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外文翻译--实时自适应运动规划 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--实时自适应运动规划 英文版.pdf

IEEETRANSACTIONSONROBOTICS,VOL24,NO5,OCTOBER20081199REALTIMEADAPTIVEMOTIONPLANNINGRAMPOFMOBILEMANIPULATORSINDYNAMICENVIRONMENTSWITHUNFORESEENCHANGESJOHNVANNOYANDJINGXIAO,SENIORMEMBER,IEEEABSTRACTTHISPAPERINTRODUCESANOVELANDGENERALREALTIMEADAPTIVEMOTIONPLANNINGRAMPAPPROACHSUITABLEFORPLANNINGTRAJECTORIESOFHIGHDOFORREDUNDANTROBOTS,SUCHASMOBILEMANIPULATORS,INDYNAMICENVIRONMENTSWITHMOVINGOBSTACLESOFUNKNOWNTRAJECTORIESTHERAMPAPPROACHENABLESSIMULTANEOUSPATHANDTRAJECTORYPLANNINGANDSIMULTANEOUSPLANNINGANDEXECUTIONOFMOTIONINREALTIMEITFACILITATESREALTIMEOPTIMIZATIONOFTRAJECTORIESUNDERVARIOUSOPTIMIZATIONCRITERIA,SUCHASMINIMIZINGENERGYANDTIMEANDMAXIMIZINGMANIPULABILITYITALSOACCOMMODATESPARTIALLYSPECIFIEDTASKGOALSOFROBOTSEASILYTHEAPPROACHEXPLOITSREDUNDANCYINREDUNDANTROBOTSSUCHASLOCOMOTIONVERSUSMANIPULATIONINAMOBILEMANIPULATORTHROUGHLOOSECOUPLINGOFROBOTCONFIGURATIONVARIABLESTOBESTACHIEVEOBSTACLEAVOIDANCEANDOPTIMIZATIONOBJECTIVESTHERAMPAPPROACHHASBEENIMPLEMENTEDANDTESTEDINSIMULATIONOVERADIVERSESETOFTASKENVIRONMENTS,INCLUDINGENVIRONMENTSWITHMULTIPLEMOBILEMANIPULATORSTHERESULTSANDALSOTHEACCOMPANYINGVIDEOSHOWTHATTHERAMPPLANNER,WITHITSHIGHEFFICIENCYANDFLEXIBILITY,NOTONLYHANDLESASINGLEMOBILEMANIPULATORWELLINDYNAMICENVIRONMENTSWITHVARIOUSOBSTACLESOFUNKNOWNMOTIONSINADDITIONTOSTATICOBSTACLES,BUTCANALSOREADILYANDEFFECTIVELYPLANMOTIONSFOREACHMOBILEMANIPULATORINANENVIRONMENTSHAREDBYMULTIPLEMOBILEMANIPULATORSANDOTHERMOVINGOBSTACLESINDEXTERMSADAPTIVE,DYNAMICOBSTACLESOFUNKNOWNMOTION,LOOSECOUPLING,MOBILEMANIPULATORS,PARTIALLYSPECIFIEDGOAL,REALTIME,REDUNDANTROBOTS,TRAJECTORYOPTIMIZATIONIINTRODUCTIONMOTIONPLANNINGISAFUNDAMENTALPROBLEMINROBOTICS1,2CONCERNEDWITHDEVISINGADESIRABLEMOTIONFORAROBOTTOREACHAGOALMOTIONPLANNINGFORHIGHDOFARTICULATEDMANIPULATORSORMOBILEMANIPULATORSISMORECHALLENGINGTHANFORMOBILEROBOTSBECAUSETHEHIGHDIMENSIONALCONFIGURATIONSPACEOFAROBOTHASLITTLEORNORESEMBLANCETOTHEPHYSICALSPACETHATTHEROBOTWORKSIN,ANDHOWTOCONSTRUCTMANUSCRIPTRECEIVEDMAY16,2007;REVISEDDECEMBER13,2007ANDMARCH5,2008FIRSTPUBLISHEDOCTOBER10,2008;CURRENTVERSIONPUBLISHEDOCTOBER31,2008THISPAPERWASRECOMMENDEDFORPUBLICATIONBYASSOCIATEEDITORKYAMANEANDEDITORLPARKERUPONEVALUATIONOFTHEREVIEWERS’COMMENTSAPRELIMINARYPARTOFTHISPAPERWASPRESENTEDATTHEIEEEINTERNATIONALCONFERENCEONINTELLIGENTROBOTSANDSYSTEMS,SENDAI,JAPAN,2004THEAUTHORSAREWITHTHEINTELLIGENT,MULTIMEDIAANDINTERACTIVESYSTEMSIMILABORATORY,DEPARTMENTOFCOMPUTERSCIENCE,UNIVERSITYOFNORTHCAROLINAATCHARLOTTE,CHARLOTTE,NC28223USAEMAILJMVANNOYGMAILCOM;XIAOUNCCEDUTHISPAPERHASSUPPLEMENTARYDOWNLOADABLEMATERIALAVAILABLEATHTTP//IEEEXPLOREIEEEORG,PROVIDEDBYTHEAUTHORSAVIDEOSHOWINGTHEREALTIMEPLANNINGANDEXECUTIONOFMOBILEMANIPULATORMOTIONBYOURRAMPALGORITHMTHISVIDEOIS14MBINSIZECOLORVERSIONSOFONEORMOREOFTHEFIGURESINTHISPAPERAREAVAILABLEONLINEATHTTP//IEEEXPLOREIEEEORGDIGITALOBJECTIDENTIFIER101109/TRO20082003277ACONFIGURATIONSPACEHIGHERTHANTHREEDIMENSIONSEFFICIENTLYREMAINSALARGELYUNSOLVEDPROBLEMARELATEDRESEARCHONMOTIONPLANNINGRANDOMIZEDALGORITHMS,SUCHASTHEPOPULARPROBABILISTICROADMAPPRMMETHOD3ANDRAPIDLYEXPLORINGRANDOMTREERRTMETHOD4,AREFOUNDTOBEVERYEFFECTIVEINFINDINGACOLLISIONFREEPATHFORAROBOTWITHHIGHDOFSOFFLINEBECAUSESUCHALGORITHMSAVOIDBUILDINGTHEROBOT’SCONFIGURATIONSPACEEXPLICITLYBYSAMPLINGTHECONFIGURATIONSPACETHEPRMMETHODHASINSPIREDCONSIDERABLEWORKONIMPROVINGSAMPLINGANDROADMAPCONSTRUCTION2,INCLUDINGARECENTPAPER5ONPRODUCINGCOMPACTROADMAPSTOBETTERCAPTURETHEDIFFERENTHOMOTOPICPATHGROUPSBYBUILDINGATREERATHERTHANAGRAPH,THERRTMETHODISMORESUITABLEFORGENERATINGAPATHINONESHOTORGENERATINGATRAJECTORYDIRECTLYANDTHUSMORESUITABLEFORONLINEOPERATION6BOTHMETHODSHAVESEENMANYVARIANTS2THEREAREALSOMETHODSFORPATHPLANNINGBASEDONGENETICALGORITHMSGAS,ORMOREBROADLY,EVOLUTIONARYCOMPUTATION7,8,WHICHAREGENERALFRAMEWORKSOFRANDOMIZEDSEARCHSUBJECTTOUSERDEFINEDOPTIMIZATIONCRITERIASUCHOPTIMIZATIONTECHNIQUESHAVEBEENUSEDWIDELYANDSUCCESSFULLYINMANYAPPLICATIONDOMAINS8,9TOTACKLENPHARDOPTIMIZATIONPROBLEMSTHEREARETWOMAJORWAYSOFAPPLICATIONSONESTRAIGHTFORWARDWAYISTOMAPAPROBLEMINTOTHEFORMSUITABLEFORASTANDARD,OFFTHESHELFGA,SOLVEITBYRUNNINGTHEGA,ANDTHEN,MAPTHERESULTSBACKTOTHEAPPLICATIONDOMAINTHISONESIZEFITALLAPPROACHISOFTENNOTEFFECTIVEBECAUSEITFORCESARTIFICIALTRANSFORMATIONOFAPROBLEMINTOSOMETHINGELSETHATISCONFINEDINTHEFORMATOFASTANDARDGABUTMAYLOSECERTAINIMPORTANTNATUREOFTHEORIGINALPROBLEMSOMEGABASEDPATHPLANNINGMETHODS10,11ADOPTSUCHANAPPROACH,WHERECSPACEISDISCRETIZEDINTOAGRID,ANDAPATHISINTERMSOFAFIXEDLENGTHSEQUENCEOFGRIDPOINTSASTHESTANDARDGAOPERATESONFIXEDLENGTHBITSTRINGS,SEARCHISOFTENVERYSLOWAMOREEFFECTIVEAPPROACHISTOADOPTTHEGENERALIDEAOFEVOLUTIONARYCOMPUTATIONTOSOLVEAPROBLEMINAMORENATURALANDSUITABLEREPRESENTATIONTHEPATHPLANNINGMETHODSREPORTEDIN12–14BELONGTOSUCHACUSTOMIZEDAPPROACHAREALTIMEPATHPLANNINGMETHODISREPORTEDIN12FOR2DOFPOINTMOBILEROBOTS,WHICHISEXTENDEDIN13FOR3DOFPOINTFLYINGROBOTSWITHSPECIFICCONSTRAINTSAMULTIRESOLUTIONPATHREPRESENTATIONISPROPOSEDIN14FORPATHPLANNINGHOWEVER,ALLEVOLUTIONARYALGORITHMSHAVEANUMBEROFPARAMETERSTHATMUSTBESETAPPROPRIATELY,WHICHISOFTENNOTATRIVIALTASK15523098/25002008IEEE1200IEEETRANSACTIONSONROBOTICS,VOL24,NO5,OCTOBER2008UNLIKEPATHPLANNING,MOTIONPLANNINGHASTOPRODUCEANEXECUTABLETRAJECTORYFORAROBOTINCONFIGURATIONTIMESPACE,ORCTSPACE,ANDNOTMERELYAGEOMETRICALPATHACOMMONAPPROACHISTOCONDUCTTRAJECTORYPLANNINGONTHEBASISOFAPATHGENERATEDBYAPATHPLANNERANOTABLEFRAMEWORKISTHEELASTICSTRIPMETHOD15,WHICHCANDEFORMATRAJECTORYFORAROBOTLOCALLYTOAVOIDMOVINGOBSTACLESINSIDEACOLLISIONFREE“TUNNEL”THATCONNECTSTHEINITIALANDGOALLOCATIONSOFTHEROBOTINA3DWORKSPACESUCHA“TUNNEL”ISGENERATEDFROMADECOMPOSITIONBASEDPATHPLANNINGSTRATEGY16THEOTHERAPPROACHISTOCONDUCTPATHANDTRAJECTORYPLANNINGSIMULTANEOUSLYHOWEVER,MOSTEFFORTINTHISCATEGORYISFOCUSEDONOFFLINEALGORITHMSASSUMINGTHATTHEENVIRONMENTISCOMPLETELYKNOWNBEFOREHAND,IE,STATICOBJECTSAREKNOWN,ANDMOVINGOBJECTSAREKNOWNWITHKNOWNTRAJECTORIES17–20ASFORDEALINGWITHUNKNOWNMOVINGOBSTACLES,ONLYRECENTLYSOMEMETHODSWEREINTRODUCEDFORMOBILEROBOTS21,22THECOMBINATIONOFMOBILITYANDMANIPULATIONCAPABILITYMAKESAMOBILEMANIPULATORAPPLICABLETOAMUCHWIDERRANGEOFTASKSTHANAFIXEDBASEMANIPULATORORAMOBILEROBOTFORAMOBILEMANIPULATOR,ATASKGOALSTATEISOFTENPARTIALLYSPECIFIEDASEITHERACONFIGURATIONOFTHEENDEFFECTOR,WHICHWECALLAPLACETOPLACETASK,ORADESIREDPATHORTRAJECTORYOFTHEENDEFFECTOR,WHICHWECALLACONTOURFOLLOWINGTASK,ANDTHETARGETLOCATION/PATHOFTHEBASEISOFTENUNSPECIFIEDHERE,AMAJORISSUEOFMOTIONPLANNINGISTHECOORDINATIONOFTHEMOBILEBASEANDTHEMANIPULATORTHISISSUE,ASITINVOLVESREDUNDANCYRESOLUTION,PRESENTSBOTHCHALLENGESANDOPPORTUNITIESTHEREEXISTSARICHLITERATUREADDRESSINGTHISISSUEFROMMANYASPECTSSOMERESEARCHERSTREATTHEMANIPULATORANDTHEMOBILEBASETOGETHERASAREDUNDANTROBOTINPLANNINGITSPATHFORPLACETOPLACETASKS23–25SOMEFOCUSEDONPLANNINGASEQUENCEOF“COMMUTATIONCONFIGURATIONS”FORTHEMOBILEBASEWHENTHEROBOTWASTOPERFORMASEQUENCEOFTASKS26,27SUBJECTTOVARIOUSCONSTRAINTSANDOPTIMIZATIONCRITERIAOTHERSFOCUSEDONCOORDINATINGTHECONTROLOFTHEMOBILEBASEANDTHEMANIPULATORINACONTOURFOLLOWINGTASK28,29BYTRYINGTOPOSITIONTHEMOBILEBASETOMAXIMIZEMANIPULABILITYMANYCONSIDEREDNONHOLONOMICCONSTRAINTSWHILEMOSTOFTHEEXISTINGWORKASSUMESKNOWNENVIRONMENTSWITHKNOWNOBSTACLESFORAMOBILEMANIPULATOR,AFEWRESEARCHERSCONSIDEREDLOCALCOLLISIONAVOIDANCEOFUNKNOWN,MOVINGOBSTACLESONLINEONEMETHOD30USEDRRTASALOCALPLANNERTOUPDATEAROADMAPORIGINALLYGENERATEDBYPRMTODEALWITHMOVINGOBSTACLESFORCONTOURFOLLOWINGTASKS,ANEFFICIENTMETHOD31ALLOWSTHEBASETOADJUSTITSPATHTOAVOIDAMOVINGOBSTACLEIFPOSSIBLEWHILEKEEPINGTHEENDEFFECTORFOLLOWINGACONTOUR,SUCHASASTRAIGHTLINEANOTHERMETHOD29ALLOWEDTHEBASETOPAUSEINORDERTOLETANUNEXPECTEDOBSTACLEPASSWHILETHEARMCONTINUEDITSCONTOURFOLLOWINGMOTIONUNDERANEVENTBASEDCONTROLSCHEMEOTHERMETHODSINCLUDEONEBASEDONPOTENTIALFIELD32TOAVOIDUNKNOWNOBSTACLESANDONEBASEDONANEUROFUZZYCONTROLLER33TOMODIFYTHEBASEMOTIONLOCALLYTOAVOIDAMOVINGOBSTACLESTABLYTHEREISALSOANONLINEPLANNERFORTHESPECIALPURPOSEOFPLANNINGTHEMOTIONSOFTWOROBOTARMSGETTINGPARTSFROMACONVEYERBELT34HOWEVER,WEARENOTAWAREOFANYEXISTINGWORKTHATCANPLANMOTIONSOFHIGHDOFROBOTSGLOBALLYAMONGMANYUNKNOWNDYNAMICOBSTACLESBOURPROBLEMANDAPPROACHPLANNINGHIGHDOFROBOTMOTIONINSUCHANENVIRONMENTOFMANYUNKNOWNDYNAMICOBSTACLESPOSESSPECIALCHALLENGESFIRST,PLANNINGHASTOBEDONEINREALTIME,CANNOTBEDONEOFFLINE,ANDCANNOTBEBASEDONACERTAINPREBUILTMAPBECAUSETHEENVIRONMENTISCONSTANTLYCHANGINGINUNFORESEENWAYS,IE,THECONFIGURATIONSPACEOBSTACLESAREUNKNOWNANDCHANGINGEXAMPLESOFSUCHENVIRONMENTSINCLUDEALARGEPUBLICSQUAREFULLOFPEOPLEMOVINGINDIFFERENTWAYS,AWAREHOUSEFULLOFBUSYMOVINGROBOTSANDHUMANWORKERS,ANDSOONSUCHANENVIRONMENTISVERYDIFFERENTFROMSTATICORLARGELYSTATICENVIRONMENTSORKNOWNDYNAMICENVIRONMENTSIE,WITHOTHEROBJECTTRAJECTORIESKNOWN,WHEREMOTIONPLANNINGCANREASONABLYRELYONEXPLORINGCSPACEFORKNOWNSTATICENVIRONMENTSORCTSPACEFORKNOWNDYNAMICENVIRONMENTSOFFLINESUCHASBYPRMTHEELASTICSTRIPMETHODPROVIDESTHEFLEXIBILITYTOMAKESMALLADJUSTMENTSOFAROBOTMOTIONTOAVOIDUNKNOWNMOTIONSOFOBSTACLES,IFTHEUNDERLYINGTOPOLOGYOFTHECSPACEDOESNOTCHANGEFORANENVIRONMENTWITHCHANGINGCSPACETOPOLOGYINUNKNOWNWAYS,APLANNEDPATH/TRAJECTORYCANBEINVALIDATEDCOMPLETELYATANYTIME,ANDTHUS,REALTIMEADAPTIVEGLOBALPLANNINGCAPABILITYISREQUIREDFORMAKINGDRASTICCHANGESOFROBOTMOTIONPLANNINGANDEXECUTIONOFMOTIONSHOULDBESIMULTANEOUSANDBASEDONSENSINGSOTHATPLANNINGHASTOBEVERYFASTANDALWAYSABLETOADAPTTOCHANGESOFTHEENVIRONMENTBYNATURE,TOTACKLEMOTIONPLANNINGINANUNKNOWNDYNAMICENVIRONMENTCANNOTRESULTINACOMPLETEPLANNINGALGORITHMTHATIS,NOALGORITHMCANGUARANTEESUCCESSINSUCHANUNKNOWNENVIRONMENTWECANONLYSTRIVEFORARATIONALALGORITHMTHATSERVESASTHE“BESTDRIVEROFAHIGHDOFROBOT,BUTEVENTHEBESTDRIVERCANNOTGUARANTEETOBEACCIDENTFREEIFOTHERTHINGSINTHEENVIRONMENTARENOTUNDERHIS/HERCONTROLTHISPAPERADDRESSESTHEPROBLEMOFREALTIMESIMULTANEOUSPATHANDTRAJECTORYPLANNINGOFHIGHDOFROBOTS,SUCHASMOBILEMANIPULATORS,PERFORMINGGENERALPLACETOPLACETASKSINADYNAMICENVIRONMENTWITHOBSTACLEMOTIONSUNKNOWNTHEOBSTACLEMOTIONSCANOBSTRUCTEITHERTHEBASEORTHEARMORBOTHOFAMOBILEMANIPULATORWEINTRODUCEAUNIQUEANDGENERALREALTIMEADAPTIVEMOTIONPLANNINGRAMPAPPROACHOURRAMPAPPROACHISBUILTUPONBOTHTHEIDEAOFRANDOMIZEDPLANNINGANDTHATOFTHEANYTIME,PARALLEL,ANDOPTIMIZEDPLANNI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