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外文翻译--机械工程简介.doc

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外文翻译--机械工程简介.doc

1INTRODUCTIONTOMECHANICALENGINEERINGMECHANICALENGINEERINGISTHEBRANCHOFENGINEERINGTHATDEALSWITHMACHINESANDTHEPRODUCTIONOFPOWERITISPARTICULARLYCONCERNEDWITHFORCESANDMOTIONHISTORYOFMECHANICALENGINEERINGTHEINVENTIONOFTHESTEAMENGINEINTHELATTERPARTOFTHE18THCENTURY,PROVIDINGAKEYSOURCEOFPOWERFORTHEINDUSTRIALREVOLUTION,GAVEANENORMOUSIMPETUSTOTHEDEVELOPMENTOFMACHINERYOFALLTYPESASARESULTANEWMAJORCLASSIFICATIONOFENGINEERING,SEPARATEFROMCIVILENGINEERINGANDDEALINGWITHTOOLSANDMACHINES,DEVELOPED,RECEIVINGFORMALRECOGNITIONIN1847INTHEFOUNDINGOFTHEINSTITUTIONOFMECHANICALENGINEERSINBIRMINGHAM,ENGLANDMECHANICALENGINEERINGHASEVOLVEDFROMTHEPRACTICEBYTHEMECHANICOFANARTBASEDLARGELYONTRIALANDERRORTOTHEAPPLICATIONBYTHEPROFESSIONALENGINEEROFTHESCIENTIFICMETHODINRESEARCH,DESIGN,ANDPRODUCTIONTHEDEMANDFORINCREASEDEFFICIENCY,INTHEWIDESTSENSE,ISCONTINUALLYRAISINGTHEQUALITYOFWORKEXPECTEDFROMAMECHANICALENGINEERANDREQUIRINGOFHIMAHIGHERDEGREEOFEDUCATIONANDTRAININGNOTONLYMUSTMACHINESRUNMOREECONOMICALLYBUTCAPITALCOSTSALSOMUSTBEMINIMIZEDFIELDSOFMECHANICALENGINEERINGDEVELOPMENTOFMACHINESFORTHEPRODUCTIONOFGOODSTHEHIGHMATERIALSTANDARDOFLIVINGINTHEDEVELOPEDCOUNTRIESOWESMUCHTOTHEMACHINERYMADEPOSSIBLEBYMECHANICALENGINEERINGTHEMECHANICALENGINEERCONTINUALLYINVENTSMACHINESTOPRODUCEGOODSANDDEVELOPSMACHINETOOLSOFINCREASINGACCURACYANDCOMPLEXITYTOBUILDTHEMACHINESTHEPRINCIPALLINESOFDEVELOPMENTOFMACHINERYHAVEBEENANINCREASEINTHESPEEDOFOPERATIONTOOBTAINHIGHRATESOFPRODUCTION,IMPROVEMENTINACCURACYTOOBTAINQUALITYANDECONOMYINTHEPRODUCT,ANDMINIMIZATIONOFOPERATINGCOSTSTHESETHREEREQUIREMENTSHAVELEDTOTHEEVOLUTIONOFCOMPLEXCONTROLSYSTEMSTHEMOSTSUCCESSFULPRODUCTIONMACHINERYISTHATINWHICHTHEMECHANICAL2DESIGNOFTHEMACHINEISCLOSELYINTEGRATEDWITHTHECONTROLSYSTEM,WHETHERTHELATTERISMECHANICALORELECTRICALINNATUREAMODERNTRANSFERLINECONVEYORFORTHEMANUFACTUREOFAUTOMOBILEENGINESISAGOODEXAMPLEOFTHEMECHANIZATIONOFACOMPLEXSERIESOFMANUFACTURINGPROCESSESDEVELOPMENTSAREINHANDTOAUTOMATEPRODUCTIONMACHINERYFURTHER,USINGCOMPUTERSTOSTOREANDPROCESSTHEVASTAMOUNTOFDATAREQUIREDFORMANUFACTURINGAVARIETYOFCOMPONENTSWITHASMALLNUMBEROFVERSATILEMACHINETOOLSONEAIMISACOMPLETELYAUTOMATEDMACHINESHOPFORBATCHPRODUCTION,OPERATIONONATHREESHIFTBASISBUTATTENDEDBYASTAFFFORONLYONESHIFTPERDAYDEVELOPMENTOFMACHINESFORTHEPRODUCTIONOFPOWERPRODUCTIONMACHINERYPRESUPPOSESANAMPLESUPPLYOFPOWERTHESTEAMENGINEPROVIDEDTHEFIRSTPRACTICALMEANSOFGENERATINGPOWERFROMHEATTOAUGMENTTHEOLDSOURCESOFPOWERFROMMUSCLE,WIND,ANDWATERONEOFTHEFIRSTCHALLENGESTOTHENEWPROFESSIONOFMECHANICALENGINEERINGWASTOTHESTEAMTURBINEANDASSOCIATEDLARGESTEAMBOILERSTHE20THCENTURYHASWITNESSEDACONTINUEDRAPIDGROWTHINTHEPOWEROUTPUTOFTURBINESFORDRIVINGELECTRICGENERATORS,TOGETHERWITHASTEADYINCREASEINTHERMALEFFICIENCYANDREDUCTIONINCAPITALCOSTPERKILOWATTOFLARGEPOWERSTATIONSFINALLY,MECHANICALENGINEERSACQUIREDTHERESOURCEOFNUCLEARENERGY,WHOSEAPPLICATIONHASDEMANDEDANEXCEPTIONALSTANDARDOFRELIABILITYANDSAFETYINVOLVINGTHESOLUTIONOFENTIRELYNEWPROBLEMSTHECONTROLSYSTEMSOFLARGEPOWERPLANTSANDCOMPLETENUCLEARPOWERSTATIONSHAVEBECOMEHIGHLYSOPHISTICATEDNETWORKSOFELECTRONIC,FLUIDIC,ELECTRIC,HYDRAULIC,ANDMECHANICALCOMPONENTS,ALLOFTHESEINVOLVINGTHEPROVINCEOFTHEMECHANICALENGINEERTHEMECHANICALENGINEERISALSORESPONSIBLEFORTHEMUCHSMALLERINTERNALCOMBUSTIONENGINES,BOTHRECIPROCATINGGASOLINEANDDIESELANDROTARYGASTURBINEANDWANKELENGINES,WITHTHEIRWIDESPREADTRANSPORTAPPLICATIONSINTHETRANSPORTATIONFIELDGENERALLY,INAIRANDSPACEASWELLASONLANDANDSEA,THEMECHANICALENGINEERHASCREATEDTHEEQUIPMENTANDTHEPOWERPLANT,COLLABORATINGINCREASINGLYWITHTHEELECTRICALENGINEER,ESPECIALLYINTHEDEVELOPMENTOFSUITABLECONTROLSYSTEMS3DEVELOPMENTOFMILITARYWEAPONSTHESKILLSAPPLIEDTOWARBYTHEMECHANICALENGINEERARESIMILARTOTHOSEREQUIREDINCIVILIANAPPLICATIONS,THOUGHTHEPURPOSEISTOENHANCEDESTRUCTIVEPOWERRATHERTHANTORAISECREATIVEEFFICIENCYTHEDEMANDSOFWARHAVECHANNELEDHUGERESOURCESINTOTECHNICALFIELDS,HOWEVER,ANDLEDTODEVELOPMENTSTHATHAVEPROFOUNDBENEFITSINPEACEJETAIRCRAFTANDNUCLEARREACTORSARENOTABLEEXAMPLESBIOENGINEERINGBIOENGINEERINGISAREACTIVELYNEWANDDISTINCTFIELDOFMECHANICALENGINEERINGTHATINCLUDESTHEPROVISIONOFMACHINESTOREPLACEORAUGMENTTHEFUNCTIONSOFTHEHUMANBODYANDOFEQUIPMENTFORUSEINMEDICALTREATMENTARTIFICIALLIMBSHAVEBEENDEVELOPEDINCORPORATINGSUCHLIFELIKEFUNCTIONSASPOWEREDMOTIONANDTOUCHFEEDBACKDEVELOPMENTISRAPIDINTHEDIRECTIONOFARTIFICIALSPAREPARTSURGERYSOPHISTICATEDHEARTLUNGMACHINESANDSIMILAREQUIPMENTPERMITOPERATIONSOFINCREASINGCOMPLEXITYANDPERMITTHEVITALFUNCTIONSINSERIOUSLYINJUREDORDISEASEDPATIENTSTOBEMAINTAINEDENVIRONMENTALCONTROLSOMEOFTHEEARLIESTEFFORTSOFMECHANICALENGINEERSWEREAIMEDATCONTROLLINGMAN’SENVIRONMENTBYPUMPINGWATERTODRAINORIRRIGATELANDANDBYVENTILATINGMINESTHEUBIQUITOUSREFRIGERATINGANDAIRCONDITIONPLANTSOFTHEMODERNAGEAREBASEDONAREVERSEDHEATENGINE,WHERETHESUPPLYOFPOWER“PUMPS”HEATFROMTHECOLDREGIONTOTHEWARMEREXTERIORMANYOFTHEPRODUCTSOFMECHANICALENGINEERING,TOGETHERWITHTECHNOLOGICALDEVELOPMENTSINOTHERFIELDS,HAVESIDEEFFECTSONTHEENVIRONMENTANDGIVERISETONOISE,THEPOLLUTIONOFWATERANDAIR,ANDTHEDERELICTIONOFLANDANDSCENERYTHERATEOFPRODUCTION,BOTHOFGOODSANDPOWER,ISRISINGSORAPIDLYTHATREGENERATIONBYNATURALFORCESCANNOLONGERKEEPPACEARAPIDLYGROWINGFIELDFORMECHANICALANDOTHERISENVIRONMENTALCONTROL,COMPRISINGTHEDEVELOPMENTOFMACHINESANDPROCESSEDTHATWILLPRODUCEFEWERPOLLUTANTSANDOFNEWEQUIPMENTANDTECHNIQUESTHATCANREDUCEORREMOVETHEPOLLUTIONALREADYGENERATEDFUNCTIONSOFMECHANICALENGINEERINGFOURFUNCTIONSOFTHEMECHANICALENGINEERING,COMMONTOALLTHEFIELDSMENTIONED,BECITEDTHEFIRSTISTHEUNDERSTANDINGOFANDDEALINGWITHTHEBASES4OFMECHANICALSCIENCETHESEINCLUDEDYNAMICS,CONCERNINGTHERELATIONBETWEENFORCESANDMOTION,SUCHASINVIBRATION;AUTOMATICCONTROL;THERMODYNAMICS,DEALINGWITHTHERELATIONSAMONGTHEVARIOUSFORMSOFHEAT,ENERGY,ANDPOWER;FLUIDFLOW;HEATTRANSFER;LUBRICATION;ANDPROPERTIESOFMATERIALSSECONDISTHESEQUENCEOFRESEARCH,DESIGN,ANDDEVELOPMENTTHISFUNCTIONATTEMPTSTOBRINGABOUTTHECHANGESNECESSARYTOMEETPRESENTANDFUTURENEEDSSUCHWORKREQUIRESNOTONLYACLEARUNDERSTANDINGOFMECHANICALSCIENCEANDANABILITYTOANALYZEACOMPLEXSYSTEMINTOITSBASICFACTORS,BUTALSOTHEORIGINALITYTOSYNTHESIZEANDINVENTTHIRDISPRODUCTIONOFPRODUCTSANDPOWER,WHICHEMBRACESPLANNING,OPERATION,ANDMAINTENANCETHEGOALISTOPRODUCETHEMAXIMUMVALUEWITHTHEMINIMUMINVESTMENTANDCOSTWHILEMAINTAININGORENHANCINGLONGERTERMVIABILITYANDREPUTATIONOFTHEENTERPRISEORTHEINSTITUTIONFOURTHISTHECOORDINATINGFUNCTIONSOFTHEMECHANICALENGINEERING,INCLUDINGMANAGEMENT,CONSULTING,AND,INSOMECASES,MARKETINGINALLOFTHESEFUNCTIONSTHEREISALONGCONTINUINGTRENDTOWARDTHEUSEOFSCIENTIFICINSTEADOFTRADITIONALORINTUITIVEMETHODS,ANASPECTOFTHEEVERGROWINGPROFESSIONALISMOFMECHANICALENGINEERINGOPERATIONSRESEARCH,VALUEENGINEERING,ANDPABLAPROBLEMANALYSISBYLOGICALAPPROACHARETYPICALTITLESOFSUCHNEWRATIONALIZEDAPPROACHESCREATIVITY,HOWEVER,CANNOTBERATIONALIZEDTHEABILITYTOTAKETHEIMPORTANTANDUNEXPECTEDSTEPTHATOPENSUPNEWSOLUTIONSREMAINSINMECHANICALENGINEERING,ASELSEWHERE,LARGELYAPERSONALANDSPONTANEOUSCHARACTERISTICTHEFUTUREOFMECHANICALENGINEERINGTHENUMBEROFMECHANICALENGINEERSCONTINUESTOGROWASRAPIDLYASEVER,WHILETHEDURATIONANDQUALITYOFTHEIRTRAININGINCREASESTHEREISAGROWINGAWARENESS,HOWEVER,AMONGENGINEERSANDINTHECOMMUNITYATLARGETHATTHEEXPONENTIALINCREASEINPOPULATIONANDLIVINGSTANDARDSISRAISINGFORMIDABLEPROBLEMSINPOLLUTIONOFTHEENVIRONMENTANDTHEEXHAUSTIONOFNATURALRESOURCES;THISCLEARLYHEIGHTENSTHENEEDFORALLOFTHETECHNICALPROFESSIONSTOCONSIDERTHELONGTERMSOCIALEFFECTSOFDISCOVERIESANDDEVELOPMENTSTHEREWILLBEAN

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