会员注册 | 登录 | 微信快捷登录 支付宝快捷登录 QQ登录 微博登录 | 帮助中心 人人文库renrendoc.com美如初恋!
站内搜索 百度文库

热门搜索: 直缝焊接机 矿井提升机 循环球式转向器图纸 机器人手爪发展史 管道机器人dwg 动平衡试验台设计

   首页 人人文库网 > 资源分类 > PDF文档下载

外文翻译--数控机床更加开放可互操作和智能技术 英文版.pdf

  • 资源星级:
  • 资源大小:713.80KB   全文页数:12页
  • 资源格式: PDF        下载权限:注册会员/VIP会员
您还没有登陆,请先登录。登陆后即可下载此文档。
  合作网站登录: 微信快捷登录 支付宝快捷登录   QQ登录   微博登录
友情提示
2:本站资源不支持迅雷下载,请使用浏览器直接下载(不支持QQ浏览器)
3:本站资源下载后的文档和图纸-无水印,预览文档经过压缩,下载后原文更清晰   

外文翻译--数控机床更加开放可互操作和智能技术 英文版.pdf

moreS.TAuc,University10CNCSTEPNCmachinetools.ThedatamodelrepresentsacommonstandardspecificallyaimedattheintelligentCNCmanufacturingworkstation,makingtheComputersinIndustry572006goalofastandardisedCNCcontrollerandNCcodegenerationfacilityareality.ItisbelievedthatCNCmachinesimplementingSTEPNCwillbethebasisforamoreopenandadaptablearchitecture.ThispaperoutlinesafuturisticviewofSTEPNCtosupportdistributedinteroperableintelligentmanufacturingthroughglobalnetworkingwithautonomousmanufacturingworkstationswithSTEPcompliantdatainterpretation,intelligentpartprogramgeneration,diagnosticsandmaintenance,monitoringandjobproductionscheduling.2005ElsevierB.V.Allrightsreserved.KeywordsCNCInteroperabilitySTEPSTEPNC1.IntroductionFromthestartofcraftproductioninthe1800stothepioneeringmassproductionoftheearly1900stherehavebeenanumberofrevolutionarychangestomanufacturingsystemsconfigurations.Themostrecognisedtraditionalconfigurationofmanufacturingsystemswasthededicatedtransfermachineline,whichenabledmassproductionathighefficiencyandlowcost.Withtheneedofthe1970sand1980stoproduceawiderrangeofparts,flexiblemanufacturingwasdevelopedtomeettheseneedsfortheproductionofsmallerbatchesofdifferentparts.ThesesystemsusedgroupsofcomputernumericallycontrolledCNCmachinesthatcouldbereprogrammedtomakedifferentpartscombinedwithautomatedtransportsystemsandstorage.TheseCNCmachinesbecamethecentralelementsinthesystemssuchasflexibletransferlines,flexiblemanufacturingsystemsFMSandflexiblemanufacturingcellsFMC.However,theamountofflexibilityexistinginthesesystemswasstillbelievedtobelimited.Inordertopreparemanufacturingcompaniestofaceincreasinglyfrequentandunpredictablemarketchangeswithconfidence,interoperableandmoreopenmanufacturingsystemsareneeded.Intheprocessofdesigningandoperatinginteroperableandopenmanufacturingsystemsthereisaneedtodistinguishfromamongsystemlevelissues,componentleveli.e.machineandcontrolissues,andrampuptimereductionissues1,2.Mostoftheresearchefforthasbeensparedontheissuesatthesystemlevel,someatthecomponentlevelandlittleontherampuptimereductionissues.Atthecomponentlevel,researchworkhasprimarilycentredaroundthecontrolissuesconcerningmachinetools,withtheaimtoprovideenablingCNCtechnologiesformodularandopenarchitecturecontrol3,4.CNCmachinetoolsarethemaincomponentsinanymanufacturingsystem.TherearedemandsandnewopportunitiestoempowerthecurrentCNCmachineswiththemuchneededfeaturessuchasinteroperability,adaptability,agilityandreconfigurability.Tothisend,therearetwomajorissuesthatneedtobeaddressednamelyproductdatacompatibility/Correspondingauthor.Tel.6493737599x84527fax6493737479.Emailaddressx.xuauckland.ac.nzX.W.Xu.01663615/–seefrontmatter2005ElsevierB.V.Allrightsreserved.doi10.1016/j.compind.2005.06.002MakingCNCmachinetoolsintelligentareviewX.W.Xua,,aDepartmentofMechanicalEngineering,SchoolPrivateBag92019,bDepartmentofMechanicalEngineeringReceived30August2004AvailableonlineAbstractTheaimofthenextgenerationofcomputernumericallycontrolledyears,GcodesISO6983havebeenextensivelyusedbytheCNCmachinedevelopingnextgenerationofCNCmachines.Anewstandardknownasopen,interoperableandofthetechnologies.NewmanbofEngineering,TheUniversityofAuckland,kland,NewZealandofBath,Bath,BA27AY,UKaccepted7June2005October2005machinesistobeportable,interoperableandadaptable.OverthetoolsforpartprogrammingandarenowconsideredasabottleneckforisbeingdevelopedasthedatamodelforanewbreedofCNCwww.elsevier.com/locate/compind141–152rsinteroperabilityandadaptableCNCmachines.Uptillnowlittleresearchhasbeencarriedoutinthisfield,butduetothedevelopmentsofthenewCNCdatamodelknownasSTEPNC,therehasbeenasurgeofresearchactivitiesintryingtoaddresstheabovementionedissues.ThispaperreportsontheseresearchactivitiesandtriestoaddresstheissuesofinteroperabilityandadaptabilityforCNCmachinetools.2.ImpedimentsofcurrentCNCtechnologiesTodaysCNCmachinedesignsarewelldevelopedwithcapabilitiessuchasmultiaxiscontrol,errorcompensationandmultiprocessmanufacturee.g.combinedmill/turn/laserandgrindingmachines.Inthemeantime,thesecapabilitieshavemadetheprogrammingtaskincreasinglymoredifficultandmachinetoolsthemselveslessadaptable.Someefforthasbeenmadetoalleviatethisproblem,inparticularlythetrendtowardsopenarchitecturecontrol,basedonOSACA5andopenmodulararchitecturecontrollerOMAC6,wherethirdpartysoftwarecanbeusedatthecontrollerworkingwithinastandardwindowsoperatingsystem.Onefurtherrecognisableindustrialdevelopmentistheapplicationofsoftwarecontrollers,wherePLClogiciscapturedinsoftwareratherthaninhardware.AlthoughthesedevelopmentshaveimprovedsoftwaretoolsandthearchitectureofCNCsystems,vendorsandusersarestillseekingacommonlanguageforCAD,CAPP,CAM,andCNC,whichintegratesandtranslatestheknowledgeofeachstagewithnoinformationloss.ThoughtherearemanyCAMtoolssupportingNCmanufacture,theproblemofadaptabilityandinteroperabilityfromsystemtosystemwasandisstillseenasoneofthekeyissuesinlimitingthewideruseofthesetools.2.1.ProductdatacompatibilityandinteroperabilityCNCmachinetoolscompletetheproductdesignandmanufacturinglifecycle,andmoreoftenthannottheyhavetocommunicatewithupstreamsubsystems,suchasCAD,CAPPandCAM.Inthecasewhenneutraldataexchangeprotocols,suchasSET,VDA,andinitialgraphicsexchangespecificationIGESareused,informationexchangecanhappenbetweenheterogeneousCADand/orCAMsystems.ThisishoweveronlypartiallysuccessfulsincetheseprotocolsaremainlydesignedtoexchangegeometricalinformationandnottotallysuitabletoalltheneedsoftheCAD/CAPP/CAMindustry.Thus,theinternationalcommunitydevelopedtheISO103037setofstandards,wellknownasSTEP.ByimplementingSTEPAP2038andSTEPAP2149withinCADsystems,thedataexchangebarrierisremoved.Yet,dataexchangeproblemsbetweenCAD/CAMandCNCsystemsremainunsolved.CADsystemsaredesignedtodescribethegeometryofapartprecisely,whereasCAMsystemsfocusonusingcomputersystemstogenerateplansandcontrolthemanufacturingoperationsaccordingtothegeometricalinformationpresentinaCADmodelandtheexistingresourcesontheshopfloor.ThefinalresultfromaCAMsystemisasetofCNCprogramsthatcanbeexecutedonaCNCmachine.STEPX.W.Xu,S.T.Newman/Compute142AP203andSTEPAP214onlyunifytheinputdataforaCAMsystem.OntheoutputsideofaCAMsystem,a50yearoldinternationalstandardISO6983knownasGCodeorRS274D10stilldominatesthecontrolsystemsofmostCNCmachines.Outdatedyetstillwidelyused,ISO6983onlysupportsonewayinformationflowfromdesigntomanufacturing.TheCADdataarenotutilisedatamachinetool.Instead,theyareprocessedbyapostprocessoronlytoobtainasetoflowlevel,incompletedatathatmakesmodification,verificationsandsimulationdifficult.Thechangesmadeattheshopfloorcannotbedirectlyfedbacktothedesigner.Hence,invaluableexperiencesontheshopfloorcannotbepreservedandreutilised.2.2.InflexibleCNCcontrolregimeTheISO6983standardfocusesonprogrammingthepathofthecuttercentrelocationCLwithrespecttothemachineaxes,ratherthanthemachiningtaskswithrespecttothepart.Thus,ISO6983definesthesyntaxofprogramstatements,butinmostcasesleavesthesemanticsambiguous,togetherwithlowlevellimitedcontroloverprogramexecution.Theseprograms,whenprocessedinaCAMsystembyamachinespecificpostprocessor,becomemachinedependent.InordertoenhancethecapabilityofaCNCmachine,CNCcontrollervendorshavealsodevelopedtheirowntailoredcontrolcommandsetstoaddmorefeaturestotheirCNCcontrollerstoextendISO6983.Thesecommandsetsonceagainvaryfromvendortovendorresultinginfurtherincompatibledataamongthemachinetools.ThecurrentinflexibleCNCcontrolregimemeansthattheoutputfromaCAMsystemhasnoadaptability,whichinturndeniestheCNCmachinetoolsofhavinganyinteroperability.ThemainreasonisthataGcodebasedpartprogramonlycontainslowlevelinformationthatcanbedescribedashowtodoinformation.TheCNCmachinetools,nomatterhowcapabletheyare,candonothingbutfaithfullyfollowtheGcodeprogram.Itisimpossibletoperformintelligentcontrolnormachiningoptimization.3.TheSTEPNCstandardTodayanewstandardnamelyISO1464911–16recognisedinformallyasSTEPNCisbeingdevelopedbyvendors,usersandacademicinstitutesworldwidetoprovideadatamodelforanewbreedofintelligentCNCs.ThedatamodelrepresentsacommonstandardspecificallyaimedatNCprogramming,makingthegoalofastandardisedCNCcontrollerandNCcodegenerationfacilityareality.CurrentlytwoversionsofSTEPNCarebeingdevelopedbyISO.ThefirstistheApplicationReferenceModelARMi.e.ISO14649andtheotherApplicationInterpretedModelAIMofISO14649i.e.ISO10303AP23817.Formoreinformationontheuseanddifferencesbetweenthemreadersarereferredto18,19.ContrarytothecurrentNCprogrammingstandardISO6983,ISO14649isnotamethodforpartprogramminganddoesnotnormallydescribethetoolmovementsforaCNCinIndustry572006141–152machine.Instead,itprovidesanobjectorienteddatamodelforCNCswithadetailedandstructureddatainterfacethatincorporatesfeaturebasedprogrammingwherearangeofinformationisrepresentedsuchasthefeaturestobemachined,tooltypesused,theoperationstoperform,andthesequenceofoperationstofollow.ThoughitispossibletocloselydefinethemachinetooltrajectoryusingSTEPNC,theaimofthestandardistoallowthesedecisionstobemadeatalatterstagebyanewbreedofintelligentcontrollerSTEPNCcontroller.ItistheaimthatSTEPNCpartprogramsmaybewrittenonceandusedonmanydifferenttypesofmachinetoolcontrollerprovidingthemachinehastherequiredprocesscapabilities.Indoingthis,bothCNCmachinetoolsandtheircontrolprogramsaremadeadaptableandinteroperable.Fig.1illustratesthatbothgeometricandmachininginformationcannowbebidirectionallytransferredbetweenaCAD/CAMsystemandaSTEPNCcontroller20.OnecriticalissueisthatthetoolpathmovementinformationisoptionalandideallyshouldbegeneratedatthemachinebytheSTEPNCcontroller.GeometricinformationisdefinedbymachiningfeaturessimilartoAP22422withmachiningoperationstermedWorkingstepsperformedononeormorefeatures.TheseC15STEPNCprovidesacompleteandstructureddatamodel,linkedwithgeometricalandtechnologicalinformation,sothatnoinformationislostbetweenthedifferentstagesoftheproductdevelopmentprocess.C15ItsdataelementsareadequateenoughtodescribetaskorientedNCdata.C15ThedatamodelisextendabletofurthertechnologiesandscalablewithconformanceclassestomatchtheabilitiesofaspecificCAM,SFPorNC.C15MachiningtimeforsmalltomediumsizedjoblotscanbereducedbecauseintelligentoptimisationcanbebuiltintotheSTEPNCcontrollers.C15Postprocessormechanismwillbeeliminated,astheinterfacedoesnotrequiremachinespecificinformation.C15MachinetoolsaresaferandmoreadaptablebecauseSTEPNCisindependentfrommachinetoolvendors.C15ModificationattheshopfloorcanbesavedandfedbacktothedesigndepartmenthencebidirectionalinformationflowfromCAD/CAMtoCNCmachinescanbeachieved.C15XMLfilescanbeusedasaninformationcarrierhenceenableWebbaseddistributedmanufacturing.X.W.Xu,S.T.Newman/ComputersinIndustry572006141–152143WorkingstepsprovidethebasisofaWorkplantomanufacturethecomponent.Fig.2illustratesanactualextractofsuchdataforapartwithaWorkplanconsistingofWorkingstepsforslotting,drillingandpocketing.OneimportantpointtonoteisthatthiscodeistheSTEPNCtransferphysicalfile,whichisimported/exportedintoandoutofaSTEPNCintelligentcontroller.Thisfilewouldbeinterpretedbythecontroller,enablingCNCoperatorstointeractataWorkingstepi.e.machiningoperationlevelviaanintelligentmanualdatainterfaceMDIorCAD/CAMsystematthecontroller.SomeofthebenefitswithusingSTEPNCareasfollows23.Fig.1.BidirectionalinformationAdetaileddiscussiononvaluepropositionforSTEPNCcanbefoundinareportproducedbytheOMACSTEPNCWorkingGroup24andotherpublications20,23,25.4.STEPNCinternationalcommunityInthesecondhalfofthe1990s,aneffortfromtheinternationalcommunitybackedbyISOstartedthemajorchangeintheconceptofNCprogramming,throughaninternationalintelligentmanufacturingsystemsIMSprogramme26.TheprogrammewascoordinatedacrossfourflowwithSTEPNC21.rsX.W.Xu,S.T.Newman/Compute144worldwideregionseachwithindividualprojectsnamelyEurope,Korea,SwitzerlandandtheUSA.ThemajorcoordinatorsoftheprogrammeareSiemensEU,CADCAMationSwitzerland,STEPToolsUSAandERCACIKorea.STEPNCEuropeisresponsibleformilling,turningandinspectionoftheISO14649standard.Ithas15partners,ledbySiemens,withuserssuchasDaimlerChrysler,Volvo,andthesupportofresearchinstitutessuchasWZLRWTHAachenandISWStuttgartUniversity.TheSwissareleadingthedevelopmentofthestandardforwirecutanddiesinkEDMincollaborationwithvendorssuchasAgie,StarragandCAMmanufacturerCADCAMation.TheworkinKoreahasbeencarriedoutbybothPohangUniversityofScienceTechnologyPosTECHandtheSeoulNationalUniversityintheareasofmillingandturningarchitecturesforISO14649compliantcontrollers.OtherresearchteamsworkingintheareaincludethoseintheUKandNewZealand.IntheUnitedKingdom,anAgentBased,STEPcompliantCAMABCAMsystemhasbeendevelopedinWolfsonSchoolofMechanicalandManufacturingEngineering,LoughboroughUniversityFig.2.ExampleSTEPNCinIndustry572006141–15227,28.InNewZealand,theManufacturingSystemsLaboratoryattheUniversityofAucklandhasbeenusingtheAIMofSTEPNC17todevelopaSTEPcompliantCAPPsystemforcollaborativemanufacturing29,30.TheSTEPNCprogrammeintheUSAcalledSuperModelledbySTEPToolsInc.andsponsoredbyNationalInstituteofStandardsandTechnologyNISThasmademajoradvancestofullyautomatetheCADtoCNCmanufacturingprocessthroughtheuseofSTEPorratherAP238.ThisprojectinvolvedastronggroupofindustrialpartnersincludingBoeing,LockheadMartin,GeneralElectricandGeneralMotors,togetherwithrecognisedCAMvendorssuchasGibbsAssociatesandMasterCAM.5.STEPNCformoreopenandinteroperablemachinetoolsTherearefourtypesofresearchworkrelatedtoSTEPNC1conventionalCNCcontrolusingSTEPNC2newSTEPNCenabledcontrol3STEPNCenabledintelligentcontrolphysicalfile20.

注意事项

本文(外文翻译--数控机床更加开放可互操作和智能技术 英文版.pdf)为本站会员(英文资料库)主动上传,人人文库网仅提供信息存储空间,仅对用户上传内容的表现方式做保护处理,对上载内容本身不做任何修改或编辑。 若此文所含内容侵犯了您的版权或隐私,请立即通知人人文库网([email protected]),我们立即给予删除!

温馨提示:如果因为网速或其他原因下载失败请重新下载,重复下载不扣分。

copyright@ 2015-2017 人人文库网网站版权所有
苏ICP备12009002号-5