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外文翻译--机器人控制和装配结合的机密机械手.doc

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外文翻译--机器人控制和装配结合的机密机械手.doc

COMBINATIONOFROBOTCONTROLANDASSEMBLYPLANNINGFORAPRECISIONMANIPULATOORABSTRACTTHISPAPERRESEARCHESHOWTOREALIZETHEAUTOMATICASSEMBLYOPERATIONONATWOFINGERPRECISIONMANIPULATORAMULTILAYERASSEMBLYSUPPORTSYSTEMISPROPOSEDATTHETASKPLANNINGLAYER,BASEDONTHECOMPUTERAIDEDDESIGNCADMODEL,THEASSEMBLYSEQUENCEISFIRSTGENERATED,ANDTHEINFORMATIONNECESSARYFORSKILLDECOMPOSITIONISALSODERIVEDTHEN,THEASSEMBLYSEQUENCEISDECOMPOSEDINTOROBOTSKILLSATTHESKILLDECOMPOSITIONLAYERTHESEGENERATEDSKILLSAREMANAGEDANDEXECUTEDATTHEROBOTCONTROLLAYEREXPERIMENTALRESULTESHOWTHEFEASIBILITYANDEFFICIENCYOFTHEPROPOSEDSYSTEMKEYWORDSMANIPULATORASSEMBLYPLANNINGSKILLDECOMPOSITIONAUTOMATEDASSEMBLY1INTRODUCTIONOWINGTOTHEMICROELECTROMECHANICALSYSTEMSMEMSTECHNIQUES,MANYPRODUCTSAREBECOMINGVERYSMALLANDCOMPLEX,SUCHASMICROPHONES,MICROOPTICALCOMPONENTS,ANDMICROFLUIDICBIOMEDICALDEVICES,WHICHCREATESINCREASINGNEEDSFORTECHNOLOGIESANDSYSTEMSFORTHEAUTOMATEDASSEMBLYHAVEBEENFOCUSEDONMICROASSEMBLYTECHNOLOGIESHOWEVER,MICROASSEMBLYTECHNIQUESOFHIGHFLEXIBILITY,EFFICIENCY,ANDRELIABILITYSKILLOPENTOFURTHERRESEARCHTHISPAPERRESEARCHESTOHOWTOREALIZETHEAUTOMATICASSEMBLYOPERATIONONATWOFINGERMICROMANIPULATORAMULILAYERASSEMBLYSUPPORTSYSTEMISPROPOSEDAUTOMATICASSEMBLYISACOMPLEXPROBLEMWHICHMAYINVOLVEMANYDIFFERENTISSUES,SUCHASTASKPLANNING,ASSEMBLYSEQUENCESGENERATION,EXECUTION,ANDCONTROL,ETCITCANBESIMPLYDIVIDEDINTOTWOPHASES,THEASSEMBLYPLANNINGANDTHEROBOTCONTROLATTHEASSEMBLYPLANNINGPHASE,THEINFORMATIONNECESSARYFORASSEMBLYOPERATION,SUCHASTHEASSEMBLYSEQUENCE,ISGENERATEDATTHEROBOTCONTROLPHASE,THEROBOTISDRIVENBASEDONTHEINFORMATIONGENERATEDATTHEASSEMBLYPLANNINGPHASE,ANDTHEASSEMBLYOPERATIONSARECONDUCTEDSKILLPRIMITIVESCANWORKASTHEINTERFACEOFASSEMBLYPLANNINGTOROBOTCONTROLSEVERALROBOTSYSTEMSBASEDONSKILLPRIMITIVESHAVEBEENREPORTEDTHEBASICIDEABEHINDTHESESYSTEMSISTHEROBOTPROGRAMMINGROBOTMOVEMENTSARESPECIFIEDASSKILLPRIMITIVES,BASEDONWHICHTHEASSEMBLYTASKISMANUALLYCODEDINTOPROGRAMSWITHTHEPROGRAMS,THEROBOTISCONTROLTOASSEMBLYTASKSAUTOMATICALLYASKILLBASEDMICROMANIPULATIONSYSTEMHASBEENDEVELOPEDINTHEAUTHORS’LAB,ANDITCANREALIZEMANYMICROMANIPULATIONOPERATIONSINTHESYSTEM,THEASSEMBLYTASKISMANUALLYDISCOMPOSEDINTOSKILLSEQUENCESANDCOMPLIEDINTOAFILEAFTERIMPORTINGTHEFILEINTOTHESYSTEM,THESYSTEMCANAUTOMATICALLYEXECUTETHEASSEMBLYTASKTHISPAPERATTEMPTSTOEXPLOREAUSERFRIENDLY,ANDATTHESAMETIMEEASY,SEQUENCEGENERATIONMETHOD,TORELIEVETHEBURDENOFMANUALLYPROGRAMMINGTHESKILLSEQUENCEITISANEFFECTIVEMETHODTODETERMINETHEASSEMBLYSEQUENCEFROMGEOMETRICCOMPUTERAIDEDDESIGNCADMODELSMANYAPPROACHESHAVEBEENPROPOSEDTHISPAPERAPPLIESASIMPLEAPPROACHTOGENERATETHEASSEMBLYSEQUENCEITISNOTINVOLVEDWITHTHELOWLEVELDATASTRUCTUREOFTHECADMODEL,ANDCANBEREALIZEDWITHTHEAPPLICATIONPROGRAMMINGINTERFACEAPIFUNCTIONSGRAPHAMONGDIFFERENTCOMPONENTSISFIRSTCONSTRUCTEDBYANALYZINGTHEASSEMBLYMODEL,ANDTHEN,POSSIBLESEQUENCESARESEARCHED,BASEDONTHEGRAPHACCORDINGTOCERTAINCRITERION,THEOPTIMALSEQUENCEISFINALLYOBTAINEDTODECOMPOSETHEASSEMBLYSEQUENCEINTOROBOTSKILLSEQUENCES,SOMEWORKSHAVEBEENREPORTEDINNNAJIETAL’WORK,THEASSEMBLYTASKCOMMANDSAREEXPANDEDTOMOREDETAILEDCOMMANDS,WHICHCANBEASROBOTSKILLS,ACCORDINGTOAPREDEFINEDFORMATTHEDECOMPOSITIONAPPROACHOFMOSEMANNANDWAHLISBASEDONTHEANALYSISOFHYPERARCSOFAND/ORGRAPHSREPRESENTINGTHEAUTOMATICALLYGENERATEDASSEMBLYPLANSTHISPAPERPROPOSESAMETHODTOGUIDETHESKILLDECOMPOSITIONTHEASSEMBLYPROCESSESOFPARTSAREGROUPEDINTODIFFERENTSTARTATATEANDTARGETOFTHEWORKFLOW,THESKILLGENERATORCREATESASERIESOFSKILLSTHATCANPROMOTETHEPARTTOITSTARGETSTATETHEHIERARCHYOFTHESYSTEMPROPOSEDHERE,THEASSEMBLYINFORMATIONONHOWTOASSEMBLEAPRODUCTISTRANSFERREDTOTHEROBOTTHROUGHMULTIPLELAYERSTETOPLAYERISFORTHEASSEMBLYTASKPLANNINGTHEINFORMATIONNEEDEDFORTHETASKPLANNINGANDSKILLGENERATIONAREEXTRACTEDFROMTHECADMODELANDARESAVEDINTHEDATABASEBASEONTHECADMODEL,THEASSEMBLYTASKSQUENCESAREGENERATEDATTHESKILLDECOMPOSITIONLAYER,TASKSAREDECOMPOSEDINTOSKILLSEQUENCESTHEGENERATEDSKILLSAREMANAGEDANDEXECUTEDATTHEROBOTCONTROLLAYER2TASKPLANNINGSKILLSARENOTUSEDDIRECTLYATTHEASSEMBLYPLANNINGPHASE,THECONCEPTOFATASKISUSEDATASKCANFULFILLASERIESOFASSEMBLYOPERATIONS,FOREXAMPLE,FROMLOCATINGAPART,THROUGHMOVINGTHEPART,TOFIXINGITWITHANOTHERPARTINOTHERWORDS,ONETASKINCLUDESMANYFUNCTIONSTHATMAYBEFULFILLEDBYSEVERALDIFFERENTSKILLSATASKISDEFINEDASTBASEPART;ASSEMBLYPART;OPERATIONBASEDPARTANDASSEMBLYPARTARETWOPARTSTHATAREASSEMBLEDTOGETHERBASEPARTISFIXEDONTHEWORKTABLE,WHILEASSEMBLYPARTISHANDLEDBYROBOT’SENDEFFECTORANDASSEMBLEDONTOTHEBASEPARTOPERATIONDESCRIBESHOWTHEASSEMBLYPARTISASSEMBLEDWITHTHEBASEPART;OPERATION{INTERTIONT,SEREWT,ALIGNT,}THESTRUCTUREOFMICROPARTSISUSUALLYUNCOMPLICATED,ANDTHEYCANBEMODELEDBYTHECONSTRUCTIVESOLIDGEOMETRYCAGMETHODCURRENTLY,MANYCOMMERCIALCADSOFTWAREPACKAGESCANSUPPORT3DCSGMODELINGTHEASSEMBLYMODELISREPRESENTEDASANOBJECTTHATCONSISTSOFTWOPARTSWITHCERTAINASSEMBLYRELATIONSTHATDEFINEHOWTHEPARTSARETOBEASSEMBLEDINTHECADMODEL,THERELATIONSAREDEFINEDBYGEOMETRICCONSTRAINTSTHEGEOMETRICINFORMATIONCANNOTBEUSEDDIRECTLYTOGUIDETHEASSEMBLYOPERATIONWEHAVETODERIVETHEINFORMATIONNECESSARYFORASSEMBLYOPERATIONSFROMTHECADMODELTHROUGHSEARCHINGTHEASSEMBLYTREEANDGEOMETRICRELATIONSMATES’RELATIONSDEFINEDINTHEASSEMBLY’SCADMODEL,WECANGENERATEARELATIONGRAPHAMONGPARTS,FOREXAMPLE,INTHEGRAPH,THENODESREPRESENTTHEPARTSIFNODESARECONNECTED,ITMEANSTHATTHEREAREASSEMBLYRELATIONSAMONGTHESECONNECTEDNODESPARTS21MATINGDIRECTIONINCSG,THERELATIONSOFTWOPARTS,GEOMETRICCONSTRAINTS,AREFINALLYREPRESENTEDASRELATIONSBETWEENPLANESANDLINES,SUCHASCOLLINEAR,COPLANAR,TANGENTIAL,PERPENDICULAR,ETCFOREXAMPLE,ASHAFTISASSEMBLEDINAHOLETHEASSEMBLYRELATIONSBETWEENTHETWOPARTSMAYCONSISTOFSUCHTWOCONSTRAINTSASCOLLINEARBETWEENTHECENTERLINEOFSHAFTLCSHAFTANDTHECENTERLINEOFHOLELCHOLEANDCOPLANARBETWEENTHEPSHAFTANDTHEPLANEPHOLETHEMATINGDIRECTIONISAKEYISSUE,FORANASSEMBLYOPERATIONTHISPAPERAPPLIESTHEFOLLOWINGAPPROACHTOCOMPUTETHEPOSSIBLEMATINGDIRECTIONBASEDONTHEGEOMETRICCONSTRAINTSTHESHAFTINHOLEOPERATIONOFFIG3ISTAKENASANEXAMPLEFORAPARTINTHERELATIONGRAPH,CALCULATEITSREMAININGDEGREESOFFREEDOM,ALSOCALLEDDEGREESOFSEPARATION,OFEACHGEOMETRICCONSTRAINTFORTHECONPLANARCONSTRAINT,THEREMAININGDEGREESOFFREEDOMARER1{X,Y,ROTZ}FORTHECOLLINEARCONSTRAINT,THEREMAININGDEGREESOFFREEDOMARER2{Z,ROTZ}R1ANDR2CANALSOBEREPRESENTEDASR1{1,1,0,0,0,1}ANDR2{0,0,1,0,0,1}HERE,1MEANSTHATTHEREISADEGREEOFSEPARATIONBETWEENTHETWOPARTSR1R2{0,0,0,0,1},ANDSO,THEDEGREEOFFREEDOMAROUNDTHEZAXISWILLBEIGNOREDINTHEFOLLOWINGSTEPSINTHEEASETHATTHEREISLOOPINTHERELATIONGRAPH,SUCHASPARTSPART5,PART6,ANDPART7INFIG2,THELOOPHASTOBEBROKENBEFORETHEMATINGDIRECTIONISCALCULATEDUNDERTHEASSUMPTIONTHATALLPARTSINTHECADMODELAREFULLYCONSTRAINEDANDNOTOVERCONSTRAINED,THEFOLLOWINGSIMPLEAPPROACHISADOPTEDFORTHEPARTTINTHELOOP,CALCULATETHENUMBEROFISINNINRI1RI2RIN;WHERERISTHEREMAININGDEGREESOFFREEDOMOFCONSTRAINTKBYPARTIFOREXAMPLE,INFIG2,GIVENTHATTHENUMBEROF1SINUISLARGERTHANU,THENITCANBEREGARDEDTHATTHEPOSITIONOFPART7ISDETERMINEDBYCONSTRAINTSBETWEENPART5ANDPART6,WHILEPART5ANDPART6CANBEFULLYCONSTRAINEDBYCONSTRAINTSBETWEENPART5ANDPART6WECANUNITEPART5ANDPART6ASONENODEWILLBEREGARDEDASASINGLE,BUTITISOBVIOUSTHATTHECOMPOSITENODEIMPLIESANASSEMBLYSEQUENCECALCULATEMATINGDIRECTIONSFORALLNODESINTHERELATIONGRAPHAGAIN,BEGINNINGATTHESTATETHATTHESHAFTANDTHEHOLEAREASSEMBLED,SEPARATETHEPARTINONEDEGREEOFSEPARATIONBYACERTAINDISTANCELARGERTHANTHEMAXIMUMTOLERANCE,ANDTHANCHECKIFINTERFERENCEOCCURSSEPARATIONINBOTHXAXISANDYAXISOFR1CAUSESTHEINTERFERENCEBETWEENTHESHAFTANDTHEHOLESEPARATIONINTHEZDIRECTIONRAISESONINTERFERENCETHEN,SELECTTHEZDIRECTIONASTHEMATINGDIRECTION,WHICHISREPRESENTEDASAVECTORMMEASUREDINTHECOORDINATESYSTEMOFTHEASSEMBLYITSHOULDBENOTEDTHAT,INSOMECASE,THEREMAYBESEVERALPOSSIBLEMATINGDIRECTIONSFORAPARTTHECONDITIONFORASSEMBLYOPERATIONINTHEMATINGDIRECTIONATTHEASSEMBLEDSTATE,WHICHCANBECHECKEDSIMPLYWITHGEOMETRICCONSTRAINTS,THEENDCONDITIONISMEASUREDBYFORCESENSORYINFORMATION,WHEREASPOSITIONINFORMATIONISUSEDASANENDCONDITIONCALCULATETHEGRASPINGPOSITIONINTHISPAPER,PARTSAREHANDLEDANDMANIPULATEDWITHTWOSEPARATEPROBES,WHICHWILLBEDISCUSSEDINTHESECT4,ANDPLANESOREDGESARECONSIDEREDFORGRASPINGINTHECASETHATTHEREARESEVERALMATINGDIRECTIONS,THEGRASPINGPLANSARESELECTEDASG1G2GI,WHEREGIISPOSSIBLEGRASPINGPLANE/EDGESETFORTHEITHMATINGDIRECTIONWHENTHEPARTISATITSFREESTATEFOREXAMPLE,INFIG4,THEPAIRPLANESP1/P1’,P2/P2’,ANDP3/P3’CANSERVEASPOSSIBLEGRASPINGPLANES,ANDTHENTHEGRASPINGPLANESARE{P1/P1’,P2/P2’,P3/P3’}/{P1/P1’,P3/P3’}/{P1/P1’,P2/P2’}{P1/P1’}THEAPPROACHINGDIRECTIONOFTHEENDEFFECTORISSELECTEDASTHENORMALVECTOROFTHEGRASPINGPLANESITISOBVIOUSTHATNOTALLPOINTSONTHEGRASPINGPLANECANBEGRSPEDTHEFOLLOWINGMETHODISUSEDTODETERMINETHEGRASPINGAREATHEENDEFFECTOR,WHICHISMODELEDASACUBOID,ISFIRSTADDEDINTHECADMODEL,WITHTHECONSTRAINTOFCOPLANARORTANGENTIALWITHTHEGRASPINGPLANEBEGINNINGATTHEEDGETHATISFARAWAYFROMTHEBAEPARTINTHEMATINGDIRECTION,MOVETHEENDEFFECTORINTHEMATINGDIRECTIONALONGTHEGRASPINGPLANEUNTILTHEENDEFFECTORISFULLYINCONTACTWITHTHEPART,THEGRASPINGPLANEISFULLYINCONTACTWITHTHEENDEFFECTOR,ORACOLLISIONOCCURSRECORDTHEEDGEANDTHEDISTANCE,BOTHOFWHICHAREMEASUREDINTHEPART’SCOORDINATESYSTEMSEPARATEGRADUALLYTHETWOPARTSALONGTHEMATINGDIRECTION,WHICHCHECKINGINTERFERENCEINTHEOTHERDEGREESOFSEPARATION,UNTILNOINTERFERENCEOCCURSINALLOFTHEOTHERDEGREESOFSEPARATIONTHEREISOBVIOUSLYASEPARATIONDISTANCETHATASSURESINTERFERENCENOTTOOCCURINEVERYDEGREEOFSEPARATIONITISCALLEDTHESAFELENGTHINTHATDIRECTIONTHISLENGTHISUSEDFORTHECOLLISIONFREEPATHCALCULATION,WHICHWILLBEDISCUSSEDINTHEFOLLOWINGSECTION22ASSEMBLYSEQUENCESOMECRITERIACANBEUSEDTOSEARCHTHEOPTIMALASSEMBLYSEQUENCE,SUCHASTHEMECHANICALSTABILITYOFSUBASSEMBLIES,THEDEGREEOFPARALLELEXECUTION,TYPESOFFIXTURES,ETCBUTFORMICROASSEMBLY,WESHOULDPAYMOREATTENTIONTOONEOFITSMOSTIMPORTANTFEATURES,THELIMITEDWORKSPACE,WHENSELECTINGTHEASSEMBLYSEQUENCEMICROASSEMBLYOPERATIONSAREUSUALLYCONDUCTEDANDMONITOREDUNDERMICROSCOPY,ANDTHEWORKSPACEFORMICROASSEMBLYISVERYSMALLTHEASSEMBLYSEQUENCEBRINGSMUCHINFLUENCEONTHEASSEMBLYEFFICIENCYFOREXAMPLE,ASIMPLEASSEMBLYWITHTHREEPARTSINSEQUENCEA,PARTAISFIRSTFIXEDONTOPARTBINTHECASETHATPARTCCANNOTBEMOUNTEDINTHEWORKSPACEATTHESAMETIMEWITHCOMPONENTABBECAUSEOFTHESMALLWORKSPACE,INORDERTOASSEMBLEPARTCWITHAB,COMPONENTABHASTOUNM

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