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外文翻译--机械工程简介.doc

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外文翻译--机械工程简介.doc

1IntroductiontoMechanicalEngineeringMechanicalengineeringisthebranchofengineeringthatdealswithmachinesandtheproductionofpower.Itisparticularlyconcernedwithforcesandmotion.HistoryofMechanicalEngineeringTheinventionofthesteamengineinthelatterpartofthe18thcentury,providingakeysourceofpowerfortheIndustrialRevolution,gaveanenormousimpetustothedevelopmentofmachineryofalltypes.Asaresultanewmajorclassificationofengineering,separatefromcivilengineeringanddealingwithtoolsandmachines,developed,receivingformalrecognitionin1847inthefoundingoftheInstitutionofMechanicalEngineersinBirmingham,England.Mechanicalengineeringhasevolvedfromthepracticebythemechanicofanartbasedlargelyontrialanderrortotheapplicationbytheprofessionalengineerofthescientificmethodinresearch,design,andproduction.Thedemandforincreasedefficiency,inthewidestsense,iscontinuallyraisingthequalityofworkexpectedfromamechanicalengineerandrequiringofhimahigherdegreeofeducationandtraining.Notonlymustmachinesrunmoreeconomicallybutcapitalcostsalsomustbeminimized.FieldsofMechanicalEngineeringDevelopmentofmachinesfortheproductionofgoodsThehighmaterialstandardoflivinginthedevelopedcountriesowesmuchtothemachinerymadepossiblebymechanicalengineering.Themechanicalengineercontinuallyinventsmachinestoproducegoodsanddevelopsmachinetoolsofincreasingaccuracyandcomplexitytobuildthemachines.Theprincipallinesofdevelopmentofmachineryhavebeenanincreaseinthespeedofoperationtoobtainhighratesofproduction,improvementinaccuracytoobtainqualityandeconomyintheproduct,andminimizationofoperatingcosts.Thesethreerequirementshaveledtotheevolutionofcomplexcontrolsystems.Themostsuccessfulproductionmachineryisthatinwhichthemechanical2designofthemachineiscloselyintegratedwiththecontrolsystem,whetherthelatterismechanicalorelectricalinnature.Amoderntransferlineconveyorforthemanufactureofautomobileenginesisagoodexampleofthemechanizationofacomplexseriesofmanufacturingprocesses.Developmentsareinhandtoautomateproductionmachineryfurther,usingcomputerstostoreandprocessthevastamountofdatarequiredformanufacturingavarietyofcomponentswithasmallnumberofversatilemachinetools.Oneaimisacompletelyautomatedmachineshopforbatchproduction,operationonathreeshiftbasisbutattendedbyastaffforonlyoneshiftperday.DevelopmentofmachinesfortheproductionofpowerProductionmachinerypresupposesanamplesupplyofpower.Thesteamengineprovidedthefirstpracticalmeansofgeneratingpowerfromheattoaugmenttheoldsourcesofpowerfrommuscle,wind,andwater.Oneofthefirstchallengestothenewprofessionofmechanicalengineeringwastothesteamturbineandassociatedlargesteamboilers.The20thcenturyhaswitnessedacontinuedrapidgrowthinthepoweroutputofturbinesfordrivingelectricgenerators,togetherwithasteadyincreaseinthermalefficiencyandreductionincapitalcostperkilowattoflargepowerstations.Finally,mechanicalengineersacquiredtheresourceofnuclearenergy,whoseapplicationhasdemandedanexceptionalstandardofreliabilityandsafetyinvolvingthesolutionofentirelynewproblems.Thecontrolsystemsoflargepowerplantsandcompletenuclearpowerstationshavebecomehighlysophisticatednetworksofelectronic,fluidic,electric,hydraulic,andmechanicalcomponents,alloftheseinvolvingtheprovinceofthemechanicalengineer.Themechanicalengineerisalsoresponsibleforthemuchsmallerinternalcombustionengines,bothreciprocatinggasolineanddieselandrotarygasturbineandWankelengines,withtheirwidespreadtransportapplications.Inthetransportationfieldgenerally,inairandspaceaswellasonlandandsea,themechanicalengineerhascreatedtheequipmentandthepowerplant,collaboratingincreasinglywiththeelectricalengineer,especiallyinthedevelopmentofsuitablecontrolsystems.3DevelopmentofmilitaryweaponsTheskillsappliedtowarbythemechanicalengineeraresimilartothoserequiredincivilianapplications,thoughthepurposeistoenhancedestructivepowerratherthantoraisecreativeefficiency.Thedemandsofwarhavechanneledhugeresourcesintotechnicalfields,however,andledtodevelopmentsthathaveprofoundbenefitsinpeace.Jetaircraftandnuclearreactorsarenotableexamples.BioengineeringBioengineeringisareactivelynewanddistinctfieldofmechanicalengineeringthatincludestheprovisionofmachinestoreplaceoraugmentthefunctionsofthehumanbodyandofequipmentforuseinmedicaltreatment.Artificiallimbshavebeendevelopedincorporatingsuchlifelikefunctionsaspoweredmotionandtouchfeedback..Developmentisrapidinthedirectionofartificialsparepartsurgery.Sophisticatedheartlungmachinesandsimilarequipmentpermitoperationsofincreasingcomplexityandpermitthevitalfunctionsinseriouslyinjuredordiseasedpatientstobemaintained.EnvironmentalcontrolSomeoftheearliesteffortsofmechanicalengineerswereaimedatcontrollingmansenvironmentbypumpingwatertodrainorirrigatelandandbyventilatingmines.Theubiquitousrefrigeratingandairconditionplantsofthemodernagearebasedonareversedheatengine,wherethesupplyofpowerpumpsheatfromthecoldregiontothewarmerexterior.Manyoftheproductsofmechanicalengineering,togetherwithtechnologicaldevelopmentsinotherfields,havesideeffectsontheenvironmentandgiverisetonoise,thepollutionofwaterandair,andthederelictionoflandandscenery.Therateofproduction,bothofgoodsandpower,isrisingsorapidlythatregenerationbynaturalforcescannolongerkeeppace.Arapidlygrowingfieldformechanicalandotherisenvironmentalcontrol,comprisingthedevelopmentofmachinesandprocessedthatwillproducefewerpollutantsandofnewequipmentandtechniquesthatcanreduceorremovethepollutionalreadygenerated.FunctionsofMechanicalEngineeringFourfunctionsofthemechanicalengineering,commontoallthefieldsmentioned,becited.Thefirstistheunderstandingofanddealingwiththebases4ofmechanicalscience.Theseincludedynamics,concerningtherelationbetweenforcesandmotion,suchasinvibrationautomaticcontrolthermodynamics,dealingwiththerelationsamongthevariousformsofheat,energy,andpowerfluidflowheattransferlubricationandpropertiesofmaterials.Secondisthesequenceofresearch,design,anddevelopment.Thisfunctionattemptstobringaboutthechangesnecessarytomeetpresentandfutureneeds.Suchworkrequiresnotonlyaclearunderstandingofmechanicalscienceandanabilitytoanalyzeacomplexsystemintoitsbasicfactors,butalsotheoriginalitytosynthesizeandinvent.Thirdisproductionofproductsandpower,whichembracesplanning,operation,andmaintenance.Thegoalistoproducethemaximumvaluewiththeminimuminvestmentandcostwhilemaintainingorenhancinglongertermviabilityandreputationoftheenterpriseortheinstitution.Fourthisthecoordinatingfunctionsofthemechanicalengineering,includingmanagement,consulting,and,insomecases,marketing.Inallofthesefunctionsthereisalongcontinuingtrendtowardtheuseofscientificinsteadoftraditionalorintuitivemethods,anaspectoftheevergrowingprofessionalismofmechanicalengineering.Operationsresearch,valueengineering,andPABLAproblemanalysisbylogicalapproacharetypicaltitlesofsuchnewrationalizedapproaches.Creativity,however,cannotberationalized.Theabilitytotaketheimportantandunexpectedstepthatopensupnewsolutionsremainsinmechanicalengineering,aselsewhere,largelyapersonalandspontaneouscharacteristic.TheFutureofMechanicalEngineeringThenumberofmechanicalengineerscontinuestogrowasrapidlyasever,whilethedurationandqualityoftheirtrainingincreases.Thereisagrowingawareness,however,amongengineersandinthecommunityatlargethattheexponentialincreaseinpopulationandlivingstandardsisraisingformidableproblemsinpollutionoftheenvironmentandtheexhaustionofnaturalresourcesthisclearlyheightenstheneedforallofthetechnicalprofessionstoconsiderthelongtermsocialeffectsofdiscoveriesanddevelopments.Therewillbean

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