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外文翻译--注塑成型中颗粒填充物聚丙烯的冷却情况 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--注塑成型中颗粒填充物聚丙烯的冷却情况 英文版.pdf

OFSTRYACCEPTEDABSTRACTTHEREFORE,POLYPROPYLENESAMPLESWITHDIFFERENTCOMCOMPOSITESPARTA36THEEFFECTSOFTHERMALPROPERTIESOFVARIOUSFILLERSMAGNETITE,BARITE,COPPER,TALC,GLASSFIBRESANDSTRONTIUMFERRITEINVARIOUSPROPORTIONSONTHECOOLINGBEHAVIOUROFPOLYPROPYLENEMATRIXCOMPOSITESAREINVESTIGATEDINANINJECTIONMOULDINGPROCESSATHERMOCOUPLEINTHECAVITYOFTHEMOULDRECORDSTHETEMPERATURESATTHESURFACEOFTHECOMPOSITEDURINGINJECTIONMOULDINGFROMTHESLOPEOFTHECOOLINGCURVESTHETHERMALDIFFUSIVITIESOFTHECOMPOSITESAREESTIMATEDANDCOMPAREDWITHTHERMALDIFFUSIVITIESATROOMTEMPERATUREANDELEVATEDTEMPERATURESMEASUREDWITHATRANSIENTTECHNIQUETHECOOLINGCURVESSHOWDIFFERENTMERGINGSECTIONSAFFECTEDBYTHEAFTERPRESSURE,THEDIFFUSIVITYOFTHECOMPOSITEANDTHEDIFFUSIVITYOFPOLYPROPYLENEMATRIXTHECOOLINGBEHAVIOURDEPENDSONTHEANISOTROPICTHERMALDIFFUSIVITYOFTHEUSEDCOMPOSITE,WHICHISCAUSEDBYTHEALIGNMENTOFFILLERMATERIALDUETOTHEINJECTIONMOULDINGPROCESSANDTHEINTERCONNECTIVITYOFTHEFILLERPARTICLESTHETHERMALDIFFUSIVITYSHOWSTHEHIGHESTVALUEFOR30VOLTALCFILLEDPOLYPROPYLENE,WHEREASTHESHORTESTCOOLINGTIMEWASFOUNDFOR35VOLCOPPERFILLEDPOLYPROPYLENETHEKNOWLEDGEOFTHESYSTEMATICVARIATIONOFTHERMALTRANSPORTPROPERTIESOFCOMPOSITESDUETODIFFERENTFILLERMATERIALANDFILLERPROPORTIONSALLOWSTOOPTIMIZETHEMOULDPROCESSANDTOCUSTOMIZETHEHEATFLOWPROPERTIESFURTHERMORE,THESTRONGLYANISOTROPICTHERMALTRANSPORTPROPERTIESOFTALCFILLEDPOLYPROPYLENEALLOWTHEDESIGNOFCOMPOSITESWITHAPREDEFINEDMAXIMUMHEATFLOWCAPABILITYTOTRANSPORTHEATINAPREFERREDDIRECTIONKEYWORDSAPOLYMER–MATRIXCOMPOSITESPMCS;BTHERMALPROPERTIES;EINJECTIONMOULDING;PARTICULATEFILLER1INTRODUCTIONCOMMONLYUSEDPLASTICS,SUCHASPOLYPROPYLENEANDPOLYAMIDE,HAVEALOWTHERMALCONDUCTIVITYHOWEVER,NEWAPPLICATIONS,MAINLYINAUTOMOTIVEINDUSTRIES,EGFORSENSORSORACTUATORS,REQUIRENEWMATERIALSWITHANENHANCEDORHIGHTHERMALCONDUCTIVITY1BYTHEADDITIONOFSUITABLEFILLERSTOPLASTICS,THETHERMALBEHAVIOUROFPOLYMERSCANBECHANGEDSYSTEMATICALLYUPTOSIGNIFICANTHIGHERTHERMALDIFFUSIVITYOFO12MM2/SFROM02MM2/SFORUNFILLEDPOLYPROPYLENE2,3SUCHFILLEDPOLYMERSWITHHIGHERTHERMALCONDUCTIVITIESTHANUNFILLEDONESBECOMEMOREANDMOREANIMPORTANTAREAOFSTUDYBECAUSEOFTHEWIDERANGEOFAPPLICATIONS,EGINELECTRONICPACKAGING4–6THEHIGHERTHERMALCONDUCTIVITYCANBEACHIEVEDBYTHEUSEOFASUITABLEFILLERSUCHASALUMINIUM1,CARBONFIBRESANDGRAPHITE7,ALUMINIUMNITRIDES6,8ORMAGNETITEPARTICLES2ALSO,THECOOLINGBEHAVIOURINTHEMOULDOFTHEINJECTIONMOULDINGMACHINEISINFLUENCEDBYTHETHERMALPROPERTIESOFTHEPOLYMERFILLERCOMPOSITEHOWEVER,PUBLISHEDVALUESOFTHERMALCONDUCTIVITIESOFTHESAMEFILLERMATERIALSINDIFFERENTPOLYMERMATRICESVARYDRASTICALLYANDACOMPARISONOFDIFFERENTMATERIALSISDIFFICULTORATLEASTIMPOSSIBLE2COOLINGBEHAVIOUROFPARTICLEINJECTIONMOULDINGBERNDWEIDENFELLERA,,MICHAELAINSTITUTEOFPOLYMERSCIENCEANDPLASTICSPROCESSING,TECHNICALUNIVERSITYBGEOFORSCHUNGSZENTRUMPOTSDAM,SECTION41EXPERIMENTALGEOCHEMIRECEIVED25JUNE2004;FILLEDPOLYPROPYLENEDURINGPROCESSHOFERB,FRANKRSCHILLINGBCLAUSTHAL,AGRICOLASTRASSE6,D38678CLAUSTHALZELLERFELD,GERMANYANDMINERALPHYSICS,TELEGRAFENBERG,D14473POTSDAM,GERMANY4JULY20042005345–351TALCANDSRFE12O19WEREPREPAREDBYEXTRUSIONANDINJECTIONMOULDINGUSINGVARIOUSVOLUMEFRACTIONS0–50MAGNETITEANDBARITEAREGENERALLYUSEDTOINCREASETHEWEIGHTOFKOCHSTR42,D38678CLAUSTHALZELLERFELD,GERMANYTELC495323723708;FAXC495323723148EMAILADDRESSBERNDWEIDENFELLERTUCLAUSTHALDEBWEIDENFELLERCORRESPONDINGAUTHORPRESENTADDRESSINSTITUTEOFMETALLURGY,ROBERTMERCIALLYAVAILABLEFILLERSFE3O4,BASO4,CU,GLASSFIBRES,3EXPERIMENTALTALC,MG3SI4O10OH2STRONTIUMFERRITE,SRFE12O19COPPER,CUGLASSFIBRESL11176G000,L331069G135,A297,A300G010,A610G090L11401L12–1513141520151511PLATELETIRREGULARIRREGULARFIBRE278511894258ARETESPARTA362005345–3512THEORETICALCONSIDERATIONSTHEFOURIERLAWOFHEATTRANSPORTINONEDIMENSIONISGIVENBYVTVTZAV2TVX21WITHTEMPERATURET,TIMET,POSITIONXANDTHERMALDIFFUSIVITYAINANHOMOGENEOUSBODY,THERMALDIFFUSIVITYAANDTHERMALCONDUCTIVITYLAREINTERRELATEDBYSPECIFICDENSITYRPOLYPROPYLENE,EGFORBOTTLECLOSURESCOSMETICSINDUSTRY,CFREF10,STRONTIUMFERRITEISUSEDINPOLYMERBONDEDMAGNETS,GLASSFIBRESAREUSEDFORTHEREINFORCEMENTOFMATERIALS,ANDTALCISANANTIBLOCKINGAGENTHOWEVER,COPPERWASCHOSENASADDITIONALFILLERBECAUSEOFITSHIGHTHERMALCONDUCTIVITYCOMPAREDTOTHEOTHERMATERIALSTHETHERMALPROPERTIESOFTHESEINJECTIONMOULDEDSAMPLESANDTHEINJECTIONMOULDINGBEHAVIOURWEREINVESTIGATEDANDCORRELATEDTOTHEAMOUNTANDTHEKINDOFFILLERMATERIALTABLE1SELECTEDPROPERTIESOFFILLERMATERIALSMAGNETITE,FE3O4BARITE,BASO4THERMALCONDUCTIVITYW/MKA461G042,A510,L1197L11207G002,L33292G007,A172G004REFERENCE1313MEANPARTICLEDIAMETERMM915PARTICLESHAPEIRREGULARIRREGULARDENSITYG/CM351448ADENOTESMEASUREMENTSONMONOMINERALICAGGREGATESDIRECTIONSOFANISOTROPYANDL33AREPARALLELTOTHECRYSTALLOGRAPHICAXESA,BANDC,RESPECTIVELYBWEIDENFELLERETAL/COMPOSI346ANDSPECIFICHEATCAPACITYCPACCORDINGTOLZCPRA2ASSUMINGANINJECTIONMOULDINGPROCESSWITHANISOTHERMALFILLINGSTAGEFORAPOLYMERWITHATEMPERATURETPANDACONSTANTTEMPERATUREOFTHEMOULDTMASWELLASATEMPERATUREINDEPENDENTTHERMALDIFFUSIVITYA,ANANALYTICALSOLUTIONOFEQ1RESULTSIN9TZTMC4PTPKTMXNNZ012NC1EXPKA2NC12P2TS2C26C27SIN2NC1PXSC18C193INEQ3,SDENOTESTHEWALLTHICKNESSOFTHEINJECTIONMOULDEDPARTANDTTHETEMPERATUREOFTHEMOULDINGAFTER31MATERIALSTESTMATERIALSWERESUPPLIEDBYMINELCOBVTHENETHERLANDSMINELCOBVPREPAREDINCOOPERATIONWITHRTPSARLFRANCESEVERALPOLYPROPYLENEPPCOMPOUNDSWITHVARIOUSFILLERSFE3O4,BASO4,CU,GLASSFIBRES,TALCANDSRFE12O19INANEXTRUSIONPROCESSSIMILARTOTHATDESCRIBEDINREF2THEFILLERMATERIALSARECOMMONLYUSEDMATERIALSININDUSTRIALPRODUCTSTHEFILLERPARTICLESDONOTHAVEATIMETAFTERINJECTIONNEGLECTINGHIGHERORDERTERMS,EQ3CANBEREDUCEDFORTHEPOSITIONXZS/2TOTZTMC4PTPKTMEXPKAP2TS2C18C19C26C274EQ4GIVESARELATIONBETWEENCOOLINGRATEANDTHERMALDIFFUSIVITYINANINJECTIONMOULDINGPROCESS,WHEREHIGHTHERMALDIFFUSIVITIESRESULTINAHIGHERCOOLINGRATEANDSHORTERPROCESSCYCLESSPECIFIEDBYTHETHERMALCONDUCTIVITYTENSORL11,L22,L33,WHEREL11,L22SURFACECOATINGWHICHCANAFFECTTHERMALPROPERTIESSOMESELECTEDPROPERTIESOFTHEFILLERMATERIALSARELISTEDINTABLE1FIG1PHOTOGRAPHOFTHEUSEDMOULDFORTHEINJECTIONMOULDINGEXPERIMENTSTHEMOULDCONSISTSOFASTANDARDTENSILETESTSAMPLEANDATESTBARFORTHEMEASUREMENTOFTHERMALDIFFUSIVITYTIMECURVESTHESAMEINJECTIONMOULDINGPARAMETERSFORALLCOMPOSITEMATERIALSWERECHOSENTHEUSEDINJECTIONMACHINETHEPOSITIONOFTHETHERMOCOUPLEFORTEMPERATUREMEASUREMENTSISPARTA362005345–35134732THERMALDIFFUSIVITYMEASUREMENTSTHETHERMALDIFFUSIVITYOFTHEPOLYMERSISMEASUREDBYATRANSIENTMETHOD12,CLOSELYRELATEDTOLASERFLASHEXPERIMENTS11THEUSEDTRANSIENTTECHNIQUEISESPECIALLYOPTIMIZEDFORMEASUREMENTSOFPOLYPHASEAGGREGATESATEMPERATURESIGNALISTRANSFERREDTOTHEUPPERSIDEOFTHESAMPLEANDREGISTEREDBYATHERMOCOUPLETHETRANSFERREDTEMPERATURESIGNALSTARTSATHERMALEQUILIBRATIONPROCESSINTHESPECIMEN,WHICHISRECORDEDBYATHERMOCOUPLEASTHEDIFFERENCEBETWEENSAMPLE’SREARSURFACEANDACONSTANTTEMPERATUREINAFURNACEANDWHICHISUSEDFORTHEEVALUATIONOFTHERMALDIFFUSIVITYALEASTSQUARESALGORITHMISUSEDTODETERMINETHETHERMALDIFFUSIVITY,WHILEVARYINGSYSTEMATICALLYTHETHERMALDIFFUSIVITYVALUEINANESPECIALLYFIG2MOLDWITHCAVITYFORPREPARINGTESTSAMPLESINANINJECTIONMOULDINGMARKEDBYANARROWBWEIDENFELLERETAL/COMPOSITESDESIGNEDFINITEDIFFERENCESCHEMEADETAILEDDESCRIPTIONOFTHEAPPARATUSISGIVENBYSCHILLING12THEACCURACYOFTHEMEASUREMENTSOFTHEPOLYPHASEAGGREGATESIS3FORTHERMALDIFFUSIVITYMEASUREMENTS,SMALLCYLINDERSOF10MMDIAMETERAND5–6MMHEIGHTWERECUTOUTOFTHEINJECTIONMOULDEDRODSCFFIG133INJECTIONMOULDINGWITHANINJECTIONMOULDINGMACHINEALLROUNDER320C600250,ARBURG,GERMANYSTANDARDSAMPLESFORMEASURINGTENSILEPROPERTIESTOGETHERWITHARODFORTHERMALMEASUREMENTSOF10MMDIAMETERAND130MMLENGTHWEREPREPAREDINONEMOULDCFFIG1INTHECAVITYOFTHETENSILETESTBARACHROMELALUMELTYPEKTHERMOCOUPLEWASAPPLIEDDURINGINJECTIONMOULDINGEXPERIMENTSTHETEMPERATUREWASRECORDEDEVERY05SBYADIGITALMULTIMETERANDSTOREDINAPERSONALCOMPUTERTHEPOSITIONOFTHETHERMOCOUPLEATTHESAMPLESURFACEANDITSPOSITIONINTHECAVITYOFTHEEJECTORARESHOWNINFIGS1AND2,RESPECTIVELYTHETHERMOCOUPLESUBMERGESAPPROXIMATELY02MMINTOMOULDINGPARAMETERSARELISTEDINTABLE2THERESULTANTCHARACTERISTICTIMESOFTHEINJECTIONMOULDINGCYCLEARETABLEDINTABLE34RESULTSANDDISCUSSIONINFIG3,THECOOLINGBEHAVIOUROFPOLYPROPYLENEWITHOUTANDWITHVARIOUSFRACTIONSOFMAGNETITEFILLERAREPRESENTEDTHECAVITYTHEREFORE,AGOODTHERMALCONTACTBETWEENPOLYMERANDTHERMOCOUPLEEVENAFTERSHRINKAGE10OFTHEMOULDINGISENSUREDFORABETTERCOMPARISONOFTHERECORDEDTEMPERATURE–TABLE3CHARACTERISTICTIMESINONEINJECTIONMOULDINGCYCLESTARTINGWITHTHEINJECTIONOFTHEPOLYMERINTOTHECAVITYATTIMETIZK85SUNTILTHEEJECTIONOFTHEMOULDATTFZ68SINJECTIONTIMESK85–2DWELLTIMES2–9COOLINGTIMES9–54OPEN/CLOSETIMEEJECTIONTIMES54–68TOTALCYCLETIMES765THESETIMESDEFINETHETIMEAXISABSCISSAOFFIGS3AND6TABLE2INJECTIONMOULDINGPARAMETERSDURINGPREPARATIONOFSAMPLERODSFORMEASUREMENTSOFTHERMALDIFFUSIVITYBYTRANSIENTTECHNIQUEMASSPOLYMERTEMPERATURE8C200MOULDTEMPERATURE8C20CYCLETIMES765INJECTIONTIMES105DOSINGTIMES124HOLDINGPRESSURETIMES70INJECTIONPRESSUREPA6107YLENECOMPOSITESWITHVARIOUSFILLERFRACTIONSOFFE3O4THESYMBOLSAREMEASUREDTESPARTA362005345–351ATATIMET0Z0STHETEMPERATUREMEASUREDBYTHETHERMOCOUPLEREACHESAMAXIMUMVALUEAROUND2008CWITHINCREASINGTIMETHEOBSERVEDTEMPERATUREDECREASESAFTERTZ54STHEMOULDOPENSANDTHECOOLINGBEHAVIOURRECORDEDWITHTHETHERMOCOUPLECHANGESBECAUSEITISNOLONGERINCONTACTWITHTHEINJECTIONMOULDEDMATERIALDUETOTHELARGEDIAMETEROFTHEROD,THETIME54SUNTILTHEMOULDISOPENEDANDTHEINJECTIONMOULDEDPARTSAREEJECTEDISCHOSENRELATIVELYHIGHTOENSURETHATTHEPARTSARESURELYSOLIDIFIEDITCANBESEENINFIG3THATTHESLOPEOFTHECURVECHANGESSIGNIFICANTLYAFTERTZ9S,WHICHCORRESPONDSTOTHETIMEFIG3COMPARISONOFCOOLINGCURVESOFUNFILLEDPOLYPROPYLENEWITHPOLYPROPVALUES;THELINESAREREGRESSIONLINESCFTEXTBWEIDENFELLERETAL/COMPOSI348WHERETHEAFTERPRESSUREISREMOVEDADDITIONALLY,FIG3POINTSOUTTHATTHECOMPOSITEINTHECAVITYCOOLSDOWNFASTERWITHINCREASINGMAGNETITEFRACTIONTOREACHATEMPERATUREOFTZ608CATEMPERATUREFARBELOWTHESOLIDIFICATIONOFTHESAMPLETHEPOLYPROPYLENENEEDSINTHEDESCRIBEDEXPERIMENTATIMEOFTZ505S,WHEREASCOOLINGTIMEOFPOLYPROPYLENEWITH50VOLFE3O4ISREDUCEDTOTZ309SCFTABLE4THEREDUCEDCOOLINGTIMEISINGOODAGREEMENTWITHTHEINCREASEDTHERMALDIFFUSIVITYOFMAGNETITEFILLEDCOMPOSITESDUETOTHEHIGHTHERMALDIFFUSIVITYOFTHEPARTICLESCFTABLE1WHICHLEADS,REGARDINGEQ4,TOANINCREASEDCOOLINGRATETHETEMPERATURETIMEDEPENDENCEINFIG3DOESNOTFOLLOWASI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