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外文翻译--使用语音识别技术控制的焊接机器人工作单元.doc

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外文翻译--使用语音识别技术控制的焊接机器人工作单元.doc

UseofVoiceRecognitionforControlofaRoboticWeldingWorkcellABSTRACTThispaperdescribesworkunderwaytoevaluatetheeffectivenessofvoicerecognitionsystemsasanelementinthecontrolofaroboticweldingworkcell.Factorsbeingconsideredforcontrolincludeprogrameditoraccesssecurity,Preoperationchecklistrequirements,weldingprocessvariablecontrol,androbotmanipulatormotionoverrides.Inthelattertwocategories,manualvocalcontrolisbeingcomparedagainstmanualtactilecontrolandfullyautomaticcontrolintermsofspeedofresponse,accuracy,stability,reliability.Andsafety.IntroductionVoicerecognitiontechnologyisnowrecognizedasapotentialmeansforeasingtheworkloadofoperatorsofcomplexsystems.Numerousapplicationshavealreadybeenimplemented,areinvariousstagesofdevelopment,orareunderconsideration.Theseincludedataentry,controlofaircraftsystems,andvoiceidentificationandverificationforsecuritypurposes.Voicecontrolhasalsobeenproposedforuseaboardthespacestation.Oneprimeareaforapplicationwouldbecontrolofsomefunctionsofrobotsusedforintraandextravehicularinspection,assembly,repair,satelliteretrieval,andsatellitemaintenancewhenacrewmemberisservinginasupervisorycapacityorthesystemisoperatinginateleoperationmode.Voicecontrolofsensorsandprocessvariableswouldfreethecrewmembershandsforothertasks,suchasdirectcontroloroverrideofthemanipulatormotion.Similarly,theworkloadassociatedwithcontrolofmanyonboardexperimentscouldbeeasedthroughtheuseofthistechnology.Thispaperdescribestheapplicationofvoicerecognitionforcontrolofaroboticweldingworkcell.Thisisacomplexsysteminvolvinginputsfrommultiplesensorsandcontrolofawidevarietyofrobotmanipulatormotionsandprocessvariables.Whilemanyfunctionsareautomated,ahumanoperatorservesinasupervisorycapacity,readytooverridefunctionswhennecessary.Inthepresentinvestigation,acommerciallyavailablevoicerecognitionsystemisbeingintegratedwitharoboticweldingworkcellatNASAMarshallSpaceFlightCenter,whichisusedasatestbedforevaluationanddevelopmentofadvancedtechnologiesforuseinfabricationoftheSpaceShuttleMainEngine.Inthesystemunderdevelopment,somefunctionsdonotyethaveautomaticclosedloopcontrol,thusrequiringcontinuousmonitoringandrealtimeadjustmentbythehumanoperator.Presently,theseovemdesareinputtothesystemthroughtactilecommands.e..pushingbuttons.turningknobsforpotentiometers,oradjustingmechanicaldevices.Sincetheoperatormonitorstheprocessprimarilyvisually,hemusteitherlookawayfromtheprocesstofindtheproperbuttonorknoborrelyonmuscularmemorymuchasatouchtypistdoes.Inthefirstcase,thetimeofresponsetoadeviantconditionmaybeexcessive.Inthesecondcase,thereisanincreasedprobabilityofasecondaryerrorbeingintroducedbytheoperator.Avoicerecognitionsystemcouldreducetheresponsetimerequiredfromtheoperator.Theprobabilityofpushingthewrongbuttonshouldsimilarlybereduced.Also,operatorfatigueshouldbeminimized.Sincetheoperatorcancontinuouslymonitortheprocessduringoverrideinput,theeffectofthechangecanbeobservedmorequickly.Thus,ifthedesiredvalueisexceededandreversecorrectionisrequired,itshouldbeaccomplishedmorequickly,allowinglessovershoot.Thisreductioninoscillationaboutthedesiredvaluemakesthesystemmorestable.Anotherfactorthatcanbeimprovedisoperatorsafety.Inasafetycriticalsituation,therobotsoperationcanbehaltedimmediatelybyuseoftheemergencystop,orEstop,mode,whichisinitiated,conventionally,bydepressingalargebutton.Ifanoperatorinadvertentlyfindshimselfinahazardoussituation,itmaybenecessaryforhimtoinitiatetheEstopsequence.Shouldtheoperatornotbewithinreachofthebutton,however,hemaybeunabletotakethenecessaryaction,and,asaresult,couldsufferseriousinjury.HavingthecapabilityofstoppingtherobotbyissuingavoicecommandcouldsignificantlyimprovetheoperatorssafetybyenablinghimtostoptherobotevenwhennotwithinreachoftheEstopbutton.Manualcorrectionsareoccasionallyrequiredtoadjustthelocationatwhichtheweldfillerwireenterstheweldpool.Properentrylocationisabsolutelycriticaltosoundweldquality.Adjustmentsaremadeeitherbymanuallyadjustingmechanismsthatholdthewirefeedguidetubeorbyissuingtactilecommandstoaservomechanism.Useofavoicerecognitionsystemcouldeliminatetheneedfortheoperatortoplacehishandwithintheworkingenvelopeoftherobotendeffectoror,ifservomechanismsareemployed,couldimprovespeedofresponseandstability.Anotheraspectofrobotoperationinanindustrialenvironmentthatisveryimportantisthesecurityofaprogrameditingcapabilityofthesystem.Undernocircumstancesshouldanyunauthorizedpersonbeabletoenterthisprogrammingmodeandaltertherobotsprogram.Avoicerecognitionsystemcanprovidethenecessarysecuritybyallowingaccessonlyforindividualswhoareauthorizedandwhosevoicescanbeidentifiedbythesystem.BackgroundRoboticweldingisunderdevelopmentbyNASAandRocketdynefortheautomationofweldsontheSpaceShuttleMainEnginethatarepresentlymademanually.Theprogrammabilityofarobotcanreducethepercentageofweldingdefectsthroughacombinationofconsistencyandrepeatabilityunattainablebyitshumancounterparts.Todothis,therobotisprogrammedtoanominalweldpathandlevelofweldprocessparametersi.e.,current,travelspeed.voltage,wireadditionrate.Someadjustmentofthesevaluesisoftennecessaryduetoconditionschangingduringtheweld.Ahumanmakingamanualweldaccomplishesthisadjustmentreadily,whilearobotmustrelyonthelimitedtalentsofsensorsandtheabilityoftheoperatortooverridefunctionswhennecessary.SystemIntegrationThebasicelementsoftheworkcellsystemareshowndiagrammaticallyintheillustration.Theultimategoalofthesystemdevelopmentworkinprogressistogeneraterobotmanipulatorprogramsandweldprocessprogramsoffline,downloadthemtotheworkcellsupervisorycomputer,thenusesensorsubsystemstomakeclosedloopcorrectionstotherobotpathandprocessvariables.OfflineprogrammingisbeingdonewithanIntergraphmodifiedVAX780/785205computersystemwithInteractcolorgraphicsworkstations.DeviationsbetweentheprogrammedrobotpathandtheactualrequiredpathareobservedandcorrectedbyasophisticatedvisionbasedsensordevelopedforthisapplicationbyOhioStateUniversity.Thissensorsystemisalsodesignedtopermitmeasurementofthemoltenweldpoolsurfacedimensionsandcorrectweldingcurrentleveltomaintaintheweldpooldimensionswithindesiredlimits.Presently,anumberoffunctionsarestillcontrolledmanually,andmanualoverridescapabilityisrequiredforallfunctions.AsstatedintheIntroduction,useofvoicerecognitionmayimprovetheaccuracyandspeedofresponseofthesemanualoverrides.Toexplorethistechnology,aVotanVRT6050standalonevoicerecognitionterminalhasbeenintegratedintotheworkcell.Thissystemprovidescontinuousspeechrecognitionofupto10setsofwordswith75150wordsperset.Theintegrationofthevoicerecognitionsystemisbrokenintoanaloganddiscretesignalsforcontrol.ThevoicerecognitionsystemconnectstothecontrolcomputerthroughastandardRS232Ccommunicationslink.

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