欢迎来到人人文库网! | 帮助中心 人人文库renrendoc.com美如初恋!
人人文库网
首页 人人文库网 > 资源分类 > DOC文档下载

外文翻译--卡车和货车.doc

  • 资源大小:13.06MB        全文页数:26页
  • 资源格式: DOC        下载权限:游客/注册会员/VIP会员    下载费用:5
游客快捷下载 游客一键下载
会员登录下载
下载资源需要5

邮箱/手机号:
您支付成功后,系统会自动为您创建此邮箱/手机号的账号,密码跟您输入的邮箱/手机号一致,以方便您下次登录下载和查看订单。注:支付完成后需要自己下载文件,并不会自动发送文件哦!

支付方式: 微信支付    支付宝   
验证码:   换一换

友情提示
2、本站资源不支持迅雷下载,请使用浏览器直接下载(不支持QQ浏览器)
3、本站资源下载后的文档和图纸-无水印,预览文档经过压缩,下载后原文更清晰   

外文翻译--卡车和货车.doc

附录1英文原文TRUCKSANDWAGONS31GENERALTRUCKSAREHAULINGUNITSWHICH,BECAUSEOFTHEIRHIGHSPEEDSWHENOPERATINGONSUITABLEROADS,HAVEHIGHCAPACITIESANDPROVIDERELATIVELYLOWHAULINGCOSTSTHEYPROVIDEAHIGHDEGREEOFFLEXIBILITY,ASTHENUMBERINSERVICEMAYBEINCREASEDORDECREASEDEASILYTOPERMITMODIFICATIONSINTHETOTALHAULINGCAPACITYOFAFLEETMOSTTRUCKSMAYBEOPERATEDOVERANYHAULROADFORWHICHTHESURFACEISSUFFICIENTLYFIRMANDSMOOTHANDONWHICHTHEGRADESARENOTEXCESSIVELYSTEEPSOMEUNITSNOWINUSEAREDESIGNATEDASOFFHIGHWAYTRUCKSBECAUSETHEIRSIZESANDTOTALLOADSARELARGERTHANTHATAREPERMITTEDONHIGHWAYSTHESETRUCKSAREUSEDFORHAULINGMATERIALSONLARGEPROJECTS,WHERETHESIZESANDCOSTSAREJUSTIFIEDTRUCKSMAYBECLASSIFIEDACCORDINGTOAGREATMANYFACTORS,INCLUDINGTHEFOLLOWING1SIZEANDTYPEOFENGINEGASOLINE,DIESEL,BUTANE,PROPANE2NUMBEROFGEARS3KINDOFDRIVETWOWHEEL,FOURWHEEL,SIXWHEEL,ETC4NUMBEROFWHEELSANDAXLESANDARRANGEMENTOFDRIVINGWHEELS5METHODOFDUMPINGTHELOADREARDUMP,SIDEDUMP6CLASSOFMATERIALHAULEDEARTH,ROCK,COAL,ORE,ETC7CAPACITY,INTONORCUBICMETERCUBICYARDS8METHODOFDUMPINGTHELOADFORREARDUMPS,HYDRAULICORCABLE.IFTRUCKARETOBEPURCHASEDFORGENERALMATERIALHAULING,THEPURCHASERSHOULDSELECTUNITSTHATAREADAPTABLETOTHEPURPOSESFORWHICHTHEYWILLBEUSED.HOWEVER,IFTRUCKARETOBEUSEDONAGIVENPROJECTFORAGIVENPURPOSE,THEPURCHASERSHOULDSELECTTRUCKSTHATMOSTNEARLYFITTHEREQUIREMENTOFTHEPROJECT.1.REARDUMPTRUCKS2.REARDUMPTRUCKSARESUITABLEFORUSEINHAULINGMANYTYPESOFMATERIALS.THESHAPEOFTHEBODY,SUCHASTHEEXTENTOFSHARPANGLES,CORNERS,ANDTHECONTOUROFTHEREAR,THROUGHWHICHTHEMATERIALSMUSTFLOWDURINGDUMPING,WILLAFFECTTHEEASEORDIFFICULTYOFDUMPINGJ41.THEBODIESOFTRUCKTHATWILLBEUSEDTOHAULWETCLAYANDSIMILARMATERIALSSHOULDBEFREEOFSHARPANGLESANDCORNERS.DRYSANDANDGRAVELWILLFLOWEASILYFROMALMOSTANYSHAPEOFBODY.IFQUARRYROCKISTOBEHAULED,BODIESSHOULDBESHALLOWWITHSLOPINGSIDEBOARDS.2.BOTTOMDUMPWAGONSIFUNITSARETOBEUSEDTOHAULMATERIALS,SUCHASSAND,GRAVEL,REASONABLEDRYEARTH,COAL,ETC.WHICHFLOWEASILY,THEUSEOFBOTTOMDUMPWAGONSWILLREDUCETHETIMEREQUIREDTOUNLOADTHEUNITS.SUCHUNITSAREPARTICULARLYSUITABLEFORUSEWHERETHEMATERIALSAREDISTRIBUTEDINLAYERSONAFILLORAREDISCHARGEDTHROUGHGRIZZLIESINTOHOPPERS.WHENDISCHARGINGTHELOADONTOFILLS,THEWAGONSCANDUMPTHEIRLOADSWHILEMOVING.WHENDISCHARGINGTHROUGHGRIZZLIES,THEYWILLNEEDTOSTOPFORONLYAFEWSECONDS.THERAPIDRATEOFDISCHARGINGTHELOADGIVESTHESEWAGONSATIMEADVANTAGEOVERREARDUMPTRUCKS.ASTHEDOORSTHROUGHWHICHTHESEUNITSDISCHARGETHEIRLOADHAVELIMITEDOPENINGS,DIFFICULTIESMAYBEEXPERIENCEDINDISCHARGINGSUCHMATERIALSASWET,STICKYCLAY,ESPECIALLYIFTHEYAREINLARGELUMPS.THESEWAGONSARESATISFACTORYHAULINGUNITSONPROJECTSSUCHASEARTHENDAMS,LEVEES,HIGHWAYSANDAIRPORTS,WHERELARGEQUANTITIESOFMATERIALSARETOBETRANSPORTEDANDHAULROADSCANBEKEPTINREASONABLYGOODCONDITION.THEYMAYBELOADEDBYPOWERSHOVELS,DRAGLINES,ORPORTABLEBELTLOADERS.3.CAPACITIESOFTRUCKSANDWAGONSTHEREAREATLEASTTHREEMETHODSOFEXPRESSINGTHECAPACITIESOFTRUCKSANDWAGONSBYTHELOADWHICHITWILLCARRY,EXPRESSEDINTONS;BYITSSTRUCKVOLUME;ANDBYITSHEAPEDVOLUME。THELATTERTWOEXPRESSEDINCUBICMETERORCUBICYARDS.THESTRUCKCAPACITYOFATRUCKISTHEVOLUMEOFMATERIALWHICHITWILLHAULWHENITISFILLEDTOTHETOPOFTHESIDES,WITHNOMATERIALABOVETHESIDES.THEHEAPEDCAPACITYISTHEVOLUMEOFMATERIALWHICHITWILLHAULWHENTHELOADISHEAPEDABOVETHESIDES.THECAPACITYSHOULDBEEXPRESSEDINCUBICMETERS.WHILETHETRUCKCAPACITYREMAINSFIXEDFORANYGIVENUNIT,BUTTHEHEAPEDCAPACITYWILLVARYWITHTHEHEIGHTTOWHICHTHEMATERIALMAYEXTENDABOVETHESIDESANDWITHTHELENGTHANDWIDTHOFTHEBODY.WETEARTHORSANDYCLAYMAYBEHAULEDWITHASLOPEOF11,WHILEDRYSANDORGRAVELMAYNOTPERMITASLOPEGREATERTHAN31.INORDERTODETERMINETHEPROBABLEHEAPEDCAPACITYOFAUNIT,ITISNECESSARYTOKNOWTHESTRUCKCAPACITY,THELENGTHANDWIDTHOFTHEBODY,ANDTHESLOPEATWHICHTHEMATERIALWILLREMAINSTABLEWHILETHEUNITISMOVINGSMOOTHHAULROADSWILLPERMITALARGEHEAPEDCAPACITYTHANROUGHHAULROADSBECAUSEOFVARIATIONSINTHEHEAPINGCAPACITIESOFUNITSITMAYBEBETTERTOCOMPARETHEMONTHEBASISOFTHEIRSTRUCKCAPACITIESINANEEVENTTHECAPACITIESSHOULDBEDETERMINEDORCOMPAREDINAREALISTICMANNERTHEWEIGHTCAPACITYMAYLIMITTHEVOLUMEOFTHELOADWHENAUNITISUSEDTOHAULHEAVYMATERIAL,SUCHASIRONORE.HOWEVER,WHENTHESPECIFICGRAVITYOFTHEMATERIALISSUCHTHATTHESAFELOADISNOTEXCEEDED,AUNITMAYBEFILLEDTOITSHEAPEDCAPACITY.INSOMEINSTANCESITISPOSSIBLETOADDSIDEBOARDSTOINCREASETHEDEPTHOFTHEBODYOFATRUCKORWAGON,THEREBYPERMITTINGITTOHAULALARGERLOAD.THISPRACTICEPROBABLYWILLINCREASETHEHOURLYCOSTOFOPERATINGAUNIT,BECAUSEOFHIGHERFUELCONSUMPTION,REDUCEDTIRELIFE.MOREFREQUENTFAILURESOFPARTS,SUCHASAXLES,GEARS,BRAKES,ANDCLUTCHES,ANDHIGHERMAINTENANCECOSTS.HOWEVER,IFTHEVALUEOFTHEEXTRAMATERIALHAULEDISGREATERTHANTHETOTALINCREASEINTHECOSTOFOPERATINGAVEHICLE,THEOVERLOADINGISJUSTIFIED.INCONSIDERINGHAULINGLARGERVOLUMESOFMATERIALS,THEMAXIMUMSAFELOADSONTHETIRESSHOULDBECHECKEDTOPREVENTEXCESSIVEOVERLOADING,WHICHMIGHTRESULTINCONSIDERABLELOSTTIMEDUETOTIREFAILURES3.2DESIGNANDPRINCIPALMECHANISMSOFTRACKSTHEPRINCIPALMECHANISMSOFMOSTMODERNTRUCKSHAVEAVERYSIMILARDESIGNANDLAYOUT.EACHTRUCKCONSISTSESSENTIALLYOFTHREECOMPONENTPARTSENGINE,CHASSISANDBODY.TRUCKSAREPOWEREDMAINLYBYCARBURETORORDIESELENGINES.THEBODYISINTENDEDTOCARRYLOADORPEOPLE.THEDRIVER’SCABISUSUALLYSEPARATEDFROMTHEBODY,ANDITSFORMANDDESIGNCONFORMTOTHEPURPOSETHETRUCKISTOSERVE.THECHASSISCARRIESTHEENGINE,BODY,TRANSMISSIONRUNNINGGEARANDCONTROLS.THEPOWERTRAINOFATRUCKISACOMBINATIONOFMECHANISMSFORTRANSMITTINGTHETORQUEDEVELOPEDBYTHEENGINECRANKSHAFTTOTHEDRIVINGWHEELS.THEPOWERTRAINOFAMASSPRODUCEDTRUCKFIG.31INCORPORATESTHEFOLLOWINGMAINMECHANISMS,THEPURPOSEANDDESIGNOFMOSTOFWHICHDONOTDIFFERINPRINCIPLEFROMTHECORRESPONDINGMECHANISMSINTRACTORSENGINE1,CLUTCH2,TRANSMISSIONBOX3,UNIVERSALJOINTSHAFT4,FINALDRIVE8WITHDIFFERENTIAL5ANDDRIVINGWHEELS6WITHAXLESHAFTS7.WHENTHERESISTANCEMETBYTHETRUCKINCREASES,FOREXAMPLEINCLIMBINGUPHILL,THETRANSMISSIONBOXISUSEDTOINCREASETHETORQUEATTHEEXPENSEOFALOWERSPEED6J.THETRANSMISSIONBOXESOFTRUCKSANDTRACTORSAREDESIGNEDSIMILARLYANDTHEFUNCTIONSPERFORMEDBYTHEENGINECLUTCHARETHESAME.THEUNIVERSALJOINTSHAFTTRANSMITSTORQUEFROMTHETRANSMISSIONBOXTOTHEFINALDRIVETHETRANSMISSIONBOXISATTACHEDRIGIDLYTOTHETRUCKFRAME,WHILETHEFINALDRIVEANDTHEREARAXLEARECONNECTEDTOTHEFRAMEBYMEANSOFSPRING.ASTHETYRESOFTHETRUCKHITBUMPSINTHEROADTHEREARAXLEOSCILLATESCONTINUOUSLY,CHANGINGTHEANGLEBETWEENTHETRANSMISSIONBOXANDFINALDRIVESHAFTS.FORTHISREASON,THEMAINPURPOSEOFTHEUNIVERSALJOINTSHAFTISTHETRANSMISSIONOFTORQUEBETWEENSHAFTINCLUDEDATDIFFERENTANGLES.THEFINALDRIVEAMPLIFIESTHETORQUEANDTRANSMITSITFROMTHELONGITUDINALUNIVERSALJOINTSHAFTTOTHEDRIVINGAXLESHAFTSANDTHEWHEELS.THEFINALDRIVESINTRUCKSANDTRACTORSSERVETHESAMEPURPOSE.THEDIFFERENTIALUSEDINTRUCKFINALDRIVESALLOWSTHEDRIVINGWHEELSTOROTATEATDIFFERENTSPEEDS,WHICHISNECESSARYWHENTHETRUCKTURNSORGOESOVERUNEVENROADANDTHERIGHTANDLEFTWHEELSTRAVELDIFFERENTDISTANCESDURINGTHESAMETIME.INATRUCKMOVINGSTRAIGHTONASMOOTHROADTHISMAYOCCURWHENTHERADIIOFTHERIGHTANDLEFTWHEELSAREUNEQUAL.PHENOMENONISCAUSEDBYANUNEQUALPRESSUREINTHETYRES,NONUNIFORMWEAROFTHETYRESORDIFFERENTLOADACTINGONTHEWHEELS.THERUNNINGGEAROFATRUCKCOMPRISESAFRAMESUPPORTINGTHEBODYANDALLOTHERMECHANISMS,ASWELLASTHEFRONTANDREARAXLES.SPRINGSFORANELASTICSUSPENSIONOFTHEAXLESTOTHEFRAME,ANDAIRTYREDWHEELS.THESPRINGSANDTYRESTRANSMITLOADFROMTHEFRAMETOTHEROAD,ANDATTHESAMETIMEDAMPJERKSANDSHOCKSWHENTHETRUCKHITSBUMPSINTHEROADTHERESULTANTOSCILLATIONSAREDAMPEDBYSPECIALSHOCKABSORBERS.THESTEERINGCONTROLINCLUDESSTEERINGGEAR,BRAKESYSTEM,ENGINECONTROLANDPOWERTRAINCONTRO1.THESTEERINGGEARISUSEDTOCHANGETHEDIRECTIONOFMOTIONBYTURNINGTHEWHEELSWHICHARELINKEDWITHTHESTEERINGWHEELBYASYSTEMOFLEVERSANDRODS.THEBRAKESYSTEMCONTRIBUTESTOWARDSSAFETYANDSLOWSDOWNATRUCKGOINGDOWNASLOPETHEBRAKESAREMOUNTEDONTHETRUCKWHEELSANDSOMETIMESONTHEUNIVERSALJOINTSHAFTTHEBRAKESARECONNECTEDWITHTHEBRAKEPEDALORLEVERBYMEANSOFMECHANICAL,HYDRAULICORAIROPERATEDDEVICES.ENGINECONTROLALLOWSACHANGEINTHENUMBEROFREVOLUTIONSTOBEEFFECTEDINACCORDANCEWITHTHEDEMANDS,WHILETHEPOWERTRAINCONTROLBOILSDOWNTOENGAGINGANDDISENGAGINGTHECLUTCHANDCHANGINGSPEEDSEFFORTSTOIMPROVETHEPROPERTIESOFTRUCKSORADAPTTHEMFORSPECIALPURPOSESCONTINUOUSLYCHANGEANDIMPROVEBOTHTHEINDIVIDUALELEMENTSANDTHEGENERALLAYOUT.FORALLTHAT,ANDDESPITETHEGREATDIVERSITYOFTYPES,ALLTRUCKSCONSISTESSENTIALLYOFTHEMAINELEMENTSDESCRIBEDABOVE.3.3POWERTRAINOFTRUCKS1、CLUTCHINCONFORMITYWITHITSFUNCTION,THECLUTCHSHOULDSMOOTHLYENGAGEANDJUSTASSMOOTHLYANDRAPIDLYCOMEOUTOFENGAGEMENTDRYDISKCLUTCHESAREMOSTWIDESPREADTHEDESIGNOFTHECLUTCHPRESSUREASSEMBLYSUBDIVIDESALLCLUTCHESINTOSPRINGLOADEDANDOVERCENTRECLUTCHESINTHEFORMERTYPETHEPRESSUREDISKSARECONSTANTLYCOMPRESSEDBYSPRINGSANDTHECLUTCHCANBEDISENGAGEDBYDEPRESSINGTHEPEDALWHICH,OVERCOMINGTHESPRINGTENSION,WILLDRAWAPARTTHEFRICTIONSURFACESASSOONASTHEPEDALISRELEASEDTHEDISKSWILLBEAGAINBROUGHTINCONTACTBYTHESPRINGSINTHELATTERTYPETHEDRIVINGANDDRIVENDISKSAREPRESSEDTOGETHERBYALEVERMECHANISMANDTHECLUTCHLEVERORPEDALNEEDNOTBECONSTANTLYDEPRESSEEFFORTISAPPLIEDTOTHELEVERONLYDURINGENGAGEMENTORDISENGAGEMENTTHESECLUTCHESAREEMPLOYEDMAINLYINGENERALPURPOSECRAWLERAGRICULTURALTRACTORSWHERESHORTTIMESTOPPAGESAREAFFECTEDBYDISENGAGINGTHECLUTCH,BECAUSETHETRANSMISSIONGEARCANNOTBECHANGEDWHILERUNNINGANDARESOMEWHATDIFFICULTTOENGAGEANDDISENGAGEINVIEWOFTHEIRLARGESIZESPRINGLOADEDCLUTCHESAREUSEDPREDOMINANTLYINTRUCKSFIG32ILLUSTRATESONEOFTHEMOSTWIDESPREADANDSIMPLETYPESOFSINGLEDISKSPRINGLOADEDCLUTCHCLUTCHSHAFT13TRANSMISSIONBOXDRIVINGSHAFTISMOUNTEDINTWOBALLBEARINGS,ITSFRONTENDRESTINGINTHEFLYWHEELOPENINGANDTHEREARENDINTHEFRONTWALLOFTHETRANSMISSIONBOXHOUSING3ISATTACHEDTOENGINEFLYWHEEL1THEPRESSUREONDRIVENDISK2FITTEDONTOTHESPLINTEDPORTIONOFSHAFT13ISPROVIDEDBYSPRINGS5INSTALLEDBETWEENTHEHOUSINGANDPRESSUREDRIVINGDISK4THREERELEASELEVERS11AREMOUNTEDONSPINDLES12ATTACHEDTOHOUSING3THEPRESSUREDISK,ROTATINGTOGETHERWITHTHEHOUSINGANDFLYWHEEL,CANBESHIFTEDTOEITHERSIDEOFTHEDRIVENDISKTOINCREASETHEFORCEOFFRICTIONBETWEENTHEDRIVINGANDDRIVENDISKSTHECLUTCHRELEASEMECHANISMOPERATESASFOLLOWSWHENSLEEVE10MOVESTOWARDSTHEFLYWHEEL,THRUSTBEARING6PRESSESAGAINSTTHEENDSOFTHERELEASELEVERS11WHICHTHEREBYTURNONTHEIRAXLESANDSEPARATETHEPRESSUREDRIVINGDISKFROMTHEFLYWHEEL,RELEASINGTHEDRIVENDISKFROMTHEACTIONOFTHESPRINGTHESLEEVEISSHIFTEDBYFORK9,CONNECTEDWITHPEDAL7THROUGHASYSTEMOFARMSANDRODSWHENTHEPEDALISRELEASED,SLEEVE10RETURNSTOITSINITIALPOS

注意事项

本文(外文翻译--卡车和货车.doc)为本站会员(英文资料库)主动上传,人人文库网仅提供信息存储空间,仅对用户上传内容的表现方式做保护处理,对上载内容本身不做任何修改或编辑。 若此文所含内容侵犯了您的版权或隐私,请立即通知人人文库网(发送邮件至[email protected]或直接QQ联系客服),我们立即给予删除!

温馨提示:如果因为网速或其他原因下载失败请重新下载,重复下载不扣分。

关于我们 - 网站声明 - 网站地图 - 资源地图 - 友情链接 - 网站客服客服 - 联系我们

网站客服QQ:2846424093    人人文库上传用户QQ群:460291265   

[email protected] 2016-2018  renrendoc.com 网站版权所有   南天在线技术支持

经营许可证编号:苏ICP备12009002号-5