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外文翻译--信息时代的机械工程.doc

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外文翻译--信息时代的机械工程.doc

中国地质大学长城学院本科毕业设计外文资料翻译系别工程技术系专业机械设计制造及其自动化姓名学号2012年3月5日MECHANICALENGINEERINGINTHEINFORMATIONAGEINTHEEARLY1980S,ENGINEERSTHOUGHTTHATMASSIVERESEARCHWOULDBENEEDEDTOSPEEDUPPRODUCTDEVELOPMENTASITTURNSOUT,LESSRESEARCHISACTUALLYNEEDEDBECAUSESHORTENEDPRODUCTDEVELOPMENTCYCLESENCOURAGEENGINEERSTOUSEAVAILABLETECHNOLOGYFORUSE。INANEWPRODUCTISRISKYANDPRONETOFAILURETAKINGSHORTSTEPSISASAFERANDUSUALLYMORESUCCESSFULLYAPPROACHTOPRODUCTDEVELOPMENTSHORTERPRODUCTDEVELOPMENTCYCLESAREALSOBENEFICIALINANENGINEERINGWORLDINWHICHBOTHCAPITALANDLABORAREGLOBALPEOPLEWHOCANDESIGNANDMANUFACTUREVARIOUSPRODUCTSCANBEFOUNDANYWHEREINTHEWORLD,BUTCONTAININGANEWIDEAISHARDGEOGRAPHICDISTANCEISNOLONGERABARRIERTOOTHERSFINDINGOUTABOUTYOURDEVELOPMENTSIXMONTHSINTOTHEPROCESSIFYOU’VEGOTASHORTDEVELOPMENTCYCLE,THESITUATIONISNOTCATASTROPHICASLONGASYOUMAINTAINYOULEADBUTIFYOU’REINTHEMIDSTOFASIXYEARDEVELOPMENTPROCESSANDACOMPETITORGETSWINDOFYOURWORKER,THEPROJECTCOULDBEINMORESERIOUSTROUBLETHEIDEATHATENGINEERSNEEDTOCREATANEWDESIGNTOSOLVEEVERYPROBLEMISQUICKLYBECOMINGOBSOLETETHEFIRSTSTEPINTHEMODERNDESIGNPROCESSISTOBROWSETHEINTERNETOROTHERINFORMATIONSYSTEMSTOSEEIFSOMEONEELSEHASALREADYANEWTRANSMISSION,ORAHEATEXCHANGERTHATISCLOSETOWHATYOUNEEDTHROUGHTHESEINFORMATIONSYSTEM,YOUMAYDISCOVERTHATSOMEONEALREADYHASMANUFACTURINGDRAWINGS,NUMERICALCONTROLTAPES,ANDEVERYTHINGELSEREQUIREDTOMANUFATUREYOURPRODUCTENGINEERSCANTHENFOCUSTHEIRPROFESSIONALCOMPETENCEONUNSOLVEDPROBLEMSINTALCKLINGSUCHPROBLEMS,THEAVAILABILITYOFWOKSTATIONSANDACCESSTOTHEINFORMATIONHIGNWAYDRAMATICALLYENHANCETHECAPABILITYOFTHEENGINEERINGTEAMANDITSPRODUCTIVITYTHESEINFORMATIONAGETOOLSCANGIVETHETEAMACCESSTOMASSIVEDATABASESOFMATERIALPROPERTIES,STANDARDS,TECHNOLOGIES,ANDSUCCESSFULDESIGNSSUCHPROTESTEDDESIGNSCANBEDOWNLOADEDFORDIRECTUSEORQUICKLYMODIFIEDTOMEETSPECIFICNEEDSREMOTEMANUFACTURING,INWHICHPRODUCTIONSARESENTOUTOVERANETWORK,ISALSOPOSSIBLEYOUCOULDENDUPWITHAVIRTUALCOMPANYWHEREYOUDON’THAVETOSEEANYHARDWAREWHENTHEPRODUCTISCOMPLETEDYOUCANDIRECTTHEMANUFATURERTODROPSHIPITTOYOURCUSTOMERPERIODICVISITSTOTHECUSTOMERCANBEMADETOENSURETHATTHEPRODUCTYOUDESIGNEDWORKINGACCORDINGTOTHESPECIFICATIONALTHOUGHALLOFTHEDEVELOPMENTSWON’TAPPLYEQUALLYTOEVERYCOMPANY,THEPOTENTIALISTHERECUSTOMDESIGNUSEDTOBELEFTTOSMALLCOMPANYBIGCOMPANIESSNEEREDATITTHEYHATEDTHEIDEAOFDEALINGWITHNICHEMARKETSSMALLVALUMCUSTOMSOLUTIONS“HEREISMYPRODUCT,”ONEOFTHEBIGCOMPANIESWOULDSAY“THISISTHEBESTWECANMAKEITYOUOUGHTLIKEITIFYOUDON’T,THERE’SSMALLERCOMPANYDOWNTHESTREETTHATWILLWORKONYOURPROBLEM”TODAY,NEARLYEVERYMARKETISANICHEMARKET,BECAUSECUSTOMERSARESELECTIVEIFYOUIGNORETHEPOTENTIALFORTAILORINGYOURPRODUCTTOSPECIFICCUSTOMERS’NEEDS,YOUWILLLOSETHEMAJORPARTOFYOURMARKETSHARESINCETHESENICHEMARKETSARETRANSIENT,YOURCOMPANYNEEDSTOBEINAPOSITIONGTORESPONDTOTHEMQUICKLYTHEEMGERGENCEOFNICHEMARKETSANDDESIGNONDEMANDHASALTEREDTHEWAYENGINEERSCONDUCTRESEARCHTODAY,RESEARCHISCOMMONLYDIRECTEDTOWARDSOVLINGPARTICULARPROBLEMSALTHOUGHTHISSITUSTIONISPROBABLYTEMPORARY,MUCHUNCOMMITTEDTECHNOLOGY,DEVELOPEDATGOVERNMENTEXPENSEORWRITTENOFFBYMAJORCORPORATIONGS,ISAVAILABLETODAYATVERYLOWCOSTFOLLOWINGMODESTMODIFICATIONGS,SUCHTECHNOLOGYCANOFENBEUSEDDIRECTLYINPRODUCTDEVELOPMENT,WHICHALLOWSMANYORGANIZATIONSTOAVOIDTHEEXPENSEOFANEXTENSIVERESEARCHEFFORTONCETHETECHNOLOGYISFREEOFMAJOROBSTACLES,THERESEARCHEFFORTCANFOCUSONOVERCOMINGTHEBARRIERSTOCOMMERCIALIZATIONGRATHERTHANONPURSUINGNEWANDINTERESTING,BUTUNDEFINED,ALTERNATIVESWHENVIEWINTHISPROSPECTIVE,ENGINEERINGRESEARCHMUSTFOCUSPRIMARILYONREMOVINGTHEBARRIERSTORAPIDCOMMERCILIZATIONGOFKNOWNTECHNOLOGIESMUCHOFTHISEFFORTMUSTADDRESSQUALITYANDRELIABILITYCONCERNS,WHICHAREFOREMOSTINTHEMINDSOFTODAY’SCONSUMERSCLEARLY,AREPUTATIONGFORPOORQUALITYISSYNONYMOUSWITHBADBUSINESSEVERYTHINGPOSSIBLEINCLUDINGTHOROUGHINSPECTIONATTHEENDOFTHEMANUFACTURINGLINEANDAUTOMATICREPLACEMENTOFDEFECTIVEPRODUCTSMUSTBEDONGTOASSURETHATTHECUSTOMERRECEIVESAPROPERLYFUNCTIONGINGPRODUCTRESEARCHHASTOFOCUSONTHECOSTBENEFITOFFATORSSUCHASRELIABILITYASRELIABILITYINCREASES,MANUFANTURINGCOSTSANDTHEFINALCOSTSOFTHESYSTEMWILLDECREASEHAVING30JUNKATTHEENDOFAPRODUCTIONLINENOTONLYCOSTSAFORTURNBUTALSOCREATSANOPPORTUNITYFORACOMPETITORTOTAKEYOURIDEAANDSELLITTOYOURCUSTOMERSCENTRALTOTHEPROCESSOFIMPROVINGRELIABILITYANDLOWINGCOSTSISTHEINTENSIVEANDWIDESPREADUSEOFDESIGNSOFTWARE,WHICHALLOWSENGINEERSTOSPEEDUPEVERYSTAGEOFTHEDESIGNPROCESSSHORTENINGEACHSTAGE,HOWEVER,MAYNOTSUFFICIENTLYREDUCETHETIMEREQUIREDFORTHEENTIREPROCESSTHEREFORE,ATTENTIONMUSTALSOBEDEVOTEDTOCONCURRENTENGINEERINGSOFTWAREWITHSHAREDDATABASESCANBEACCESSEDBYALLMEMBERSOFTHEDESIGNTEAMASWEMOVEMOREFULLYINTOTHEINFORMATIONAGE,SUCCESSWILLREQUIRETHATTHEENGINEERPOSSESSSOMEUNIQUEKNOWLEDGEOFANDEXPERIENCEINBOTHTHEDEVELOPMENTANDTHEMANAGEMENTOFTECHNOLOGYSUCCESSWILLREQUIREBROADKNOWLEDGEANDSKILLSASWELLASEXPERTISEINSOMEKEYTECHNOLOGIESANDDISCIPLINES;ITALSOREQUIREAKEENAWARENESSOFTHESOCIALANDECONOMICFACTORSATWORKINTHEMARKETPLACEINCREASINGLY,INTHEFUTURE,ROUTINPROBLEMSWILLNOTJUSTIFYHEAVRYENGINEERINGEXPENDITURES,ANDENGINEERSWILLBEEXPECTEDTOWORKCOOPERATIVELYINSOLVINGMORECHALLENGING,MOREDEMANDINGPROBLEMSINSUBSTAN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