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外文翻译--一种自动化夹具设计方法 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--一种自动化夹具设计方法 英文版.pdf

INTJADVMANUFTECHNOL200118784–7892001SPRINGERVERLAGLONDONLIMITEDACLAMPINGDESIGNAPPROACHFORAUTOMATEDFIXTUREDESIGNJCECILVIRTUALENTERPRISEENGINEERINGLABVEEL,INDUSTRIALENGINEERINGDEPARTMENT,NEWMEXICOSTATEUNIVERSITY,LASCRUCES,USAINTHISPAPER,ANINNOVATIVECLAMPINGDESIGNAPPROACHISDESCRIBEDINTHECONTEXTOFCOMPUTERAIDEDFIXTUREDESIGNACTIVITIESTHECLAMPINGDESIGNAPPROACHINVOLVESIDENTIFICATIONOFCLAMPINGSURFACESANDCLAMPPOINTSONAGIVENWORKPIECETHISAPPROACHCANBEAPPLIEDINCONJUNCTIONWITHALOCATORDESIGNAPPROACHTOHOLDANDSUPPORTTHEWORKPIECEDURINGMACHININGANDTOPOSITIONTHEWORKPIECECORRECTLYWITHRESPECTTOTHECUTTINGTOOLDETAILEDSTEPSAREGIVENFORAUTOMATEDCLAMPDESIGNGEOMETRICREASONINGTECHNIQUESAREUSEDTODETERMINEFEASIBLECLAMPFACESANDPOSITIONSTHEREQUIREDINPUTSINCLUDECADMODELSPECIFICATIONS,FEATURESIDENTIFIEDONTHEFINISHEDWORKPIECE,LOCATORPOINTSANDELEMENTSKEYWORDSCLAMPING;FIXTUREDESIGN1MOTIVATIONANDOBJECTIVESFIXTUREDESIGNISANIMPORTANTTASK,WHICHISANINTEGRATIONLINKBETWEENDESIGNANDMANUFACTURINGACTIVITIESTHEAUTOMATIONOFFIXTUREDESIGNACTIVITIESANDTHEDEVELOPMENTOFCOMPUTERAIDEDFIXTUREDESIGNCAFDMETHODOLOGIESAREKEYOBJECTIVESTOBEADDRESSEDFORTHESUCCESSFULREALISATIONOFNEXTGENERATIONMANUFACTURINGSYSTEMSINTHISPAPER,ACLAMPDESIGNAPPROACHISDISCUSSED,WHICHFACILITATESAUTOMATIONINTHECONTEXTOFANINTEGRATEDFIXTUREDESIGNMETHODOLOGYCLAMPDESIGNAPPROACHESHAVEBEENTHEFOCUSOFSEVERALRESEARCHEFFORTSTHEWORKOFCHOU1FOCUSEDONTHETWINCRITERIAOFWORKPIECESTABILITYANDTOTALRESTRAINTREQUIREMENTTHEUSEOFARTIFICIALINTELLIGENCEAIAPPROACHESASWELLASEXPERTSYSTEMAPPLICATIONSINFIXTUREDESIGNHASBEENWIDELYREPORTED2,3PARTGEOMETRYINFORMATIONFROMACADMODELHASALSOBEENUSEDTODRIVETHEFIXTUREDESIGNTASKBIDANDA4DESCRIBEDARULEBASEDEXPERTSYSTEMTOIDENTIFYTHELOCATINGANDCLAMPINGFACESFORROTATIONALPARTSTHECLAMPINGMECHANISMISUSEDTOPERFORMBOTHTHELOCATINGANDCLAMPINGCORRESPONDENCEANDOFFPRINTREQUESTSTODRJCECIL,VIRTUALENTERPRISEENGINEERINGLABVEEL,INDUSTRIALENGINEERINGDEPARTMENT,NEWMEXICOSTATEUNIVERSITY,LASCRUCES,NM88003,USAEMAILJCECILL50560NMSUEDUFUNCTIONSOTHERRESEARCHERSEGDEVORETAL5,6HAVEANALYSEDTHECUTTINGFORCESANDBUILTMECHANISTICMODELSFORDRILLING,ANDOTHERMETALCUTTINGPROCESSESKANGETAL2DEFINEDASSEMBLYCONSTRAINTSTOMODELSPATIALRELATIONSHIPSBETWEENMODULARFIXTUREELEMENTSSEVERALRESEARCHERSHAVEEMPLOYEDMODULARFIXTURINGPRINCIPLESTOGENERATEFIXTUREDESIGNS2,7–11OTHERFIXTUREDESIGNEFFORTSHAVEBEENREPORTEDIN1,3,9,12–23ANEXTENSIVEREVIEWOFFIXTUREDESIGNRELATEDWORKCANBEFOUNDIN21,24INSECTION2,THEVARIOUSSTEPSINTHEOVERALLAPPROACHTOAUTOMATETHECLAMPINGDESIGNTASKAREOUTLINEDSECTION3DESCRIBESTHEDETERMINATIONOFTHECLAMPSIZETOHOLDAWORKPIECEDURINGMACHININGANDINSECTION4,THEAUTOMATICDETERMINATIONOFTHECLAMPINGSURFACEORFACEREGIONONAWORKPIECEISDETAILEDSECTION5DISCUSSESTHEDETERMINATIONOFTHECLAMPINGPOINTSONAWORKPIECE2OVERALLAPPROACHTOCLAMPDESIGNINTHISSECTION,THEOVERALLCLAMPINGDESIGNAPPROACHISDESCRIBEDCLAMPINGISUSUALLYCARRIEDOUTTOHOLDTHEPARTINADESIREDPOSITIONANDTORESISTTHEEFFECTSOFCUTTINGFORCESCLAMPINGANDLOCATINGPROBLEMSINFIXTUREDESIGNAREHIGHLYRELATEDOFTEN,THECLAMPINGANDLOCATINGCANBEACCOMPLISHEDBYTHESAMEMECHANISMHOWEVER,FAILURETOUNDERSTANDTHATTHESETWOTASKSARESEPARATEASPECTSOFFIXTUREDESIGNMAYLEADTOINFEASIBLEFIXTUREDESIGNSHUMANPROCESSPLANNERSGENERALLYRESOLVETHELOCATINGPROBLEMFIRSTTHEAPPROACHDEVELOPEDCANWORKINCONJUNCTIONWITHALOCATORDESIGNSTRATEGYHOWEVER,THEOVERALLLOCATORANDSUPPORTDESIGNAPPROACHISBEYONDTHESCOPEOFTHISPAPERCADMODELSOFTHEPARTDESIGNFORWHICHTHECLAMPDESIGNHASTOBEDEVELOPED,THETOLERANCESPECIFICATIONS,PROCESSSEQUENCE,LOCATORPOINTSANDDESIGN,AMONGOTHERFACTORS,ARETHEINPUTSTOTHECLAMPDESIGNAPPROACHTHEPURPOSEOFCLAMPINGISTOHOLDTHEPARTSAGAINSTLOCATORSANDSUPPORTSTHEGUIDINGTHEMEUSEDISTOTRYNOTTORESISTTHECUTTINGORMACHININGFORCESINVOLVEDDURINGAMACHININGOPERATIONRATHER,THECLAMPSSHOULDBEPOSITIONEDSUCHTHATTHECUTTINGFORCESAREINTHEDIRECTIONTHATWILLASSISTINHOLDINGTHEPARTSECURELYDURINGASPECIFICMACHININGOPERATIONBYDIRECTINGACLAMPINGDESIGNAPPROACH785THECUTTINGFORCESTOWARDSTHELOCATORS,THEPARTORWORKPIECEISFORCEDAGAINSTSOLID,FIXEDLOCATINGPOINTSANDSOCANNOTMOVEAWAYFROMTHELOCATORSTHECLAMPDESIGNAPPROACHDISCUSSEDHEREMUSTBEVIEWEDINTHECONTEXTOFTHEOVERALLFIXTUREDESIGNAPPROACHPRIORTOPERFORMINGLOCATOR/SUPPORTANDCLAMPDESIGN,APRELIMINARYPHASEINVOLVINGANALYSISANDIDENTIFICATIONOFFEATURES,ASSOCIATEDTOLERANCESANDOTHERSPECIFICATIONSISNECESSARYBASEDONTHEOUTCOMEOFTHISPRELIMINARYEVALUATIONANDDETERMINATION,THELOCATOR/SUPPORTDESIGNANDCLAMPDESIGNCANBECARRIEDOUTTHECLAMPDESIGNAPPROACHDESCRIBEDINTHISPAPERISDISCUSSEDBASEDONTHEASSUMPTIONTHATLOCATOR/SUPPORTDESIGNATTRIBUTESHAVEBEENDETERMINEDEARLIERTHISINCLUDESDETERMINATIONOFAPPROPRIATELOCATORANDSUPPORTFACESONAWORKPIECEASWELLASIDENTIFICATIONOFLOCATORANDSUPPORTFIXTURINGELEMENTSSUCHASVBLOCKS,BASEPLATES,LOCATINGPINS,ETC21INPUTSTOCLAMPDESIGNTHEINPUTSINCLUDETHEWINGEDEDGEMODELOFTHEGIVENPRODUCTDESIGN,THETOLERANCEINFORMATION,THEEXTRACTEDFEATURES,THEPROCESSSEQUENCEANDTHEMACHININGDIRECTIONSFOREACHOFTHEASSOCIATEDFEATURESINTHEGIVENPARTDESIGN,THELOCATIONFACESANDLOCATORDEVICES,ANDTHEMACHININGFORCESFORTHEVARIOUSPROCESSESREQUIREDTOPRODUCEEACHCORRESPONDINGFEATURE22CLAMPDESIGNSTRATEGYTHEMAINSTEPSINTHEAUTOMATIONOFTHECLAMPINGDESIGNTASKARESUMMARISEDINFIG1ANOVERVIEWOFTHESESTEPSISASFOLLOWSSTEP1CONSIDERTHESETUPSUIINTHESETUPCONFIGURATIONLISTALONGWITHTHEASSOCIATEDPROCESSH20841FEATUREENTRIESSTEP2IDENTIFYTHEDIRECTIONANDTYPEOFCLAMPINGTHEINPUTSREQUIREDARETHEMACHININGDIRECTIONVECTORSMDV1,MDV2,,MDVNANDIDENTIFIEDNORMALVECTORSOFSUPPORTFACENVSIFTHEMACHININGDIRECTIONSAREDOWNWARDWHICHCORRESPONDTOTHEDIRECTIONVECTOR0,0,−1,ANDTHENORMALVECTOROFTHESUPPORTFACEISPARALLELTOTHEMACHININGDIRECTION,THENTHEDIRECTIONOFCLAMPINGISPARALLELTOTHEDOWNWARDMACHININGDIRECTION0,0,−1IFSIDEWAYSCLAMPINGISREQUIRED,ANDIFTHEREARENOFEASIBLEREGIONSATWHICHTOPOSITIONACLAMPFORDOWNWARDCLAMPING,THENASIDECLAMPDIRECTIONISOBTAINEDASFOLLOWSLETSVANDTVBETHENORMALVECTORSOFTHESECONDARYSVANDTERTIARYTVLOCATINGFACESTHEN,THEDIRECTIONOFCLAMPINGUSEDBYASIDECLAMPINGMECHANISMSUCHASAVBLOCKSHOULDBEPARALLELTOBOTHTHESENORMALVECTORS,IETHENORMALVECTORSOFTHEEACHOFTHEVSURFACESINTHEVBLOCKWILLBEPARALLELTOSVANDTV,RESPECTIVELYTHESIDECLAMPINGFACESHOULDBEAPAIROFFACESPARALLELTOTHEFACESSVANDTV,RESPECTIVELYSTEP3DETERMINETHEHIGHESTMACHININGFORCEFROMTHEMACHININGFORCESLISTFOREACHFEATUREMFII1,,NTHISWILLBETHEEFFECTIVEFORCEFETHATMUSTBEBALANCEDWHILEDESIGNINGTHECLAMPFORTHISSETUPSUISTEP4USINGTHEVALUEOFTHECALCULATEDHIGHESTMACHININGFORCEFE,THEDIMENSIONSOFTHECLAMPTOBEUSEDTOHOLDTHEFIG1THECLAMPDESIGNACTIVITIESWORKPIECECANBEDETERMINEDFOREXAMPLE,ASTRAPCLAMPCANBEUSEDASACLAMPINGMECHANISMTHEAPPROACHFORTHISTASKISEXPLAINEDINSECTION3STEP5DETERMINETHECLAMPINGFACEONAGIVENWORKPIECETHISSTEPCANBEAUTOMATEDASDESCRIBEDINSECTION4STEP6THEACTUALPOSITIONOFTHECLAMPONTHECLAMPINGFACEISDETERMINEDINANAUTOMATEDMANNERASEXPLAINEDINSECTION5CONSIDERNEXTSETUPSUI1ANDPROCEEDTOSTEP13DETERMINATIONOFTHECLAMPSIZEINTHISWORK,THECLAMPSUSEDBELONGTOTHEFAMILYOFCLAMPSREFERREDTOASSTRAPCLAMPSASTRAPCLAMPISBASEDONTHESAMEPRINCIPLEASTHATOFTHELEVERSEEFIG2INTHISSECTION,THEAUTOMATEDDESIGNOFASTRAPCLAMPISDESCRIBEDTHECLAMPINGFORCEREQUIREDISRELATEDTOTHESIZEOFTHESCREWORATHREADEDDEVICETHATHOLDSTHECLAMPINPLACETHECLAMPINGFORCESHOULDBALANCETHEMACHININGFORCETOHOLDTHEWORKPIECEINPOSITIONLETTHECLAMPINGFORCEBEWANDTHESCREWDIAMETERBEDTHEDIMENSIONSOFTHEVARIOUSSCREWSIZESFORVARIOUSCLAMPINGFORCESCANBEDETERMINEDINTHEFOLLOWINGMANNERINITIALLY,THEULTIMATETENSILESTRENGTHUTSOFTHEMATERIALOFTHECLAMPDEPENDINGONAVAILABILITYCANBERETRIEVEDFROMADATALIBRARYVARIOUSMATERIALSHAVEDIFFERENTTENSILESTRENGTHSTHESELECTIONOFTHECLAMPMATERIALCANALSOBEPERFORMEDDIRECTLYUSINGHEURISTICRULESFOREXAMPLE,IFTHEPARTMATERIALISMILDSTEEL,THENTHECLAMPMATERIALCANBELOW786JCECILFIG2THESTRAPCLAMPCARBONSTEELORMACHINESTEELTODETERMINETHEDESIGNSTRESS,THEUTSVALUECANBEDIVIDEDBYASAFETYFACTORSUCHAS4OR5THEROOTAREAA1OFTHESCREWFORACLAMPSUCHASASCREWCLAMPCANTHENBEDETERMINEDCLAMPINGFORCEREQUIRED/DESIGNSTRESSDSSUBSEQUENTLY,THEFULLAREAFAOFTHEBOLTCROSSSECTIONCANBECOMPUTEDASEQUALTO{A1/65}SINCETHEROOTAREAOFTHESCREWWHERESHEARINGCANOCCURISAPPROXIMATELY65OFTHETOTALAREAOFTHEBOLTTHEDIAMETEROFTHESCREWDCANTHENBEDETERMINEDBYEQUATINGFATO314D2/4ANOTHEREQUATIONWHICHCANBEUSEDINVOLVESRELATINGTHEWIDTHB,HEIGHTHANDSPANLOFTHECLAMPTOTHESCREWDIAMETERDB,H,ANDLCANBECOMPUTEDFORVARIOUSVALUESOFDD24/3BH2/L4THEDETERMINATIONOFTHECLAMPINGFACETHEREQUIREDINPUTSTODETERMINETHECLAMPINGREGIONINCLUDETHECADMODELOFTHEPRODUCT,THEEXTRACTEDFEATURESINFORMATION,THEFEATUREDIMENSIONSANDFACESONWHICHTHEYOCCUR,THELOCATINGFACESANDLOCATORSSELECTEDCONSIDERAPOTENTIALCLAMPINGFACEPCFASSHOWNINFIG3THECRUCIALCRITERIONTOBESATISFIEDISTHATTHECLAMPINGSURFACESHOULDNOTOVERLAPORINTERSECTWITHTHEFEATURESONTHATFACE,ASSHOWNINFIG4THECLAMPINGSURFACEAREA,WHICHISINCONTACTWITHTHEWORKPIECESURFACEORPCFISA2DPROFILECONSISTINGOFLINESEGMENTSSEEFIG6BYUSINGLINESEGMENTINTERSECTIONTESTS,ITCANBEDETERMINEDWHETHERTHEPOTENTIALCLAMPINGAREAOFCONTACTOVERLAPSANYOFTHEFEATURESONTHEGIVENPCFTHEDETERMINATIONOFCLAMPINGFACESCANBEAUTOMATEDASFOLLOWSFIG3POTENTIALCLAMPINGFACEANDFEATUREPROFILESFIG4POTENTIALCLAMPINGFACEANDCLAMPBOXPROFILESTEP1IDENTIFYFACESTHATAREPARALLELTOTHESECONDARYANDTERTIARYLOCATORFACESLF1ANDLF2ANDATTHEFARTHESTDISTANCEFROMLF1ANDTCJ,RESPECTIVELYTHISISPERFORMEDASSHOWNBELOWAIDENTIFYFACESTCI,TCJSUCHTHATTCIISPARALLELTOLF1ANDTCJISPARALLELTOLF2BINSERTCANDIDATEFACESTCIINLISTTCFCBYEXAMININGALLFACESTCILISTEDINTCF,DETERMINEFACESTCIANDTCJTHATAREFARTHESTFROMFACELF1ANDLF2,RESPECTIVELY,ANDDISCARDALLOTHERFACESFROMLISTTCFSTEP2IDENTIFYTHEFACETHATISPARALLELTOTHELOCATIONFACESBUTNOTADJACENTTOTHEADDITIONALLOCATORFACESITISPREFERABLETOSELECTACLAMPFACETHATDOESNOTHAVETOSHARETHEADJACENTPERPENDICULARFACEWITHALOCATORTHISSTEPCANBEAUTOMATEDASSHOWNBELOWACONSIDEREACHFACETCIINLISTTCFANDOBTAINCORRESPONDINGFACESFCITHATAREADJACENTANDPERPENDICULARTOEACHTCITHEN,INSERTEACHFACEFCIINLISTFCFBEXAMINEEACHFCIANDPERFORMTHEFOLLOWINGTESTIFFCIISADJACENT,PERPENDICULARTOLF1ORLF2,THENDISCARDITFROMLISTFCFANDINSERTITINLISTNTCFSTEP3DETERMINETHECLAMPINGFACES,BASEDONTHEAVAILABILITYOFPOTENTIALCLAMPINGFACES,ASDESCRIBEDBELOWCASEAIFTHEREARENOENTRIESINLISTNTCF,THENUSETHEFACESINLISTTCFANDPROCEEDTOSTEP4IFANYFACESWEREFOUNDTHATWEREPERPENDICULARTOTHESECONDARYANDTERTIAR

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