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外文翻译--叉车升降机构的创新设计 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--叉车升降机构的创新设计 英文版.pdf

RAILWAYCONSISTSTHEfiELDTOINHERENTLYANDOTHERSCOMPUTERVISIONGUIDANCE5,6THESETRUCKSHAVEBETTERVISIBILITYFORDRIVERSBUTTHEYARENOTFUNDAMENTALSOLUTIONSTOOVERCOMEMECHANISMANDMACHINETHEORY4520101892–1896CONTENTSLISTSAVAILABLEATSCIENCEDIRECTMECHANISMANDMACHINETHEORYTHESHORTAGESOFTHEGENERALMASTSTRUCTURES,ANDTHEPROBLEMOFHIGHSELFWEIGHTHASNOTBEENCRACKEDCOMPLETELYEITHERINORDERTOIMPROVETHEDRIVINGCOMFORTANDSAFETYFORTHEDRIVERSANDTOREDUCEENERGYCONSUMPTION,THISPAPERFOCUSESONTHEINNOVATIVEDESIGNOFTHELIFTINGMECHANISMFORFORKLIFTTRUCKSASPATIALMULTILINKLIFTGUIDANCEMECHANISMISPROPOSED,ANDTHENANEWKINDOFLIFTINGMECHANISMBASEDONITISPRESENTEDTHISMECHANISMNOTONLYEXPANDSTHEVISIONfiELDOFTHEDRIVERBUTALSOREDUCESTHEWHOLEWEIGHTOFTHEVEHICLE2PROPOSITIONOFALIFTGUIDANCEMECHANISMEXPANDINGTHEDRIVERSVISIONHASALWAYSCHANGINGTHEFORMSOFTHEMAST2,3,WHILEASISWELLKNOWN,APLANARRRROPENCHASUPPOSETHATTWOSUCHPLANARRRRLINKAGESRRROPENCHAINLINKAGESARECONNECTEDWITH⁎CORRESPONDINGAUTHORFAX861062788308EMAILADDRESSJINGSHANZHAOMAILTSINGHUAEDUCN0094114X/–SEEFRONTMATTER2010ELSEVIERLTDDOI101016/JMECHMACHTHEORY201008002BEENANIMPORTANTRESEARCHPROJECTSOMEKINDSOFTRUCKSHAVEIMPROVEDVISIBILITYVIAUTILIZETHEVISUALGUIDANCEMETHODSOFMOBILECAMERASPACEMANIPULATION4ORCOMPONENTSWILLBADLYAFFECTTHEDRIVERSBETWEENPEDESTRIANSANDTRUCKSAREDUEANIMPORTANTROLEINSUPPORTINGTHELOADSENOUGHANDITSSELFWEIGHTHASTOBEINCREASEDTHEUNNECESSARYWASTEOFENERGYSTATIONS,WAREHOUSES,PORTSANDFACTORIESFORLOADING,UNLOADINGANDCONVEYINGAOFACHASSISANDAWORKDEVICEWHICHCANBETILTEDANDLIFTEDVERTICALLYFOLLOWINGMAJORDISADVANTAGESFIRST,THEMASTSYSTEMCOMPOSEDOFSEVERALLARGEOFVISIONBECAUSEITLOCATESINFRONTOFTHEDRIVERMANYACCIDENTSINVOLVINGCOLLISIONSBADVISIBILITIESOFTHEFORKLIFTTRUCKS1,2INADDITION,THEMASTSYSTEMPLAYSGUIDINGTHEFORKFRAMETOLIFTVERTICALLYSOITSSTRENGTHANDSTIFFNESSMUSTBEHIGHTHEWEIGHTOFTHEREAREQUILIBRATORISINCREASEDASARESULT,WHICHSURELYIMPROVES1INTRODUCTIONFORKLIFTTRUCKSAREUSUALLYUSEDATGENERALWEIGHTBALANCEDFORKLIFTTRUCKHOWEVER,THEGENERALFORKLIFTSHAVESHORTCOMMUNICATIONINNOVATIVEDESIGNOFTHELIFTINGMECHANISMSFORFORKLIFTTRUCKSJIANYIWANG,JINGSHANZHAO⁎,FULEICHU,ZHIJINGFENGDEPARTMENTOFPRECISIONINSTRUMENTSANDMECHANOLOGY,TSINGHUAUNIVERSITY,BEIJING100084,PRCHINAARTICLEINFOABSTRACTARTICLEHISTORYRECEIVED17JUNE2010RECEIVEDINREVISEDFORM3AUGUST2010ACCEPTED4AUGUST2010AVAILABLEONLINE1SEPTEMBER2010FORKLIFTTRUCKISONEOFTHEMOSTIMPORTANTTOOLSINLOGISTICSHOWEVER,THEGENERALMASTSYSTEMOFAFORKLIFTTRUCKNOTONLYRESTRAINSTHEDRIVERSVISION,BUTALSOINCREASESTHEWHOLEWEIGHTOFATRUCKANDDECREASESTHEFUELECONOMYTHEREFORE,THISPAPERFOCUSESONTHEINNOVATIVEDESIGNOFANEWLIFTINGMECHANISMFORFORKLIFTTRUCKFIRSTLY,ASPATIALMULTILINKLIFTGUIDANCEMECHANISMISPROPOSEDANDTHEN,UNDERTHECONSTRAINTSOFTHISMECHANISM,THEMOBILITYOFTHEFORKANDFORKFRAMEISINVESTIGATEDINTHEORYLASTLY,ANEWLIFTINGMECHANISMBASEDONITISPRESENTEDANDCOMPUTERSIMULATIONISUSEDTODEMONSTRATETHEFEASIBILITYOFMOTIONTHISMULTILINKLIFTINGMECHANISMTAKESADVANTAGEOFflEXIBLECABLEDRIVEANDRIGIDBODYGUIDANCE,WHICHNOTONLYPROVIDESTHEOPERATORWITHAWIDERfiELDOFVISIONBUTALSOREDUCESTHEEQUILIBRATEWEIGHTOFAVEHICLEANDTHEREFOREIMPROVESTHEFUELECONOMY2010ELSEVIERLTDALLRIGHTSRESERVEDKEYWORDSFORKLIFTTRUCKSPATIALMULTILINKMECHANISMRIGIDBODYGUIDANCEFLEXIBLEDRIVINGMETHODJOURNALHOMEPAGEWWWELSEVIERCOM/LOCATE/MECHMTINLINKAGETHATCONSISTSOFTHREEREVOLUTEPAIRSANDTWOLINKSGENERATESPLANARMOTIONSAREPLACEDINTWOPLANESWITHACERTAINNONZEROSUBTENDEDANGLETHEENDSOFTHETWOASAMERIGIDBODYTHROUGHREVOLUTEPAIRSSHOWNINFIG1LINK1ISTHEBASEANDRIGIDJSZHAOALLRIGHTSRESERVED1893JYWANGETAL/MECHANISMANDMACHINETHEORY4520101892–1896BODY4ISCONNECTEDWITHTHEBASETHROUGHTWOPARALLELRRRKINEMATICCHAINS,ABCANDDEFITISEASYTOfiNDTHAT,THESETWOKINEMATICCHAINSAREBOTHPLANARRRRKINEMATICLINKAGESTHEREFORETHETRACKOFRIGIDBODY4MUSTBEPARALLELTOBOTHOFPLANEΑANDPLANEΒTHATIS,RIGIDBODY4CANONLYMAKEAFREETRANSLATIONPARALLELTOTHEINTERSECTIONLINE,MN,OFTHETWOPLANESASARESULT,THETRACKOFRIGIDBODY4ISASTRAIGHTLINESLIDERCRANKMECHANISMISACOMMONMECHANISMTHATAPPLIESRRROPENCHAINSTRUCTUREITISWIDELYUSEDANDEXAMPLESOFITSFIG1SPATIALMULTILINKSTRUCTUREAPPLICATIONSAREEASILYFOUNDINGASOLINEANDDIESELENGINES7HOWEVER,INTHEAPPLICATIONSOFSLIDERCRANKMECHANISM,DEADPOINTSPOSSIBLYLEADTOACTUATINGFAILUREINORDERTOIMPROVETHESTABILITYANDAVOIDTHEDEADPOINTS,THISPAPERREPLACESTHERRRKINEMATICCHAINSWITHRPRKINEMATICCHAINS,WHICHARECOMPOSEDOFTWOREVOLUTEPAIRSANDONEPRISMATICPAIRANDCANALSOONLYGENERATEPLANARMOTIONSWITHOUTDEADPOINTSSUPPOSETHETWOVERTICALPLANESTHATTHESUPPORTBLOCKSANDTHEIRRPRKINEMATICCHAINSLOCATEDARESYMMETRICALWITHRESPECTTOTHELONGITUDINALSYMMETRICALPLANEOFTHEVEHICLEASISSHOWNINFIG2,THESUBTENDEDANGLEBETWEENTHETWOPLANESISDENOTEDBYΘ0∘BΘB180∘TWORPRKINEMATICCHAINSAREPLACEDINTHETWOPLANES,RESPECTIVELYEVERYRPRKINEMATICCHAININCLUDESTWOREVOLUTEPAIRSANDONEPRISMATICPAIR,ACONNECTINGRODANDASLIDEWAYTHECONNECTINGRODANDTHESLIDEWAYARECONNECTEDTHROUGHAPRISMATICPAIRTHEFORKFRAMEHASTWOEXTRUDEDREVOLUTEPAIRSCONNECTEDWITHTHEENDSOFTHETWORPRKINEMATICCHAINSASISDISCUSSEDABOVE,INSUCHASPATIALMULTILINKSTRUCTURE,THETRACKOFTHEFORKFRAMEISINASTRAIGHTLINEINADDITION,ONECANIMPROVETHESTRENGTHANDSTIFFNESSBYADDINGANOTHERSIMILARKINEMATICCHAININEACHVERTICALPLANE,INWHICHTHESUPPORTBLOCKSLOCATED,TOCONNECTTHEFORKFRAMEANDTHETRUCKCHASSISMEANWHILE,THEUPPERANDLOWERKINEMATICCHAINSARECONNECTEDBYCONSTRAINTRODSASTHETRACKOFTHEUPPERANDLOWERKINEMATICCHAINSAREPARALLEL,THECONSTRAINTRODSPROVIDEREDUNDANTRESTRAINTSANDIMPROVETHESTIFFNESSANDSTABILITYOFTHELIFTGUIDANCEMECHANISMANDTHELOADCARRYINGCAPACITY8NOWTHEKINEMATICPRINCIPLESOFTHESPATIALMULTILINKLIFTGUIDANCEMECHANISMCANBEANALYZEDINTHEORYINORDERTOINVESTIGATETHEDEGREEOFFREEDOMDOFOFTHEFORKFRAME,ONECANESTABLISHACARTESIANCOORDINATESYSTEM,WHEREXOYPLANEISTHEPLANEDETERMINEDBYTHEAXESOFREVOLUTEPAIRSAANDD,THEORIGINOFCOORDINATESYSTEMISTHEINTERSECTIONPOINTOFAXESOFAANDD,XAXISISTHEAXISOFREVOLUTEPAIRATHECOORDINATESYSTEMISSHOWNINFIG3ASSUMETHATTHESUBTENDEDANGLEOFTHEAXESOFREVOLUTEPAIRDANDREVOLUTEPAIRAISDENOTEDBYΦ0OBΦB180O,THEDISTANCEFROMREVOLUTEPAIRSAANDDTOTHEORIGINOFCOORDINATESYSTEMAREEQUALANDDENOTEDBYATHECOORDINATESOFAANDDAREA00ANDACOSΦASINΦ0,RESPECTIVELYINADDITION,THECOORDINATESOFCANDFCANBEEXPRESSEDASAYCZCANDXFYFZF,INDIVIDUALLYITISNOTDIFfiCULTTOfiNDTHAT,THEAXESOFREVOLUTEPAIRSAANDCAREPARALLEL,ANDSOARETHEAXESOFREVOLUTEPAIRSDANDFS1100TDENOTESTHEDIRECTIONVECTOROFTHEAXESOFREVOLUTEPAIRSAANDC,S2COSΦSINΦ0TDENOTESTHEUNITDIRECTIONVECTOROFTHEAXESOFREVOLUTEPAIRSDANDF,S30YCZCTDENOTESTHEDIRECTIONVECTOROFPRISMATICPAIRBANDS4XF−BCOSΦYF−BSINΦZFTDENOTESTHEDIRECTIONVECTOROFPRISMATICPAIREACCORDINGTOTHESCREWTHEORY9,THETERMINALCONSTRAINTSCREWMATRIXOFAKINEMATICCHAINCANBEOBTAINEDBYSOLVINGTHERECIPROCALSCREWEQUATIONTEΤ01WHEREΤTHETHETERMINALFIG2ANEWLIFTGUIDANCEMECHANISM1FORK;2FORKFRAME;3EXTRUDEDREVOLUTEPAIR;4CONNECTINGROD;5CONSTRAINTROD;6SLIDEWAY;7SUPPORTBLOCK1894JYWANGETAL/MECHANISMANDMACHINETHEORY4520101892–1896000001INACCORDANCEWITHEQ1,ONECANOBTAINTHETERMINALCONSTRAINTSCREWMATRIXCOMPOSEDOFASETOFBASESCREWSOFCONSTRAINTSCREWSYSTEMΤABC1000000000102435T31000ZC−YCTHEREFORE,ISAKINEMATICSCREWMATRIXANDISTHETERMINALCONSTRAINTSCREWKINEMATICSCREWMATRIXOFAKINEMATICCHAIN,ABC,CANBEEXPRESSEDASABCABCC1381000000000YCZC2435T2FIG3CARTESIANCOORDINATESYSTEMITPROVES1895JYWANGETAL/MECHANISMANDMACHINETHEORY4520101892–1896UNDERTHECONSTRAINTSOFTHELIFTGUIDANCEMECHANISM,THEFORKFRAMECANBELIFTEDUPANDDOWNPERPENDICULARTOTHEGROUND3IMPLEMENTTHISSIMULATEASWHILEISSHOWNOFTHEWORKS,INRAISEDMECHANISPERPENDICUTHISCABLEDRIVEWEIGHTREQUIREMMEANWHILTHISKINDTHEMBECOMESCF000001T6THATTHEFORKFRAMEHASONLYONEDOFALONGZDIRECTION,IE,THETRACKOFTHEFORKFRAMEISRESTRICTEDTOASTRAIGHTLINEACCORDINGTOEQ1,SOLONGAS0∘BΦB180∘,THEKINEMATICSCREWMATRIXOFTHEFRAMECFCANBESOLELYOBTAINEDΤCFΤABCΤDEFC2C35CONSEQUENTLY,THETERMINALCONSTRAINTSCREWMATRIXONCFCANBEEXPRESSEDASΤDEFCOSΦSINΦ0000000SINΦ−COSΦ0000001454SIMILARLY,THETERMINALCONSTRAINTSCREWMATRIXOFKINEMATICCHAINDEFISOBTAINED23TFIG4IMPLEMENTATIONOFTHENEWLIFTINGMECHANISMANDCOMPUTERSIMULATIONS1FORKFRAME;2FRONTPULLEY;3FRONTSUPPORTINGRODS;4BACKSUPPORTINGRODS;5CABLES;6BACKPULLEYATIONOFANEWLIFTINGMECHANISMSECTIONWILLPRESENTANEWLIFTINGMECHANISMFORFORKLIFTTRUCKBASEDONTHELIFTGUIDANCEMECHANISMPROPOSEDABOVEANDITSMOTIONINACOMPUTERISDISCUSSEDABOVE,THELIFTGUIDANCEMECHANISMRESTRAINSTHETRACKOFTHEFORKFRAMEINASTRAIGHTLINEINORDERTOLIFTGOODSNOTAFFECTINGTHEDRIVERSfiELDOFVISION,ONECANUSEWINDLASSANDSOFTSTEELCABLESTOLIFTTHEFORKANDFORKFRAMETHESTRUCTUREINFIG4AONECANSETAWINDLASSATTHEREAROFTHEFORKLIFTTRUCKANDPLACESSOMEPULLEYSANDSUPPORTINGRODSONTHETOPCABONEENDOFEACHCABLEISCONNECTEDWITHTHEFORKFRAMEANDTHEOTHERENDISfiXEDTOTHEWINDLASSWHENTHEWINDLASSTHECABLESWILLLIFTORDROPTHEFORKFRAMEORDERTOVERIFYWHETHERTHISKINDOFFORKLIFTTRUCKCANACHIEVETHEDESIREDMOVEMENTS,ESPECIALLYINSURETHEFORKFRAMETOBEVERTICALLY,PRO/ENGINEERSOFTWAREISUTILIZEDTOSIMULATEITSMOTIONFIG4A,BANDCSHOWDIFFERENTPOSITIONSWHENTHEMLIFTSTHEFORKANDFORKFRAMEUPFROMTHESIMULATIONONEfiNDSTHATTHETRACKOFTHEFORKANDFORKFRAMEISASTRAIGHTLINELARTOTHEGROUNDINADDITION,WITHOUTTHEMASTSYSTEM,THEDRIVERHASABETTERVISIONFORWARDSANDBACKWARDSKINDOFLIFTINGMECHANISMCONSISTSOFTHEflEXIBLECABLEDRIVEANDRIGIDBODYGUIDANCEWITHBETTERSTRUCTURALPERFORMANCESNMANIPULATORSHAVEBEENWIDELYINVESTIGATEDINAPPLICATIONSFORTHEIRUNIQUEADVANTAGESSUCHASLOWINERTIA,LIGHTANDSOON10ITISNOTDIFfiCULTTOfiNDTHATTHEWEIGHTOFGOODSISSUPPORTEDMOSTLYBYTHECABLESTHEREFORE,THEENTFORSTRENGTHANDSTIFFNESSOFTHELIFTGUIDANCEMECHANISMISLOWER,ANDTHEWEIGHTOFITCANBEDECREASEDASARESULTE,COMPAREDWITHCOMPONENTSOFTHEGENERALFORKLIFTTRUCKS,SUCHASCYLINDER,CHAINS,CHAINWHEELSANDTHEMASTSYSTEM,OFLIFTINGMECHANISMUTILIZESWINDLASS,CABLESANDSEVERALCONNECTINGRODSTHEIRWEIGHTISLOWERANDTHEGRAVITYCENTEROFMOVESBACKWARDSCONSEQUENTLY,THEWEIGHTOFREAREQUILIBRATORISGREATLYDECREASEDANDTHEWHOLEWEIGHTOFTHETRUCKMUCHLOWERSOTHEPROPOSEDFORKLIFTTRUCKREDUCESENERGYCONSUMPTIONANDIMPROVESTHEFUELECONOMYOFTHEVEHICLE

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