGISONEOFTHEKEYPARTSOFANENGINETHEREISNODIRECTCONTACTBETWEENAPISTONRINGANDTHECYLINDERWALLINANENGINEAPISTONRINGISUSEDASTHEINTERMEDIATEMEDIUMFORRECIPROCATINGMOTIONINANIDEALSTATE,ITMUSTBENOGAPBETWEENTHERINGANDTHECYLINDERWALLHOWEVER,BECAUSEOFTHEMANUFACTUREANDINSTALLATIONCRAFTS,THEGAPSGENERATEINEVITABLYWHENTHERINGISASSEMBLEDONEIMPORTANTEFFECTISTHATITMAYLEADTOGASBLOWBYANDOILLEAKAGE;FINALLY,ITHASABADINFLUENCEONTHEGUARANTEEOFOPTIMUMEFFICIENCY1LIGHTLEAKAGEISUSEDBETWEENPISTONRINGSANDTHECYLINDERWALLFORANEVALUATIONONAIRTIGHTNESSINCHINATHELEAKAGEDEGREEOFPISTONRINGISDEFINEDASFOLLOWS“OFAPISTONRINGPUTINTOARINGGAUGE,WITHTHESPECIFICREQUIREMENTSOFLIGHT,THEABILITYOFPREVENTINGLIGHTRAYPASSINGTHROUGHOFOUTERRINGOFPISTONRING”2THEREFORE,REFERRINGTOTHATPROVISIONS,PEOPLECANKNOWWHETHERTHEPISTONRINGISUPTOSTANDARDBYDETECTINGTHELIGHTLEAKAGEATPRESENT,ARTIFICIALVISUALMEASUREMENTISWIDESPREADUSEDFORDETECTIONOFLIGHTLEAKAGEBUTUNFORTUNATELY,THISMETHODCAUSESSERIOUSDAMAGETOEYESIGHTWHENOBSERVINGLOWLIGHTGAPFORALONGTIMEMOREOVER,ITALSOBRINGSINSUBJECTIVEFACTORSANDMAKESTESTRESULTSINACCURATELASTLY,PISTONRINGSAREMASSPRODUCTS,WHICHNEEDTOBEDETECTEDONEBYONEINTHISPAPER,AMETHODBASEDONTHECHARGECOUPLEDDEVICEISPROPOSEDINDETECTINGTHELIGHTLEAKAGEOFPISTONRINGSATRADITIONALDETECTIONMETHODANDSTANDARDONAIRTIGHTNESSTHETRADITIONAPPROACHDEPENDSONROTATINGPISTONRINGARTIFICIALLYANDEVALUATINGTHELIGHTLEAKAGEOFWHOLECIRCLEARCANDTHEIRDISPOSITION,AFTERPUTTINGTHEPISTONRINGINTORINGGAUGEBESIDES,LIGHTSOURCEMUSTBEUSEDFROMBELOWTOTHEJOINTSURFACEBETWEENTHEOUTERRINGOFPISTONRINGANDTHEINNERCIRCLEOFTHERINGGAUGE3THEPROVISIONSONPARAMETERSOFLIGHTLEAKAGEFORTHEPISTONRINGS,WHOSEDIAMETERSAREATMOST200MMINTHEINTERNALCOMBUSTIONENGINES,AREASFOLLOWSTHEACCURACYOFARCLENGTHMEASUREMENTISLESSTHANOREQUALTOTHEARCOFCENTRALANGLEOF2;THECENTRALANGLEOFCONTINUOUSARCOFLIGHTLEAKAGECANNOTBELARGERTHAN25;THECENTRALANGLEOFDISCONTINUOUSARCOFLIGHTLEAKAGECANNOTBELARGERTHAN45;PUNCTUATELEAKAGEOFLIGHTISNOTINCLUDED;THECENTRALANGLEOFDISLEAKYARCLENGTHAROUNDENDGAPISLARGERTHANOREQUALTO154BFUNDAMENTALSANDSTRUCTUREOFCCDLIGHTLEAKAGEDETECTIONCCDCAMERAPISTONLIGHTSOURCEFIGURE1SCHEMATICOFLIGHTLEAKAGEMEASURINGASFIGURE1SHOWS,APISTONRINGISFIXEDINTOTHERINGGAUGEWHICHAPPROXIMATELYHASTHESAMEDIAMETERASCYLINDERTHEN,PUTTHERINGGAUGEONAPRECISIONELECTRICDISPLACEMENTROTARYTABLE,WHICHROTATEWITHRINGGAUGEATSOMEANGULARSPEEDA“CNCMACHINETOOLSANDBASICMANUFACTURINGEQUIPMENTS”OFNATIONALIMPORTANTSUBJECTSOFSCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGYPROJECTNUMBER2009ZX040140929781424437092/10/25002010IEEEVMAXF2HALOGENTUNGSTENLAMPISUSEDFORTHEVERTICALBACKLIGHTILLUMINATIONFROMBELOWTOTHEFAYINGSURFACEWHICHISCONSISTOFOUTERRINGOFPISTONRINGANDTHEINNERCIRCLEOFRINGGAUGEANAREACCDCAMERAISSELECTEDTOREPLACETHEHUMANEYEFORTHEDETECTIONANDSIGNALCOLLECTIONCERTAINLY,WEMUSTMAKESURETHATTHECENTEROFLIGHTSOURCE,THEGAPOFLIGHTLEAKAGEANDCENTRALCAMERALENSAREINONESTRAIGHTLINETHROUGHADJUSTINGDEVICES,FORFURTHESTRECEIVINGINFORMATIONOFLEAKAGEOFLIGHTANDTHEN,ACQUIREDIMAGESARESENTTOTHECOMPUTERBYANIMAGEACQUISITIONCARDWECANDRAWACONCLUSIONTHATWHETHERTHEPISTONRINGISUPTOTHESTANDARDTHROUGHIMAGEPROCESSINGMETHODS,OFWHICHINCLUDESHOOTINGDYNAMICALLYWITHACCDCAMERAALONGTHEGAPOFTHEWHOLECIRCLEANDCOMBININGDATAOFLIGHTLEAKAGECCHRACTERISTICSANALYSISOFLIGHTLEAKAGEACCORDINGTOTHESTATESOFLEAKYPISTONRING,THEREAREAFEWTYPESASFOLLOWSLIGHTLEAKAGEOFWIDEANGLEANDLARGEGAP,LIGHTLEAKAGEOFSHALLOW,LIGHTLEAKAGEOFWIDEANGLEANDTINYGAP,LIGHTLEAKAGEOFINTERRUPTEDANDLIGHTLEAKAGEOFPUNCTIFORMFROMTHEIROWNLEAKAGEOFPISTONRINGS,THEPLACESOFLIGHTLEAKAGEHAVENOTHINGINCOMMONWITHEACHOTHERIT’SEASYFORCCDTORECEIVELIGHTLEAKAGEOFWIDEANGLEANDLARGEGAPHOWEVER,IT’SALITTLEDIFFICULTTODETERMINEFORTHEWEAKGAPTHUS,THEKEYPOINTOFTHEQUESTIONISHOWTOEMERGEFURTHESTALLARCLENGTHOFLEAKAGE,WHICHSHOULDBETHAT,ANDEVENRECOGNIZESPOTGAPOFLIGHTLEAKAGENATIONALSTANDARDASKFORTHEBRIGHTNESSBEHINDRINGGAUGEABOVESURROUNDING400LX500LX,SOTHATITCANPROTECTTESTFROMSTRAYLIGHTSODETECTIONISCARRIEDINTHEDARKROOMPRACTICALLY,WEARELOOKINGFORACCDCAMERASUITTOTHELOWILLUMINATIONLEVELIIITHESELECTIONOFCCDIMAGESENSORSACCDIMAGESENSOR,WITHASETOFPHOTOELECTRICCONVERSION,SELFSCANNING,HIGHSENSITIVITY,LARGERANGEOFSPECTRALRESPONSE,LARGEDYNAMICRANGEANDLOWCOST,ISWIDELYUSEDINTHEFIELDOFINDUSTRIALINSPECTIONANDHASANEXCELLENTPERFORMANCEITCANBEDIVIDEDINTOAREAARRAYCCDANDLINEARARRAYCCDBOTHPRINCIPLESAREDIFFERENT,THEFORMER,OFWHICHEQUIPMENTISRELATIVELYSIMPLE,ISBASEDONIMAGINGMETHOD,WHICHHASAHIGHERSPEEDTOOBTAINSTWODIMENSIONALIMAGEINFORMATIONWITHOUTSCANCONTROLCIRCUITS,DRIVEMECHANISMANDSOON4THELATTERMUSTBEINAMOVEMENTSCANMODEIFINWANTOFTWODIMENSIONALIMAGE,WHICHBASEDONSCANNINGPRINCIPLELINEARCCDTOGETHERWITHOPTICALLENSESCANBEUSEDINDETECTINGBIGTARGETSIZE,ANDTHEFIELDISNOTRESTRICTEDTOONEAREALIKEAREAARRAYCCDHOWEVER,LINEARDEVICESAREMORECOMPLEX;MOREOVER,THEYREQUIREPRECISECONTROLOFDIVETRANSMISSIONTHEREFORE,LINEARCCD’SADAPTABILITYISNOTSOSTRONGENOUGH6INADDITION,SCANNEDIMAGEISSOLIKELYTOBEAFFECTEDBYSCANNINGVELOCITYORMECHANICALTRANSMISSIONERRORSTHATITCANREDUCEACCURACYANDULTIMATELYAFFECTTHEMEASUREMENTACCURACYSOITREQUESTSFORSEVERELYCONSTANTVELOCITYSECONDLY,LIGHTSOURCEISHIGHLYREQUIREDBYLINEARCCDLINEARCCDSENSORSHAVEEXTREMELYFASTSCANNINGSPEEDCURRENTLYFOREXAMPLE,LINEFREQUENCYOFSOMEOFTHEMCANEASILYBE18KHZANDEVENREACHTO52KHZ,WHILEAVERYSHORTINTEGRATIONTIMEOFLIGHTISREQUIREDTHAT’SBECAUSEINTHEMOSTCASES,WECANENHANCEILLUMINATIONTOGETHIGHLYLINEFREQUENCYANDATTHESAMETIMEKEEPSENSITIVITYNOTDECLINEFORTHISDETECTIONOFLIGHTLEAKAGEOFPISTONRING,DARKROOMENVIRONMENTISNOTALLOWEDTOFILLINLIGHTCOMPAREDTOALINEARCCDSENSOR,AREAARRAYCCDISASUPERPOSITIONOFMULTILINEINFORMATIONNOTONLYITSSYSTEMANTIJAMMINGCAPABILITYGREATLYIMPROVED,BUTALSOITSSIGNALTONOISERATIOISOBVIOUSLYBETTERTHANTHATOFLINEARARRAYMOREOVER,THEADJUSTMENTOFAREAARRAYIMAGINGISMORECONVENIENTANDSIMPLETHANLINEARSCANNINGFORINSTANCE,WHENTHEMEASUREDSIZEOFTHEOBJECTCHANGES,WEHOPETHATMAGNIFICATIONOFIMAGESYSTEMCANDYNAMICALLYCHANGE,SOTHATLARGEROBJECTSDONOTEXCEEDTHESCOPEOFMEASUREMENTANDSMALLEROBJECTSCANACCOUNTFORENOUGHPIXELSAREAARRAYCCDCANDOTHISCONVENIENTLYWHENLINEARCCDISMOREDIFFICULTBECAUSESCANNINGSPEEDANDRATIOCOEFFICIENTNEEDTOBEADJUSTED7SINCETHELEAKYBEAMENERGYALMOSTRADIATEVERTICALLYANDDIAMETERSOFPISTONRINGSRANGEFROM80MMTO126MMANDTHEFIELDOFANAREAARRAYCAMERAISLIMITEDTHATCAN’TPHOTOGRAPHASTATEOFWHOLERING,ASLIGHTLEAKAGEOFDIRECTIONCONSIDERED,FINALLY,WECHOOSEAREAARRAYCCDCAMERAASANRECEIVERFORCONTINUOUSLYCOLLECTINGIMAGESALONGAWHOLERINGGAPDYNAMICALLYANDTHEN,WEWILLGETLIGHTLEAKAGEOFAPISTONRINGWITHIMAGEPROCESSINGANDDATACOMBINATIONATHESMEARISSUEOFAREAARRAYCCDIFANAREAARRAYCCDDYNAMICSHOOTINGISUSEDINDETECTION,THEISSUEOFSMEARHASTOBECONSIDEREDSMEARPHENOMENONREFERSTOTHECCDCHIP,WHENHIGHBRIGHTNESSLIGHTSOURCEORTHELARGECONTRASTISREALINIMAGEPLANE,FORMINGAWHITESTRIPEPHENOMENONTHROUGHOUTTHEENTIREIMAGEPLANEEACHPIXELTHATDONOTMOVEDINTOSTORAGEAREAWILLSTILLBESUBJECTTOTHEROLEOFLIGHTOUTSIDEANDCONTINUETOACCUMULATECHARGETHUS,SMEARPHENOMENONAPPEAREDWHENUSINGAFRAMETRANSFERCCDTOACQUIREIMAGES,THEIMAGESMEARCANNOTCHANGETHEFACTSSMEARINIMAGEEXISTALLTHETIMEBECAUSEITISTHERESULTOFNORMALOPERATIONOFTHEDETECTORSMEARPOLLUTIONLEVELISPROPORTIONALTOFRAMETRANSFERTIMEINNORMALCIRCUMSTANCE,THEIMAGEPOLLUTIONOFSMEARISRELATIVELYSMALL,USUALLYINSIGNIFICANTBUTFORHIGHCONTRASTIMAGEORWHENSCIENTIFICMEASUREMENTAPPLICATIONSNEEDTORELYONPIXELDENSITY,SMEARCOMESTOBEAPROBLEM8THEREFORE,THEAMOUNTOFIMAGESMEARSHOULDBECONTROLLEDFORACLEARIMAGE9HASPOINTEDOUTTHATTHEAMOUNTOFRESIDUALIMAGEMOTIONSHOULDBEONETHIRDOFCCDPIXELSIZEINORDERTOENSURESUFFICIENTDYNAMICRESOLUTIONHOWEVER,THEAMOUNTOFRESIDUALIMAGEMOTIONISCHOSENWITHINONEPIXELSIZEPRACTICALLYTHATISTOSAY,WITHINTIMEOFEXPOSURET,SMEARCANBEIGNOREDLVT1VHLA3LSHIFTAMOUNTOFIMAGEMOTIONATPERFIELDINTEGRATIONTIMEOFCCDCAMERATPERFIELDINTEGRATIONTIMESELECTEDINTHISEXPERIMENTAFTERUSINGVC60COMPILEENVIRONMENT,PROCESSEDIMAGESASSHOWNINFIGURE3VVHFMAXSPEEDOFIMAGEMOTIONOFCCDTARGETSURFACESPEEDOFAMEASUREDOBJECTWORKINGDISTANCETHELARGESTFOCALLENGTHOFOPTICALSYSTEMAAPIXELSIZEEXPERIMENTANDANALYSISIVAIMAGEPROCESSTHRESHOLDSEGMENTATIONREVERSECOLORINCOMPREHENSIVECONSIDERATIONOFREPEATABILITY,COSTANDCOMPLEXITY,MVVS142FCAREAARRAYCCDCAMERAOFMICROVISIONDIGITALIMAGETECHNOLOGYCOLTDWASUSEDINTHETESTS,WHICHHADGLOBALSHUTTERANDFRAMEEXPOSUREANDTHETYPEOFCOUPLEDINDUSTRIALLENSWASM214MP,OFWHICHFOCALLENGTHWAS16MM,PIXELSIZEWAS645UMANDWORKINGDISTANCEWAS85MMTHERANGEFIELDOFVIEWWAS55MMAROUNDINADDITION,THESPEEDREQUIREMENTWASTHATTHETESTOFLIGHTLEAKAGEOFRINGSSHOULDBECOMPLETEDIN3SECONDSNOTINCLUDINGLOADINGANDSORTINGMEASUREMENTACCURACYOFARCLENGTHREQUIREDNOLARGERTHAN2CENTRALANGLECORRESPONDINGOFLEAKYARCACCORDINGTOTHEFORMULAOFCONSERVATIVEESTIMATES,EXPOSURETIMEWASLESSTHAN400USIFNONSMEAROFPISTONRINGWASNEEDEDHOWEVER,BYADJUSTINGTHEELECTRONICSHUTTER,3MSEXPOSURETIMENOTONLYMETTHEREQUIREMENTSOFSENSITIVITY,BUTALSOPRODUCEDSMEAROF036WITHTHE126MMDIAMETEROFTHERINGATTHISMOMENT,SMEARPHENOMENONCANBEIGNOREDFIGURE2ARETWOCOLLECTEDIMAGESOFLIGHTLEAKAGE,WHICHARETHESAMEARCOFLIGHTLEAKAGEOFPISTONRINGTHELEFTISASTATICPICTURE,WHILETHEOTHERIMAGEISCAPTUREDAT120/SANGULARVELOCITYOFTURNTABLEMEDIANFILTERTHINNINGFIGUR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