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外文翻译--五轴联动机床的刀具轨迹控制方案 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--五轴联动机床的刀具轨迹控制方案 英文版.pdf

INTERNATIONALJOURNALOFMACHINETOOLSMANUFACTURE42200279–88ATOOLPATHCONTROLSCHEMEFORFIVEAXISMACHINETOOLSCHIHCHINGLODEPARTMENTOFMECHANICALENGINEERING,FENGCHIAUNIVERSITY,TAICHUNG407,TAIWANRECEIVED16NOVEMBER2000;ACCEPTED8MAY2001ABSTRACTTHISPAPERPRESENTSANEWSERVOCONTROLMETHODFORFIVEAXISMACHININGAPPLICATIONSTHEPROPOSEDMETHODCONDUCTSADIRECTELIMINATIONOFTHEDEVIATIONERROR,THEORIENTATIONERROR,ANDTHETRACKINGLAGERRORTHATARETHEMAINCONCERNSFORFIVEAXISTOOLPATHCONTROLTOACHIEVETHISPURPOSE,THEPROPOSEDFIVEAXISCONTROLSYSTEMISBASEDONAREALTIMETRANSFORMATIONBETWEENTHEDRIVECOORDINATEBASIS,INWHICHTHEFIVEDRIVESAREOPERATED,ANDTHEWORKPIECECOORDINATEBASIS,INWHICHTHEDEVIATIONERRORETC,AREDEFINEDKEYWORDSFIVEAXISMACHINETOOL;SERVOCONTROLLER;TOOLPATHTRACKINGCONTROL1INTRODUCTIONTOACHIEVEHIGHPRECISIONINMODERNCNCCOMPUTERNUMERICALCONTROLMACHININGAPPLICATIONS,DESIGNOFSERVOCONTROLSYSTEMSTHATGENERATEACCURATECOORDINATEDMULTIAXISMOTIONISOFGREATIMPORTANCETOSYNCHRONIZETHEMOTIONSOFTHEDIFFERENTAXESWHENMACHININGACOMPLEXSURFACE,ACONVENTIONALMULTIAXISSERVOCONTROLSYSTEMCONSISTSOFANINTERPOLATORANDSEVERALAXIALCONTROLLERSTHEINTERPOLATORGENERATESTHEDESIREDTOOLMOTIONTHATISRELATIVETOTHEWORKPIECE,ANDTHEN,DECOMPOSESTHEDESIREDMOTIONINTOTHEREFERENCEPOSITIONCOMMANDSFORTHESEPARATEDRIVINGAXES1–4THEPRACTICALMOTIONISREALIZEDBYTHEDRIVINGAXESEACHAXISISCONTROLLEDBYANAXIALCONTROLLER,WHOSEOBJECTIVEISTOTRACKTHEAXIALPOSITIONCOMMANDIE,TOELIMINATETHEPOSITIONERRORALONGEACHDRIVINGAXISMANYRESEARCHERSHAVEDEVELOPEDCONTROLALGORITHMSTHATIMPROVETHETRACKINGACCURACYFORANINDIVIDUALAXISTRADITIONALALGORITHMSAREBASEDONTHEFEEDBACKPRINCIPLE5,6INADDITION,FEEDFORWARDCONTROLALGORITHMSCANBEIMPLEMENTEDTOAUGMENTTHETRACKINGPERFORMANCECURRENTLY,ASIGNIFICANTCONTRIBUTIONHASBEENMADEBYTOMIZUKA7,WHOPROPOSEDAZEROPHASEERRORTRACKINGCONTROLLERZPETCONTHEBASISOFTHEZPETCTEL88644517250X3504;FAX88644516545EMAILADDRESSCCLOCCSUNFCUEDUTWCCLOMETHOD,SOMEVARIATIONALORACCESSORYALGORITHMSEG,ADAPTIVEZPETCHAVEBEENPROPOSED8,9ALTHOUGHTHETRACKINGPERFORMANCEFOREACHINDIVIDUALAXISCANBESIGNIFICANTLYIMPROVEDBYTHEABOVEMETHODS,THEOVERALLCONTROLPERFORMANCEFORTHEMULTIAXISMACHINETOOLISNOTALWAYSGUARANTEED6ATYPICALPERFORMANCEINDEXFOREVALUATIONOFTHEMULTIAXISSERVOCONTROLISTHECONTOURERROR,WHICHDENOTESTHEDEVIATIONFROMTHEDESIREDTOOLPATHTOCONDUCTANEFFECTIVEREDUCTIONOFTHECONTOURERROR,KOREN10PROPOSEDACROSSCOUPLINGCONTROLLERCCCTHATISCONSTRUCTEDBETWEENANDPARALLELTOTHEAXIALCONTROLLERSATYPICALCROSSCOUPLINGCONTROLLERCONSISTSOFAREALTIMECALCULATIONOFTHECONTOURERRORANDACONTROLLAWTOELIMINATETHECONTOURERRORBASEDONTHECONCEPTOFTHECCCMETHOD,NUMEROUSCROSSCOUPLINGCONTROLLERSWITHDIFFERENTCONTOURERRORMODELSAND/ORCONTROLLERLAWSHAVEBEENPROPOSED11–13THECONTOURERROR,HOWEVER,ISNOTTHEONLYCONCERNFORMULTIAXISTOOLPATHTRACKINGCONTROLFORINSTANCE,THEPOSITIONLAGALONGTHETRACKINGDIRECTIONISANOTHERCONCERN6BESIDES,THEORIENTATIONERROR,WHICHDENOTESTHEDEVIATIONANGLEBETWEENTHEPRACTICALTOOLAXISANDTHEDESIREDTOOLDIRECTION,ISALSOANIMPORTANTCONCERNINFOURORFIVEAXISMACHINETOOLCONTROL14INTHISPAPER,THEMAINCONCERNSFORAFIVEAXISTOOLPATHCONTROLAREDISCUSSEDFIRSTTHEN,ACONVENTIONALFIVEAXISCONTROLSYSTEMISDISCUSSED,ANDITSDRAWBACKISADDRESSEDFINALLY,AFIVEAXISCONTROLSYSTEMTHATCON80CCLO/INTERNATIONALJOURNALOFMACHINETOOLSMANUFACTURE42200279–88FIG1THETOOLPATHALONGTHESCULPTUREDSURFACEDUCTSADIRECTELIMINATIONOFTHESECONCERNSISPROPOSEDANDCOMPAREDWITHTHECONVENTIONALONE2MAINCONCERNSINFIVEAXISTOOLPATHCONTROLLET’SCONSIDERTHEFOLLOWINGFIVEAXISMACHININGCASEASREFERREDTOINFIG1UTILIZINGACYLINDRICALTOOLTOCUTASURFACEATTHEPLANNINGSTAGE,THETOOLPATHTHATCOMPRISESTHETOOLCENTERLOCATIONLANDTHETOOLORIENTATIONOISSCHEDULEDSOTHATTHECUTTEREDGESCANPASSOVERTHESCULPTUREDSURFACE15,16HERE,WELETRANDPDENOTETHEREFERENCEPOSITIONVECTORANDTHEPRACTICALPOSITIONVECTOR,RESPECTIVELYBOTHRANDPAREPOSITIONVECTORSWITHFIVECOMPONENTSTHREEFORTHETOOLCENTERLOCATIONLANDTWOFORTHETOOLORIENTATIONOTHEDIFFERENCEORERRORBETWEENTHEREFERENCEANDTHEPRACTICALPOSITIONVECTORSIE,ERPISACONCERNINFIVEAXISMACHININGHOWEVER,EISNOTTHEMAINCONCERN,BECAUSEASMALLEDOESNOTNECESSARILYGUARANTEEANEGLIGIBLEMACHININGINACCURACYASILLUSTRATEDINFIG2,ALTHOUGHP2ISMUCHCLOSERTORTHANP1IE,|E2|LESSMUCH|E1|,ITRESULTSINMOREMACHININGINACCURACYTWOMAINCAUSESFORPARTINACCURACYAREILLUSTRATEDINFIG3ASSHOWNINFIG3A,THEDEVIATIONERRORED,WHICHDENOTESTHEDISTANCEBETWEENTHEPRACTICALTOOLLOCATIONPANDTHECLOSESTLOCATIONCONTHEDESIREDTOOLPATHRATHERTHANTHEINSTANTANEOUSREFERENCER,ISANIMPORTANTCONCERNASSHOWNINFIG3B,THEORIENTATIONERRORH9278,WHICHDENOTESTHEANGLEBETWEENTHEFIG2MACHININGINACCURACYDUETOIMPERFECTTOOLPATHTRACKINGCONTROLFIG3THEDEVIATIONERRORANDTHEORIENTATIONERRORINFIVEAXISMACHININGCONTROLADEVIATIONERROR;BORIENTATIONERRORFIG4TWOCONSECUTIVEPATHSTHATTHETOOLPATHPASSESOVERPRACTICALTOOLAXISANDTHEDESIREDTOOLDIRECTIONCORRESPONDINGTOC,ISANOTHERIMPORTANTCONCERNASCANBESEENINFIG3,THEDEVIATIONERRORANDTHEORIENTATIONERRORAREMAINCAUSESFORMACHININGINACCURACYINADDITIONTOTHEDEVIATIONERRORANDTHEORIENTATIONERROR,ATRACKINGLAGERRORDTHATDENOTESTHECOMPONENTOFEALONGTHETRACKINGDIRECTIONISALSOANIMPORTANTCONCERNASSHOWNINFIG4,ASIGNIFICANTTRACKINGLAGWILLALSOCAUSEANUNACCEPTABLEMACHININGINACCURACYBETWEENTWOCONSECUTIVESURFACES3CONVENTIONALFIVEAXISCONTROLSYSTEMTYPICALLY,AFIVEAXISMACHINETOOLCONSISTSOFTHREETRANSLATIONALAXESX,Y,ZANDTWOROTATIONALAXESA,BTHEBLOCKDIAGRAMFORACONVENTIONALCONTROLSYSTEMFORFIVEAXISMACHINETOOLSISSHOWNINFIG5INTHEFIG5ACONVENTIONALCONTROLSYSTEMFORFIVEAXISMACHINETOOLS81CCLO/INTERNATIONALJOURNALOFMACHINETOOLSMANUFACTURE42200279–88SYSTEMTHEINTERPOLATOR,WHICHCONSISTSOFAPATHPLANNINGMODULEANDANINVERSEKINEMATICSTRANSFORMATION2,14,GENERATESINREALTIMETHEDESIREDREFERENCEPOSITIONCOMMANDSTOTHEFIVESEPARATECONTROLLOOPSRESPECTIVELYFORTHEX,Y,Z,A,ANDBAXISTHEPATHPLANNINGMODULEGENERATESTHEDESIREDTOOLMOTIONRELATIVELYTOTHEWORKPIECEINOTHERWORDS,THETOOLPATHISDEFINEDINTHEWORKPIECECOORDINATEBASISWCBFORWHICHTHEAXESAREFIXEDONTHEWORKPIECEINTHEFOLLOWING,THEDESIRED,PRACTICAL,ANDERRORPOSITIONVECTORSTHATAREDEFINEDINTHEWCBAREDENOTEDASRW,PW,ANDEW,RESPECTIVELYINCONTRASTTOTHEPATHPLANNINGMODULE,THEAXIALCONTROLLOOPSFOCUSTHEIREFFORTONTRACKINGTHEINDIVIDUALMOTIONSALONGTHEFIVEDRIVINGAXESTHESEMOTIONS,HOWEVER,AREDEFINEDINTHEDRIVECOORDINATEBASISDCBINTHEFOLLOWING,THEDESIRED,PRACTICAL,ANDERRORPOSITIONVECTORSTHATAREDEFINEDINTHEDCBAREDENOTEDASRD,PD,ANDED,RESPECTIVELYTOTRANSFORMTHEREFERENCEPOSITIONVECTORFROMWCBTODCB,ANINVERSEKINEMATICSTRANSFORMATIONALGORITHMISREQUIREDTOBEIMPLEMENTEDINTHEINTERPOLATORNOTETHATINPRACTICETHEMECHANICALSTRUCTUREOFTHEFIVEAXISMACHINETOOLPLAYSAROLEASADIRECTKINEMATICSTRANSFORMATIONTHATCONVERTSPDTOPWLETKANDKH110021REPRESENTTHEDIRECTANDINVERSEKINEMATICSTRANSFORMATIONS,RESPECTIVELYINOTHERWORDS,WEHAVERWH11005KRD,PWH11005KPD,RDH11005K−1RWANDPD1H11005K−1PWTHEFUNCTIONOFTHEFIVECONTROLLOOPSISTOTRACKTHEREFERENCEPOSITIONCOMMANDSTHATAREGENERATEDBYTHEINTERPOLATORFOREACHLOOP,THECONTROLLEROBJECTIVEISTOMINIMIZETHEPOSITIONERRORALONGTHEDRIVINGAXISLETHDANDGDBERESPECTIVELYTHETRANSFERFUNCTIONMATRICESFORTHECONTROLLERSANDTHEDRIVESINTHEMATRICES,HDANDGD,THENONDIAGONALTERMSAREZEROSANDTHEDIAGONALTERMSARETHETRANSFERFUNCTIONSFORTHEAXIALCONTROLLERSANDTHEAXIALDRIVES,RESPECTIVELYNOTETHATINACOMPUTERCONTROLLEDSYSTEM,HDANDGDAREFUNCTIONSOFZVARIABLEINDISCRETETIMEDOMAINTHESTRATEGYOFTHECONVENTIONALFIVEAXISCONTROLSYSTEMISTOREDUCETHEPOSITIONERRORSALONGTHEDRIVINGAXESIE,EDRDH11002PD,ANDTHEN,TOEXPECTAQUALITYFIVEAXISTOOLPATHCONTROLTHATFOCUSESONTHEELIMINATIONOFTHEDEVIATIONERROR,THEORIENTATIONERROR,ANDTHETRACKINGLAGERRORHOWEVER,THEEXPECTATIONISINDOUBTASHASBEENILLUSTRATEDINTHEABOVESECTIONREFERTOFIG2,THEREDUCTIONOFEDDOESNOTNECESSARILYCORRESPONDTOTHEREDUCTIONOFTHEDEVIATIONERROR,ETC4PROPOSEDFIVEAXISCONTROLSYSTEMTHEPROPOSEDFIVEAXISCONTROLSYSTEMISDEPICTEDINFIG6INCONTRASTTOTHECONVENTIONALSYSTEMTHATCONFIG6THEPROPOSEDCONTROLSYSTEMFORFIVEAXISMACHINETOOLSSTRUCTSFIVELOCALANDSEPARATECONTROLLOOPSREFERTOFIG5,THEPROPOSEDCONTROLSYSTEMCONSTRUCTSAGLOBALANDCOUPLEDLOOPTOACHIEVEANEFFECTIVECONTROLOFTHEOVERALLPERFORMANCETHATISINTERMSOFTHEDEVIATIONERROR,THEORIENTATIONERROR,ANDTHETRACKINGLAGTHEDEVIATIONERROR,ETC,WHICHWILLBEDERIVEDLATERINTHEFOLLOWING,AREERRORCOMPONENTSDEFINEDINTHEWCBINCONTRAST,THEFEDBACKPOSITIONSIGNALSPDANDTHECONTROLSIGNALSUDSENTTOTHEAXIALDRIVESAREBOTHDEFINEDINTHEDCBCONSEQUENTLY,COORDINATETRANSFORMATIONSAREINTRODUCEDTOTHEPROPOSEDCONTROLSYSTEMASDEPICTEDINFIG6,THESERVOCONTROLLERCONSISTSOFFOURPARTS1ADIRECTKINEMATICSTRANSFORMATIONALGORITHMTHATCALCULATESTHEPRACTICALTOOLPOSITIONINWCB,IE,PWKPD;2ANERRORMODELFORCALCULATIONOFTHEDEVIATIONERRORANDTHEORIENTATIONERRORTHATAREREPRESENTEDBYE,ANDTHETRACKINGLAGERRORD;3ACONTROLLAWTHATELIMINATESEANDD;4ANINVERSEJACOBIANMATRIXTHATTRANSFORMSTHECONTROLINTHEWCBIE,UWTOTHATINTHEDCBIE,UDTHROUGHTHEABOVEPROCEDURE,THEPROPOSEDCONTROLSYSTEMFOCUSESITSCONTROLEFFORTINTHEWCBANDCONDUCTSADIRECTELIMINATIONOFEANDDTHELASTTHREEPARTSOFTHESERVOCONTROLLERAREDESCRIBEDINDETAILINTHEFOLLOWING41ERRORMODELASSTATEDABOVE,THEDEVIATIONERROR,THEORIENTATIONERROR,ANDTHETRACKINGLAGERRORARETHEMAINCONCERNSFORFIVEAXISTOOLPATHTRACKINGCONTROLTHEREFORE,THEMODELFORTHESECONCERNEDERRORSISTHECOREOFTHEPROPOSEDSERVOCONTROLLERASCHEMATICILLUSTRATIONFORTHESECONCERNEDERRORSISSHOWNINFIG7INFIG7,CWDENOTESTHEPOSITIONTHATISLOCATEDONTHEDESIREDTOOLPATHANDISTHECLOSESTTOTHEPRACTICALTOOLPOSITION,PWLETTHEDIFFERENCEBETWEENCWANDPWBEDENOTEDASE,IE,EH11005CWH11002PW2NOTETHATECONSISTSOFFIVECOMPONENTS,IE,EEX,EY,EZ,EA,EB82CCLO/INTERNATIONALJOURNALOFMACHINETOOLSMANUFACTURE42200279–88FIG7THEREFERENCEPOSITIONRW,THEPRACTICALPOSITIONPW,ANDTHECLOSESTPOSITIONCWFROMPWTOTHEDESIREDTOOLPATHASHASBEENDEFINEDABOVE,THEDEVIATIONERRORISTHEDISTANCEBETWEENTHEPRACTICALTOOLLOCATIONANDTHECLOSESTPOINTONTHEDESIREDTOOLPATHCONSEQUENTLY,THEFIRSTTHREECOMPONENTSOFEAREINPRACTICETHECOMPONENTSOFTHEDEVIATIONERRORED,IE,EDH11005H20881EX2EY2EZ23THEORIENTATIONERRORISTHEANGLEBETWEENTHETOOLAXISANDTHETOOLORIENTATIONFORTHECLOSESTPOINTONTHEDESIREDTOOLPATHINTHISPAPER,THETWOROTATIONALANGLESAREDEFINEDSOTHATTHETOOLWITHRESPECTTOTHEWCBISORIGINALLYINTHEZDIRECTION,THENROTATESWITHAALONGTHEXAXIS,ANDFINALLYROTATESWITHBALONGTHEYAXISBASEDONTHEDEFINITIONSOFTHETWOROTATIONALANGLESA,B,THEORIENTATIONERRORFCANBECALCULATEDBYFH11005COS−1

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