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外文翻译--焊接电弧传感器的研究现状和对未来的展望.doc

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外文翻译--焊接电弧传感器的研究现状和对未来的展望.doc

TheresearchandfutureprospectsofthearcsensorWeldseamtrackingistoensurethatthepremiseofqualityandweldingautomation,andsensorsarethebasisforachievingthisprerequisite.Weldingsensoraccordingtothedifferentwaysofsensingadditionalsensorscanbedividedintotwomajorcategoriesandarcsensors.Mostofthetraditionalseamtrackingisanadditionaltypeofsensor,forexample,touchsensors,electromagneticsensorsandavarietyofopticalsensors,suchsensorsisthesensorandthecommonproblemsistheseparationofthearc,thesensordetectionpointarcwithacertaindistanceaway,alargearcintheweldingseamwillaffecttrackingperformance.Thearcsensorusingthearcweldingprocess,thecurrentwaveformorthechangeofarcvoltagewaveformsobtainedARCCentrehasdeviatedfromtheseamasthesensorinformationandrealtime,trackingwell.Arcsensorisitsbiggestadvantageoftheantiarc,hightemperatureandstrongmagneticfieldsarestrong,anditisalwaysconsistentwiththeoverallarc,simplestructure,lowcost,atpresent,arcweldingsensorasameansofsensorsmuchnationalattention,manyforeignweldingequipmentresearchandmanufacturingorganizationsareworkingtodevelopthisarea.Earlystartofthestudyofindustrialcountries,havedevelopedavarietyofarcscanformssuchasdoublewiretie,swingandrotationofthearcsensor,suitableforsubmergedarcwelding,TIGandMIG/MAGweldingmethods,suchasdifferent,andsomehavebeenusedinweldingproduction.Manycountriesontheproductionofarcweldingrobotequippedwithswingarcsensortrackingdevice.1Classificationofarcsensor1.1SwingscanningarcsensorSwingarcscanningiscurrentlythemostwidelyusedsensorofaweldingarcsensor,whichneedsaswingarcsensordevice,inthehorizontaldirectionoftheweldseamtrackingbackandforthandachieve.Usedinarcweldingrobotsensorsdonotneedtoswingonaswingdevice,drivenbytherobotarmforhorizontalswingtotorch.However,theimpactofstructuralfactorsbyrobots,robotbeatfrequencyof10HzisgenerallylessasshowninFigure1a.Inthehighspeedarcweldingandweldlargecases,thetrackingperformancewillbeaffected.MKODAMAinventedanelectromagnetichighspeedswingarcsensor,thesensoronbothsidesofthisarchasapermanentmagnetandexcitingcoil,whentheexcitationcoiloftheDCcurrentthroughacertainfrequency,theconductiverodswingwillproduceacertainfrequencytoachieveseamtracking.Thishighspeedswingarcsensorgenerallycanbeatfrequencyadjustablebetween040Hz,04mmadjustableswing,themaximumweldingspeed400mm/sec.Itfeaturessmallsize,lessweight1Kg,thestructureshowninFigure1b.1.2DoublewireparallelarcsensorThearcsensorusingtwoseparateparallelarcweldingontheworkpiece,theweldingwirearoundthetwocurrentvoltagedifferencebetweentheprovisionoftwoelectricarcweldinghasdeviatedfromthecenterlineofinformation,thuscanberealizedseamtracking.Accordingtothetwoarcparametersandcomparethedifferencebetweenthereferencevaluecanalsobeachievedbetweenthetipandthesurfacedistanceadjustment.Thissensingmethodistheuseofarcstaticcharacteristicparameterschangeasthesensorsignal,usethesametwoparameterswereindependentlooppowerparallelgroovewelding,torchstructuremorecomplex,therearecertaindifficultiesinimplementation,sotheutilityonrestricted.1.3highspeedrotatingarcsensorscanThearcsensortorotatethearcinsteadoftheswingarc,therotationfrequencyupto100Hz.Twentiethcentury,theeighties,NKKCorporationofJapanhasinventedarotatingarcsensor,andappliedtothenarrowgapweld,theprincipleshowninFigure2conductiverodastheconeofthebus,aroundtheconeaxisofrotationrevolution,andnotconductingrodarounditsaxisofrotationrotation,andthemagnitudeofconemovementatthetopofasmalldiameterofthisstructureistoadjustthescanningconeangleadjustment,thesensorneedtouseageardrive,thestructurelarge,affectingtheaccessibilityofweldingtorch.NKKCorporationofthistechnologyinships,boilersandstructuretobeappliedinproduction,andachievedremarkableresults.CHKimKoreaproducedahighspeedrotatingarcsensor,showninFigure3,thesensortipdependontheeccentricitytoachievethearcoftherotatingtipoftheeccentricityisthearcradius.Althoughitsrotatingbodyisrelativelysimple,compact,butitshighspeedrotation,thewiretipmustbeinthesamerotationalspeed,whichexacerbatedthetipoftheloss.GermanyU.Diltheyalsodonealotofhighspeedrotatingarcsensorresearch,productionandmadethearcseamtrackingsensors.InChina,startingfromthelateeighties,toTsinghuaUniversity,AcademyofPanJiluanresearchgroupheadedbytherotatingarcsensorhasdonealotofresearchwork,andhasmadevaluablescientificresearch.In1993,TsinghuaUniversitydoctoralstudentinthedoctoralstudentfeesLiaoswordjumpagriculturalresearch,basedonthesuccessfuldevelopmentofahollowshaftmotordrivenrotatingscansensors,andaccesstoanationalpatent,showninFigure4.Thishighspeedrotatingarcsensorscandesignusingthehollowshafttothehollowmotorastheprimemover,skewconductiverodthroughthehollowshaftmotor.Inthehollowshaftend,throughthecoaxialbearingsinstalledaligningconductiverod,theconductiverodeccentricpositioniszero,aligningbearingscanbeinstalledonthemotorshaftorhousing.Thebottomofthehollowshaft,theeccentricsleeveinstalledintheshaft,theeccentricsleevekitinstalledintheeccentrichole,aligningbearingkitinstalledintheeccentrichole,conductiverodinstalledinthebearinghole.Bytheeccentricityofthedepartmentconductingrodinsideandoutsidetherespectiveeccentricityeccentricsleeveandinnereccentricrelativetotheangleoftheeccentricsleeveanddecidedtoturn.Whenthemotorrotates,thebearingswillbestruckdownasataperedconductivebusbararoundtheaxisasthemotorrevolution,orasconicalswing.Inrecentyears,NanchangUniversityinJiangxiProvinceKeyLaboratoryofroboticsandweldingautomationonthebasisofthishighspeedrotatingarcsensorscanandvibrationinsmallareassuchasindepthandmeticulousresearch,andwasfurtherimproved,producedaprototype,theprototypeinstalledinthearcweldingrobotsuccessfullycarriedoutinrealtimetracking,Figure5fortheinstallationofthehollowshaftintherobotrotatingarcsensor.2arcweldingperformancesensor2.1weldarcsensorRotatingarcweldingandarcforthesensororinastraightlineswingweldwhensignificantlydifferent,thedifferentmovementsoftheweldingarcweldunderwayhavebeenstudied,Figure6forthreekindsofarcweldingduringexerciseseamformingcomparisonchart.Rotationinthearcmode,thewidthoftheweldmovementpatternthantheothertwoaslightincreaseinpenetrationhasbeenreduced,weldreinforcementslightlyreduced,duetohighspeedrotationarc,dropletbytherotatingcentrifugalforcetheroleofthepooltothesurroundingfired,resultinginincreasingthewidthofthepoolrotationfrequencyofthelargerarcofrotation,apointarcinthereducedlengthofstay,andaccordingly,thearcforceontheroleofpoolatthebottomofshorteningthetimepenetrationdecreasetheeffectofcentrifugalforceandthescopeoftheexpansionofthearc,weldreinforcementdecreases.Seamweldinginthehorizontalangle,highspeedrotatingarcformingsignificantlyimproved,theprotrudingshapeoftheweldarcimprovedhighspeedrotation.Thehorizontalangleofthehighspeedrotatingarcweldwerestudiedweldingatthehorizontalangle,therotatingarcpressureactingonthemoltenpoolonthesurfaceoftheeffectofreduceddispersionandimprovedthesmoothnessoftheweld.Rotatingweldingonbothsidesoftheweldpenetrationinalloftheincrease,andtendtotheweb,itisbecauseofthehighspeedrotatingarcandarcpowertoheatevenlyscatteredaround,reducingerosionofthearcrootoftheweldpooltheroleoftherotationarcoftheweldpoolwillproducestirringforce,weakenedthemoltenpoolofmetalgravity,Figure7isastraightlinerotatingarcweldingandweldweldinganglecontroldiagram.Intheactualuseofrotatingarcweldingsensor,adjusttheanglebetweenthegunandthewebtogetgoodwelds.2.2arcsensorresearchinhighspeedweldingIntheactualweldingproductioninordertoimproveproductivity,oftenrequirehighspeedwelding,otherweldingsheetmetal,inordertoavoidweldingtowear,butalsoneedhighspeedwelding.Inordertostudythehighspeedrotatingarcweldingsensorperformance,threekindsofarcmovementpatternie,thearcinastraightline,swingmovementandhighspeedrotationweldingwasstudied.Figure8showsthemovementpatternofthreeweldingarcwelddiagram.Linearmotioninthehighspeedweldingtorchwhentheweldispoor,thereareundercutandweldtherewasahumpweldmetal,whichisduetohigherweldingcurrent,weldingspeedfaster,then,arcweldpooltheroleofliquidmetalinthebackofastrong,deepcrater,andnotenoughliquidmetaltofillthecrateronbothsides,thuscreatingabitingedge.AsshowninFigure8atorchswingingmotioninthehighspeedweldingoftheweldasshowninFigure8b,weldwavy,andtheshapeispoor,severelyundercutFigure8cisahighspeedrotationweldingtorchintheweldwhenthemap,weld,andnoundercut,becausethehighspeedrotationarctoarcanddispersionforcesonthemoltenpool,craterdepthdecreases,reducingthearcofthehighspeedrotationarconthebackoftheroleoftheliquidmetalpoolthusformingagoodweld.Highspeedrotatingarcweldingrobottrackingcontrolofhighspeed,thesampleforthethicknessof3.2mm,500mmlong,wavylapjoint,theweldingcurrentis300A,therotationfrequencyis50Hz,thetrackingspeedof120cm/min.MKODAMAdevelopedhighspeedelectromagneticdriveswingarcsensorintheweldingcurrent530A,whentheoscillationfrequencyof20Hzweldingspeedcanreach120cm/min.3,amathematicalmodelofarcsensor3.1ThemathematicalmodelofthestaticarcsensorStaticmodelreferstotheatmosphere,welding,powersupplyparameters,wirefeedweldingtorchandtheworkpiecespeedanddistanceareconstant,stablearcburningconditions,therelationshipbetweenthevariousphysicalquantities.Theresultsshowthattheexternalcharacteristicfeaturestoeasethepowerdown,thetorchheightHandthecurrentaveragevalueItherelationshipbetweentherangecanbeusedasalargelinearsystemtodealwith.Workinthearcbasicfixedfixedwirefeedspeedandtheexternalcharacteristic,thearcsensorstaticmodelisHKstICWhereKstfortheweldingtorchheightandtherelationshipbetweenweldingcurrentfactorIforthecurrentsamplevalueCisthemaximumtheoreticalvalueoftheweldingtorchheight.IfKst,Cisknown,thenIcancalculatebasedoncurrentactualvalueoftheweldingtorchheightH,andthencomparedwiththegivenvalue,thedifferenceistheamountofweldingtorchheightadjustment.3.2ThedynamicmathematicalmodelofarcsensorDynamicmathematicalmodelofarcsensorquantitativelydescribestherelationshipbetweeninputandoutput.StudiessuggestthatForthedynamicresponsewithexcellentweldingpower,itsdynamiccharacteristicscanbeconsideredastheproportionofoutsidelinks,thedynamicmodelisfirstordermodelwhentheexternalcharacteristicfortheinertia,thearcforthesecondorderdynamicmodelofthesensormodel.Throughtheoreticalandexperimentalresearchthatinarcweldingpowersupplyhasagooddynamicquality,themathematicalmodeliszeroandapolewithafirstordersystembutwillchangethedynamiccharacteristicsofarcweldingpowersourceisfirstordersystem,themathematicalmodeliszeroandtwopoleswithasecondordersystem.Filamentssubmergedarcsensorontheresearch,hasbeenadynamicmodelofthearcsensor,andthesecondordermodelpowerdynamiccornerfrequencythegreatertheamplitudefrequencycharacteristicsofarcsensortransitionfrequencytohighfrequencymovement.Therefore,thepowerdynamicqualitywilldirectlyaffectthesensorperformance.3.3arcweldthemathematicalmodelofthesensorEstablishedahighspeedrotatingarcsensormathematicalmodelofweld.Selectedfourmajorweldingparameters,namelyweldingvoltageU,weldingcurrentI,KandspinrotationfrequencydiameterD.TakingintoaccounttheprocessparametersU,I,KandDandtheinteractionofanitemhaveamajorimpactontheweld,usingaregressionorthogonaldesign,withtwolevelorthogonaltableL16215conducted16

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