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外文翻译--基于充气橡胶袋的一个灵活机械手的设计和可行性测试 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--基于充气橡胶袋的一个灵活机械手的设计和可行性测试 英文版.pdf

INTERNATIONALJOURNALOFMACHINETOOLSMANUFACENGINEERINACCEPTED5DECEMBEINFLATIONWASDESIGNED,ANALYZED,BUILTANDTESTEDPARAMETRICFEANALYSESWERECONDUCTEDTOINVESTIGATETHEEFFECTSOFPROCESSANDDESIGNPARAMETERS,SUCHASRUBBERMATERIAL,PRESSURE,INITIALJAWDISPLACEMENTANDFRICTIONBASEDONTHEFEARESULTS,ASIMPLE,SINGLERUBBERMATERIALSWHENEVERTHEYARENOTPROCESSEDHUMANHANDSHAVEBEENTHEMOSTCOMMON,VERSATILE,EFFECTIVEANDTHECOSTOFGRIPPERSMAYBEASHIGHAS20OFAROBOT’SCOST,DEPENDINGONTHEAPPLICATIONANDPARTCOMPLEXITY1FORMANUFACTURINGSYSTEMSWHEREFLEXIBILITYISDESIRED,THEMANUFACTURINGCOMPANIESAREREQUIREDTOMEETCONTINUOUSLYCHANGINGDEMANDSINTERMSOFPRODUCTVOLUME,MOSTGRIPPERSWEREDESIGNEDFORDEDICATEDTASKS,ANDCOULDNOTBEREVISEDFOROTHERSHAPE,SIZEANDWEIGHTCONDITIONSLATERON,AVARIETYOFFLEXIBLEGRIPPERDESIGNSWEREARTICLEINPRESSSUGGESTEDTOOVERCOMESUCHDRAWBACKSBUTTHEIRHIGHCOSTWASABARRIERINADDITIONTOMAINTENANCEISSUESANDLIMITATIONSTOFEWMATERIALSANDAPPLICATIONSDESPITESUCH08906955/SEEFRONTMATTERR2005ELSEVIERLTDALLRIGHTSRESERVEDDOI101016/JIJMACHTOOLS200510009C3CORRESPONDINGAUTHORTEL7347637119;FAX6465147590EMAILADDRESSMKOCUMICHEDUMKOCDELICATEFORMOFMATERIALHANDLINGBUT,FORREPETITIVECYCLES,HEAVYLOADSANDUNDEREXTREMEENVIRONMENTS,GRIPPERSHADTOBEDEVELOPEDTOSUBSTITUTEFORHUMANHANDSINTHE1960S,AFTERTHEEMERGENCEOFMODERNROBOTS,GRIPPERSREPLACEDHUMANHANDSONNUMEROUSOCCASIONSROBOTGRIPPERSYSTEMSAREFOUNDTOBEEFFECTIVEFORREPETITIVEMATERIALHANDLINGFUNCTIONSINSPITEOFTHEIRINITIALCAPITALANDONGOINGMAINTENANCEEXPENSESBECAUSEOFTHEIRRELIABILITY,ENDURANCEANDPRODUCTIVITYHOWEVER,VARIETYANDRAPIDRESPONSE‘‘FLEXIBLEANDRECONFIGURABLEMANUFACTURINGSYSTEMSFMSANDRMS’’HAVEEMERGEDASASCIENCEANDINDUSTRIALPRACTICETOBRINGABOUTSOLUTIONSFORUNPREDICTABLEANDFREQUENTLYCHANGINGMARKETCONDITIONS2INORDERTOFULLYREALIZETHEBENEFITSOFRMSANDFMS,THEGRIPPERS,BEINGONEOFTHEFEWDIRECTCONTACTSWITHTHEPRODUCTATTHEVERYBOTTOMOFTHEMANUFACTURINGCHAIN,MUSTALSOBEDESIGNEDFORFLEXIBILITYINTHEEARLYDAYSOFROBOTICTECHNOLOGYAPPLICATIONS,UNDERSTANDINGABOUTTHECAPABILITYANDLIMITATIONSOFTHEGRIPPERITWASFOUNDTHATOBJECTSWITHDIFFERENTSHAPESCYLINDRICAL,PRISMATICANDCOMPLEX,WEIGHT50G–20KG,ANDTYPESEGG,STEELHEMISPHERES,WAXCYLINDERS,ETCCOULDBEPICKEDANDPLACEDWITHOUTANYLOSSOFCONTROLOFTHEOBJECTTHERANGEOFPOSITIONINGERRORFORTWODIFFERENTPARTSHAPESIE,PRISMATICORCYLINDRICALWASFOUNDTOBE20–90MMTRANSLATIONALAND003–091ROTATIONALR2005ELSEVIERLTDALLRIGHTSRESERVEDKEYWORDSGRIPPERDESIGN;STRATEGIES;FLEXIBLE;SELECTION;ROBOTIC;RUBBER1INTRODUCTIONAGRIPPERISANENDOFARMTOOLINGUSEDONROBOTSFORGRASPING,HOLDING,LIFTING,MOVINGANDCONTROLLINGOFCOSTOFASUITABLEGRIPPERMAYEVENGOHIGHERSINCETHEYREQUIREADDITIONALCONTROLS,SENSORSANDDESIGNNEEDSWITHREGARDSTOBEINGABLETOHANDLEDIFFERENTPARTSINTHE21STCENTURY,UNDERTHEINFLUENCESOFGLOBALIZATION,POCKETEDFLEXIBLEGRIPPERWASDESIGNEDANDBUILTFEASIBILITYEXPERIMENTSWEREPERFORMEDTODEMONSTRATEANDOBTAINANOVERALLDESIGNANDFEASIBILITYTESTSOFINFLATABLERUBBERHOCHOI,MUAMMERNSFERCONRECONFIGURABLEMANUFACTURINGSYSTEMS,COLLEGEOFRECEIVED30JANUARY2005;AVAILABLEONLINEABSTRACTINTHISPAPER,WEPRESENTFEASIBILITYTESTRESULTSOFAFLEXIBLEGRIPPERCONTROLSTRATEGIESOFTHEEXISTINGGRIPPERSAFLEXIBLEGRIPPERBASEDTURE4620061350–1361AFLEXIBLEGRIPPERBASEDONPOCKETSKOCC3G,UNIVERSITYOFMICHIGAN,ANNARBOR,MI48109,USA19OCTOBER2005R2005DESIGNFOLLOWINGALITERATURESURVEYONVARIOUSTYPES,DESIGNANDONTHEUSEOFCOMPLIANTMATERIALSIE,RUBBERWITHPNEUMATICWWWELSEVIERCOM/LOCATE/IJMACTOOLARTICLEINPRESSDRAWBACKS,COSTEFFECTIVE‘‘FLEXIBLEGRIPPERDESIGNS’’HAVEBEENALWAYSSOUGHTASAVIABLESOLUTIONFORAGILEMATERIALHANDLINGSYSTEMSASANIMPORTANTELEMENTOFTHEENVISIONEDFMSANDRMSFOREXAMPLE,ASSEMBLYOPERATIONSINMANYINDUSTRIESMAKEEXTENSIVEUSEOFDEDICATEDGRIPPERSANDFIXTURESTHESEAREPARTSPECIFIC,ANDTHEREFORE,MUSTBEMODIFIEDORREPLACEDWHENMODELCHANGESAREINTRODUCEDTHECOSTOFREDESIGNING,MANUFACTURING,ANDINSTALLINGTHESEGRIPPERSANDFIXTURESISSUBSTANTIALONTHEORDEROF100MILLIONPERPLANTPERYEARFORAUTOMOTIVEMANUFACTURERSANDWOULDBESIGNIFICANTLYREDUCEDIFAMOREFLEXIBLEALTERNATIVEWASDEVELOPEDINTHISPAPER,FOLLOWINGANEXTENSIVEREVIEWANDDISCUSSIONONDIFFERENTGRIPPERTYPESANDDESIGNISSUESINTHEFIRSTSECTION,AFLEXIBLEGRIPPERDESIGNBASEDONTHEUSEOFCOMPLIANTMATERIALSANDINTERNALPRESSUREIE,INFLATABLERUBBERPOCKETSAPPROACHISINTRODUCEDINTHESECONDPARTTHISTYPEOFGRIPPERSCONFORMSTOTHESHAPEOFANOBJECTBYMEANSOFELASTICGRIPPINGELEMENTSANDPRESSURIZATIONWITHACTIVEDEGREESOFFREEDOMINTHETHIRDSECTION,THERESULTSOFAPARAMETRICFEASTUDYAREPRESENTEDTOCHARACTERIZETHEPERFORMANCEOFTHESELECTEDCONFIGURATIONSOFTHEFLEXIBLEGRIPPERUNDERDIFFERENTLOADINGANDPARTCONDITIONSTODETERMINETHEPROPERPARAMETERSSETTINGANDTHEMATERIALFINALLY,INTHEFOURTHSECTION,FOLLOWINGTHEPROTOTYPING,FEASIBILITYTESTSCONDUCTEDTOCHARACTERIZETHELIMITSANDCAPABILITIESOFTHEFLEXIBLEGRIPPERAREEXPLAINED2LITERATURESURVEYONGRIPPERDESIGNANDTYPES21DESIGNMETHODOLOGYOFGRIPPERSWRIGHTETAL3COMPAREDTHEGRIPPERSTOTHEHUMANGRASPINGSYSTEM,ANDCATEGORIZEDTHEDESIGNREQUIREMENTSOFGRIPPERSINTOACOMPATIBILITYWITHTHEROBOTARMANDCONTROLLER,BSECUREGRASPINGANDHOLDINGOFTHEOBJECTS,ANDCACCURATECOMPLETIONOFTHEHANDLINGTASKMANYINDUSTRIALEXAMPLESOFGRIPPERSWEREALSODESCRIBED,ANDTHEGUIDELINESFORGRIPPERDESIGNWEREPRESENTEDPHAMETAL1SUMMARIZEDTHESTRATEGIESFORDESIGNANDSELECTIONOFGRIPPERSINDIFFERENTAPPLICATIONCASESINTHEIRSTUDY,THEVARIABLESAFFECTINGTHESELECTIONOFAGRIPPERWERELISTEDASACOMPONENT,BTASK,CENVIRONMENT,DROBOTARMANDCONTROLCONDITIONSTHECOMPONENTVARIABLESINCLUDEGEOMETRY,SHAPE,SIZE,WEIGHT,SURFACEQUALITYANDTEMPERATUREOFOBJECTSTOBEHANDLEDFORRECONFIGURABLESYSTEMS,THEYDIVIDEDTHESECOMPONENTSINTOPARTFAMILIESACCORDINGTOTHEIRSHAPEANDSIZEFORTHETASKVARIABLES,TYPEOFGRIPPER,NUMBEROFDIFFERENTPARTS,ACCURACY,ANDCYCLEWERECONSIDEREDINADDITIONTOMAJORHANDLINGOPERATIONSSUCHASPICK,HOLD,MOVEANDPLACEFORTHERIGHTGRIPPERDESIGNATTHERIGHTPLACE,ALLASPECTSSHOULDBECONSIDERED,ANDMULTIPLEVALIDATIONTESTSSHOULDBECONDUCTEDTOREDUCETHISEXHAUSTIVEEFFORT,PHAMETAL4DEVELOPEDANEXPERTSYSTEMFORSELECTINGROBOTGRIPPERSTHEYBUILTAHCHOI,MKOC/INTERNATIONALJOURNALOFMACHINEHYBRIDEXPERTSYSTEMTHATEMPLOYSBOTHRULEBASEDANDOBJECTORIENTEDPROGRAMMINGAPPROACHES22GRIPPERTYPESANDCLASSIFICATIONBYDRIVINGFORCEGRIPPERSCOULDBEALSOCLASSIFIEDWITHRESPECTTOTHEIRPURPOSE,SIZE,LOAD,ANDDRIVINGFORCETYPICALLY,GRIPPERMECHANISMSANDMAJORFEATURESAREDEFINEDBYTHEIRDRIVINGFORCESTHEDRIVINGFORCESFORROBOTGRIPPERSAREUSUALLYELECTRIC,PNEUMATIC,HYDRAULIC;ORINSOMECASES,VACUUM,MAGNETORHEOLOGICALFLUIDANDSHAPEMEMORY,ETCGRIPPERSWITHELECTRICMOTORSHAVEBEENUSEDSINCE1960,ABREASTWITHROBOTTECHNOLOGYMANYOTHERGRIPPERSADOPTEDMOTORDRIVENMECHANISMSBASICALLY,THISTYPEOFSYSTEMSINCLUDEDSTEPMOTORS,BALLSCREWS,ENCODERS,SENSORSANDCONTROLLERSASTHEARMSAPPROACHTHEOBJECT,DISTANCE,FORCE,WEIGHTANDSLIPAREDETECTEDBYSENSORSATTHESAMETIME,ACONTROLLERREGULATESTHEFORCE,SPEED,POSITIONANDMOTIONFRIEDRICHETAL5DEVELOPEDSENSORYGRIPPINGSYSTEMFORVARIABLEPRODUCTSTHEYUSEDMULTIPLESENSORSTOMEASURETHEGRASPINGFORCE,WEIGHTANDSLIPMASONETAL6ANDKERRETAL7PRESENTEDTHEFUNDAMENTALSOFGRASPINGWITHMULTIFINGEREDHANDSLEEETAL8COMPREHENSIVELYREVIEWEDTHEFIELDOFTACTILESENSINGFORCONTACTANDSLIP,TREMBLAYETAL9CONSIDEREDSLIPDETECTION,ANDHOWLEGETAL10DIVIDEDSLIPINTOFOURSTAGES;PRESLIPTENSION,SLIPSTART,POSTMOVEMENT,ANDSTOPTOBETTERANALYZEGRASPINGOFPARTSANOTHERWAYOFACTUATINGTHEROBOTGRIPPERISTHROUGHPNEUMATICORHYDRAULICSYSTEMSPNEUMATICSYSTEMSHAVEBEENDEVELOPEDBECAUSEOFTHEIRSIMPLICITY,CLEANLINESSANDCOSTEFFECTIVENESSWARNECKEETAL11ANDWRIGHTETAL3DEVELOPEDASOFTPNEUMATICGRIPPERWHICHCANHANDLESOFTMATERIALSSUCHASEGGSOTTAVIANOETAL12DEVELOPEDGRASPFORCECONTROLINTWOFINGERGRIPPERSWITHPNEUMATICACTUATIONTHEYPROPOSEDFORCECONTROLINATWOFINGERGRIPPERWITHASENSINGSYSTEMUSINGCOMMERCIALFORCESENSORSASUITABLEMODELOFTHECONTROLSCHEMEHASBEENDESIGNEDTOCONTROLTHEGRASPINGFORCEEXPERIMENTSSHOWEDTHEPRACTICALFEASIBILITYOFTWOFINGERGRIPPERSWITHFORCECONTROLLEDPNEUMATICACTUATION12LANEETAL13USEDHYDRAULICFORCEFORASUBSEAROBOTHANDTHEYOFFEREDNATURALPASSIVECOMPLIANCETOCORRECTFORINEVITABLEPOSITIONINGINACCURACYWITHSIMPLEDESIGNANDMINIMUMMOVINGPARTSTHEGRIPPERFINGERRELIEDONTHEELASTICDEFORMATIONOFCYLINDRICALMETALBELLOWSWITHTHINCONVOLUTEDWALLSTHECONVOLUTIONENSUREDTHATTHEASSEMBLYWASSIGNIFICANTLYSTIFFERINTHERADIALDIRECTIONTHANTHELONGITUDINALONETHEREFORELONGITUDINALEXTENSIONWASMUCHGREATERTHANRADIALEXPANSIONWHENSUBJECTEDTOINTERNALHYDRAULICPRESSURETHEMODULARFINGERTIPCONTAINEDAVARIETYOFSENSORSANDINTERFACESTHEFINGERTIPCONTACTZONECONTAINSBOTHASTRAINGAGEANDAPIEZOELECTRICVIBRATIONSENSORCLOSEDLOOPPOSITIONCONTROLWASUSEDITWASDRIVENBYHYDRAULICPRESSUREMEASUREDFROMSENSORSWITHINEACHTUBE13GRIPPERSBASEDONVACUUMFORCESAREDESIGNEDANDUSEDMAINLYFORDEFORMABLEANDLIGHTWEIGHTPARTHANDLINGTOOLSMANUFACTURE4620061350–13611351KOLLURUETAL14–17,FOREXAMPLE,USEDSUCTIONBASEDCONTROLFORHANDLINGLIMPMATERIALWITHOUTDISTORTION,DEFORMATIONORDAMAGETHEYDEVELOPEDAFIXEDSIZEDGRIPPERANDALSOARECONFIGURABLEGRIPPERSYSTEMWITHSUCTIONUNITSASENSORBASEDCONTROLSYSTEMBASEDONTHEHIERARCHICALCONTROLARCHITECTURECONTROLLEDTHEOPERATIONOFTHEROBOTICGRIPPERSYSTEMFIXEDDIMENSIONGRIPPERSWEREDEVELOPEDFORSTACKINGDISSIMILARSIZEDPANELSOFCLOTHESAFUZZYCONTROLLERCOMPUTESTHENEEDEDSUCTIONANDCONTROLDEPENDINGONMATERIALPOROSITY,WEIGHT,ROBOTSPEED,ANDTRAVELDISTANCERONGETAL18PRESENTEDFLEXIBLEFIXTURESBASEDONTHEUSEOFPHASECHANGINGMATERIALSTHATCHANGETHEPHASEFROMLIQUIDTOSOLIDUPONAPPLICATIONOFELECTRICITYORELECTROMAGNETISMKNOWNASMAGNETORHEOLOGICALMRFLUIDBERTETTOETAL19MADEATWODEGREEOFFREEDOMPASSIVECLOSUREANDACTIVECLOSUREPASSIVECLOSUREWASDIVIDEDINTOPASSIVEFORMCLOSUREANDPASSIVEFORCECLOSURETHEYSTUDIEDCONDITIONSFORTHESECLOSURESTOHOLDANOBJECTSECURELY21WALLACKETAL22DEVELOPEDANALGORITHMFORPLANNINGPLANARGRASPCONFIGURATIONFORTHEMODULARVISEBROWNETAL23EXPANDEDTHATWORKTOPRODUCEA3DFIXTUREANDGRIPPERDESIGNTOOLTHEYDESCRIBEDSEVERALANALYSES,ANDADDEDA2DALGORITHM,3DGRASPQUALITYANDGEOMETRICLOADINGANALYSESTHEYSHOWEDSOMEAPPLICATIONSANDPOTENTIALUSESOFTHEIRCODEINANAGILEASSEMBLYLINE23QIANETAL24PRESENTEDANEFFICIENTALGORITHMFORCOMPUTINGOBJECTPOSESINAMODULARFIXTUREGRIPPERTHEYINTRODUCEDEFFICIENTALGORITHMSFORCOMPUTINGPOSESOFGIVENOBJECTSTHECOMPUTERPROGRAMARTICLEINPRESSMOVABLEHCHOI,MKOC/INTERNATIONALJOURNALOFMACHINETOOLSMANUFACTURE4620061350–13611352GRIPPERACTUATEDBYSHAPEMEMORYALLOYSMAWITHAFLEXUREHINGEINMICROSCALETHEYDESIGNEDNI–TISMAGRIPPERANDTHETESTSHOWEDTOBEABLETOREA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