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外文翻译--液压油.doc

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外文翻译--液压油.doc

徐州工程学院毕业设计(论文)1附录2英文原文HydraulicfluidsHydraulicfluidsarealargegroupoffluidsusedasthemotivemediuminhydraulicmachinery.Fluidtypesincludesyntheticcompounds,mineraloil,water,andwaterbasedmixtures.Thefluidsarefoundinmachineryandequipmentrangingfrombrakes,powersteeringsystems,andtransmissionstobackhoes,excavators,garbagetrucksandindustrialshredders.Hydraulicsystemsareverycommoninaircraftflightcontrolsystems.Hydraulicsystemsliketheonesmentionedabovewillworkmostefficientlyifthehydraulicfluidusedhaslowcompressibility.BecauseindustrialhydraulicsystemsoperateathundredstothousandsofPSIandtemperaturesreachinghundredsofdegreesCelsius,severeinjuriesanddeathcanresultfromcomponentfailuresandcaremustalwaysbetakenwhenperformingmaintenanceonhydraulicsystems.Fireresistanceisapropertyavailablewithspecializedfluids.Theuseofhydraulicsystemsinaircraftalmostcertainlybeganwithbrakingsystems.citationneededAsaircraftperformanceincreasedinmid20thcentury,theamountofforcerequiredtooperatemechanicalflightcontrolsbecameexcessive,andhydraulicsystemswereintroducedtoreducepiloteffort.Thehydraulicactuatorsarecontrolledbyvalvestheseinturnareoperateddirectlybyinputfromtheaircrewhydromechanicalorbycomputersobeyingcontrollawsflybywire.Seeflightcontrols.Hydraulicpowerisusedforotherpurposes.ItcanbestoredinaccumulatorstostartanauxiliarypowerunitAPUforselfstartingtheaircraftsmainengines.ManyaircraftequippedwiththeM61familyofcannonusehydraulicpowertodrivethegunsystem,permittingreliablehighratesoffire.Thehydraulicpoweritselfcomesfrompumpsdrivenbytheenginesdirectly,orbyelectricallydrivenpumps.Electricpumpscanprovidebothredundancyandthemeansofoperatinghydraulicsystemswithoutstartingtheengines,whichcanbeveryusefulduringmaintenance.AircrafthydraulicfluidsfallundervariousspecificationsExposuretohydraulicfluidsoccursmainlyintheworkplace.Drinkingcertaintypesofhydraulicfluidscancausedeathinhumans,andswallowingorinhalingcertaintypesofhydraulicfluidshascausednervedamageinanimals.Contactwithsometypesofhydraulicfluidscanirritate徐州工程学院毕业设计(论文)2yourskinoreyes.Thesesubstanceshavebeenfoundinatleast10ofthe1,428NationalPrioritiesListsitesidentifiedbytheEnvironmentalProtectionAgencyEPA.WhatishydraulicfluidsHydraulicfluidsarealargegroupofliquidsmadeofmanykindsofchemicals.Theyareusedinautomobileautomatictransmissions,brakes,andpowersteeringforklifttruckstractorsbulldozersindustrialmachineryandairplanes.Thethreemostcommontypesofhydraulicfluidsaremineraloil,organophosphateester,andpolyalphaolefin.SomeofthetradenamesforhydraulicfluidsincludeDurad®,Fyrquel®,Skydrol®,HoughtonSafe®,Pydraul®,Reofos®,Reolube®,andQuintolubric®.UseoftradenamesisforidentificationonlyanddoesnotimplyendorsementbytheAgencyforToxicSubstancesandDiseaseRegistry,thePublicHealthService,ortheU.S.DepartmentofHealthandHumanServices.Somehydraulicfluidshaveabland,oilysmellandothershavenosmellsomewillburnandsomewillnotburn.Certainhydraulicfluidsareproducedfromcrudeoilandothersaremanufactured.WhathappenstohydraulicfluidswhenitenterstheenvironmentHydraulicfluidscanentertheenvironmentfromspills,leaksinmachinesthatusethem,orfromstorageareasandwastesites.Ifspilledonsoil,someoftheingredientsinhydraulicfluidswillstayontopandotherswillsinkintothegroundwater.Inwater,somehydraulicfluidsingredientswilltransfertothebottomandcanstaythereformorethanayear.Certainchemicalsinhydraulicfluidsmaybreakdowninair,soil,orwater,buthowmuchbreaksdownisntknown.Fishmaycontainsomehydraulicfluidsiftheyliveincontaminatedwater.HowmightIbeexposedtohydraulicfluidsTouchingorswallowinghydraulicfluids.Breathinghydraulicfluidsintheairnearmachineswherehydraulicfluidsareused.Touchingcontaminatedwaterorsoilnearhazardouswastesitesorindustrialmanufacturingfacilitiesthatuseormakehydraulicfluids.HowcanhydraulicfluidsaffectmyhealthLittleisknownabouthowhydraulicfluidscanaffectyourhealth.Sincehydraulicfluidsareactuallymixturesofchemicals,someoftheeffectsseenmaybecausedbyadditivesinthehydraulicfluids.Inpeople,theeffectsofbreathingairwithhighlevelsofhydraulicfluidsarenotknown.Drinkinglargeamountsofsometypesofhydraulicfluidscancausepneumonia,intestinal徐州工程学院毕业设计(论文)3bleeding,ordeathinhumans.Weaknessofthehandswasseeninaworkerwhotouchedalotofhydraulicfluids.Rabbitsthatinhaledveryhighlevelsofonetypeofhydraulicfluidhadtroublebreathing,congestedlungs,andbecamedrowsy.Thenervoussystemsofanimalsthatswallowedorinhaledotherhydraulicfluidswereaffectedimmediatelywithtremors,diarrhea,sweating,breathingdifficulty,andsometimesseveralweekslaterwithweaknessofthelimbs,orparalysis.Theimmediateeffectsarecausedbecausehydraulicfluidsstoptheactionofcertainenzymes,calledcholinesterases,inthebody.Therearenoreportsofpeopleswallowingorbreathingthetypesofhydraulicfluidsthatcausetheseeffects.Whencertaintypesofhydraulicfluidswereputintotheeyesofanimalsorallowedtotouchtheskinofpeopleoranimalsforshortperiodsoftime,rednessandswellingoccurred.Itisnotknownwhetherhydraulicfluidscancausebirthdefectsorreproductiveeffects.IsthereamedicaltesttoshowwhetherIvebeenexposedtohydraulicfluidsHydraulicfluidscantbemeasuredinblood,urine,orfeces,butcertainchemicalsinthehydraulicfluidscanbemeasured.Someofthehydraulicfluidsstoptheactivityofcertainenzymes,calledcholinesterases,inbloodandthisactivitycanbemeasured.However,manyotherchemicalsalsocausethiseffect.Thistestisntavailableatmostdoctorsoffices,butcanbedoneatspeciallaboratoriesthathavetherightequipment.HasthefederalgovernmentmaderecommendationstoprotecthumanhealthTherearenofederalgovernmentrecommendationstoprotecthumansfromthehealtheffectsofthemajorhydraulicfluids.However,mineraloil,themajorchemicalingredientofonetypeofhydraulicfluid,ispartofthepetroleumdistillateclassofchemicalsandthereareregulationsforthesechemicals.TheOccupationalSafetyandHealthAdministrationOSHAhassetanexposurelimitof2,000milligrampercubicmetermg/m³petroleumdistillatesforan8hourworkday,40hourworkweek.TheNationalInstituteforOccupationalSafetyandHealthNIOSHrecommendsanexposurelimitof350mg/m³petroleumdistillatesfora10hourworkday,40hourworkweek.GlossaryAdditiveSubstanceaddedtoanotherinsmallamountstoimproveitsproperties.CASChemicalAbstractsService.CarcinogenicityAbilitytocausecancer.PetroleumDistillateAchemicalfractionofpetroleum徐州工程学院毕业设计(论文)4中文译文液压油液压油是一种作为动力传输使用很广泛的液体。流体类型包括合成化合物,矿物油,水和水基混合物。流体在机器及设备,包括刹车,动力转向系统,传输,推土机,挖掘机,垃圾车及工业碎纸机中都出现过。液压系统在飞机飞行控制系统中是非常普遍的。如果液压油用低压缩的话,像上述液压系统工作是最有效的,。在液压系统中,因为工业液压系统在数百至数千防扩散安全倡议及温度达到数百摄氏度的运作,造成严重受伤和死亡的结果,必须时刻注意。耐火是液压油使用的需要。液压系统在飞机的开始与制动系统中使用几乎是肯定的。引文需要在20世纪中期,飞机性能的提高,使机械操作不能满足控制需要,液压系统的出现,减轻了飞行员的操作压力。阀控制了液压致动器这些反过来又是直接经营的投入,液压机械或由计算机控制航线,飞行管制。液压动力可用于其他用途。它可以储存在蓄电池启动辅助动力单元(APU)为自动启动飞机的主引擎。许多飞机配备了液压动力来驱动火炮系统,防火可靠率高。液压动力本身是来自水泵的直接驱动引擎,或者是电动泵。电动水泵,可以提供没有启动引擎的冗余和手段经营液压系统,它在维修工程中是可以非常适用的,。飞机液压流体有各种规格接触到液压油主要发生在工作场所。饮用某些类型的液压油可导致人类死亡,吞咽或吸入某些类型的液压油,可造成动物的神经损伤。接触到某些类型的液压油可以刺激您的皮肤或眼睛。这些物质被列在至少10个国家的优先事项清单中所确定的环境保护政策里。什么是液压油液压油是一个许多种化学品制成的大集团的液体。它们被用来在汽车自动变速器,制动器,以及动力转向叉车拖拉机推土机工业机械和飞机上。三种最常见的类型的液压油是矿物油,有机酯。一些业内人士的名字被命名的液压油,包括Durad®,Fyrquel®,Skydrol®,HoughtonSafe®,Pydraul®,Reofos®,Reolube®,andQuintolubric®。(使用商品名称仅是为了进行识别,并不意味着通过该机构为有毒物质和疾病登记,公共卫生服务,或美国商务部的卫生与人类服务)。一些液压油有一个空洞,含油气味或没有臭味有些人会烧伤而其他的将不会烧伤。某些液压油用原油及其他制品生产。当它进入特定环境时液压油会发生什么变化呢液压油可以进入免受泄漏,泄漏的机器上使用它们,或储藏区和废品站等环境。

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