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外文翻译--现代的控制理论简介.doc

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外文翻译--现代的控制理论简介.doc

67附录IntroductiontoModernControlTheoryIntroductiontoModernControlTheorySeveralfactorsprovidedthestimulusforthedevelopmentofmoderncontroltheorya.Thenecessaryofdealingwithmorerealisticmodelsofsystem.b.Theshiftinemphasistowardsoptimalcontrolandoptimalsystemdesign.c.Thecontinuingdevelopmentsindigitalcomputertechnology.d.Theshortcomingofpreviousapproaches.e.Recognitionoftheapplicabilityofwellknownmethodsinotherfieldsofknowledge.Thetransitionfromsimpleapproximatemodels,whichareeasytoworkwith,tomorerealisticmodels,producestwoeffects.First,alargenumberofvariablesmustbeincludedinthemodels.Second,amorerealisticmodelismorelikelytocontainnonlinearitiesandtimevaryingparameters.Previouslyignoredaspectsofthesystem,suchasinteractionswithfeedbackthroughtheenvironment,aremorelikelytobeincluded.Withanadvancingtechnologicalsociety,thereisatrendtowardsmoreambitiousgoals.Thisalsomeansdealingwithcomplexsystemwithalargenumberofinteractingcomponents.Theneedforgreateraccuracyandefficiencyhaschangertheemphasisoncontrolsystemperformance.Theclassicalspecificationsintermsofpercentovershoot,settingtime,bandwidth,etc.haveinmanycasesgivenwaytooptimalcriteriasuchasminimumenergy,minimumcost,andminimumtimeoperation.Optimizationofthesecriteriamakesitevenmoredifficulttoavoiddealingwithunpleasantnonlinearities.Optimalcontroltheoryoftendictatesthatnonlineartimevaryingcontrollawsareused,evenifthebasicsystemislinearandtimeinvariant.68Thecontinuingadvancesincomputertechnologyhavehadthreeprincipaleffectsonthecontrolsfield.Oneoftheserelatestothegiganticsupercomputers.Thesizeandtheclassoftheproblemsthatcannowbemodeled,analyzed,andcontrolledareconsiderablylargethantheywerewhenthefirsteditionofthisbookwaswritten.ThesecondimpactofthecomputertechnologyhastosowiththeproliferationandwideavailabilityofthemicrocomputersinhomesandItheworkplace,classicalcontroltheorywasdominatedbygraphicalmethodsbecauseatthetimethatwastheonlywaytosolvecertainproblems,Noweverycontroldesignerhaseasyaccesstopowerfulcomputerpackagesforsystemsanalysisanddesign.Theoldgraphicalmethodshavenotyetdisappeared,buthavebeenautomated.Theysurvivebecauseoftheinsightandintuitionthattheycanprovide,somedifferenttechniquesareoftenbettersuitedtoacomputer.Althoughacomputercanbeusedtocarryouttheclassicaltransforminversetransformmethods,itisusedusuallymoreefficientforacomputertointegratedifferentialequationsdirectly.Thethirdmajorimpactofthecomputersisthattheyarenowsocommonlyusedasjustanothercomponentinthecontrolsystems.ThismeansthatthediscretetimeanddigitalsystemcontrolnowdeservesmuchmoreattentionthanModerncontroltheoryiswellsuitedtotheabovetrendsbecauseitstimedomaintechniquesanditsmathematicallanguagematrices,linearvectorspaces,etc.areidealwhendealingwithacomputer.Computersareamajorreasonfortheexistenceofstatevariablemethods.Mostclassicalcontroltechniquesweredevelopedforlinearconstantcoefficientsystemswithoneinputandoneoutputperhapsafewinputsandoutputs.ThelanguageofclassicaltechniquesistheLaplaceorZtransformandtransferfunctions.Whennonlinearitiesadtimevariationsarepresent,theverybasisfortheseclassicaltechniquesisremoved.Somesuccessfultechniquessuchasphaseplanemethods,describingfunctions,andotheradhocmethods,havebeendevelopedtoalleviantthisshortcoming.However,thegreatestsuccesshasbeenlimitedtolowordersystems.Thestatevariableapproachofmoderncontroltheoryprovidesauniformandpowerfulmethodofrepresentingsystemsofarbitraryorder,linearornonlinear,withtimevarying69orconstantcoefficient.Itprovidesanidealformulationforcomputerimplementationandisresponsibleformuchoftheprogressinoptimizationtheory.Moderncontroltheoryisarecentdevelopmentinthefieldofcontrol.Therefore,thenameisjustifiedatleastasadescriptivetitle.However,thefoundationsofmoderncontroltheoryaretobefoundinotherwellestablishedfields.RepresentingasystemintermsofstatevariablesisequivalenttotheapproachofHamiltonianmechanics,usinggeneralizedcoordinatesandgeneralizedmoment.TheadvantagesofthisapproachhavebeenwellknownIclassicalphysicsformanyyears.Theadvantagesofusingmatriceswhendealingwithsimultaneousequationsofvariouskindshavelongbeenappreciatedinappliedmathematics.Thefieldoflinearalgebraalsocontributesheavilytomoderncontroltheory.Thisisduetotheconcisenotation,thegeneralityoftheresults,andtheeconomyofthoughtthatlinearalgebraprovides.MechanismofSurfaceFinishProductionTherearebasicallyfivemechanismswhichcontributetotheproductionofasurfacewhichhavebeenmachined.Thereare1Thebasicgeometryofthecuttingprocess.In,forexample,singlepointturningthetoolwilladvanceaconstantdistanceaxiallyperrevolutionoftheworkpieceandtheresultantsurfacewillhaveonit,whenviewedperpendicularlytothedirectionoftoolfeedmotion,aseriesofcuspswhichwillhaveabasicformwhichreplicatestheshapeofthetoolincut.2Theefficiencyofthecuttingoperation.Ithasalreadybeenmentionedthatcuttingwithunstablebuiltupedgeswillproduceasurfacewhichcontainshardbuiltupedgefragmentswhichwillresultinadegradationofthesurfacefinish.Itcanalsobedemonstratedthatcuttingunderadverseconditionssuchasapplywhenusinglargefeedssmallrakeanglesandlowcuttingspeeds,besidesproducingconditionswhichcontinuousshearoccurringintheshearzone,tearingtakesplace,discontinuouschipsofuneventhicknessareproduced,andtheresultantsurfaceispoor.Thissituationisparticularlynoticeablewhenmachiningveryductilematerialssuchascopperandaluminum.703Thestabilityofthemachinetool.Undersomecombinationsofcuttingconditionsworkpiecesize,methodofclamping,andcuttingtoolrigidityrelativetothemachinetoolstructure,instabilitycanbesetupinthetoolwhichcausesittovibrate.Undersomeconditionsthevibrationwillbuiltupandunlesscuttingisstoppedconsiderabledamagetoboththecuttingtoolandworkpiecemayoccur.Thisphenomenonisknownaschatterandinaxialturningischaracterizedbylongpitchhelicalbandsontheworkpiecesurfaceandshortpitchundulationsonthetransientmachinedsurface.4Theeffectivenessofremovingsward.Indiscontinuouschipproductionmachining,suchasmillingorturningofbrittlematerials,itisexpectedthatthechipswardwillleavethecuttingzoneeitherundergravityorwiththeassistanceofajetofcuttingfluidandthattheywillnotinfluencethecutsurfaceinanyway.However,whencontinuouschipproductionisevident,unlessstepsatetakentocontroltheswarfitislikelythatitwillimpingeonthecutsurfaceandmarkit.Inevitably,thismarkingbesidealookingunattractive,oftenresultsinapoorersurfacefinishing,5Theeffectiveclearanceangleonthecuttingtool.Forcertaingeometriesofminorcuttingedgereliefandclearanceanglesitispossibletocutonthemajorcuttingedgeandburnishontheminorcuttingedge.Thiscanproduceagoodsurfacefinishbut,ofcourse,itisstrictlyacombinationofmetalcuttingandmetalformingandisnottoberecommendedasapracticalcuttingmethod.However,duetocuttingtoolwear,theseconditionsoccasionallyariseandleadtoamarkedchangeinthesurfacecharacteristics.SurfaceFinishingandDimensionalControlProductsthathavebeencompletedtotheirpropershapeandsizefrequentlyrequiresometypeofsurfacefinishingtoenablethantosatisfactorilyfulfilltheirfunction.Insomecases,titisnecessarytoimprovethephysicalpropertiesofthesurfacematerialforresistancetopenetrationorabrasion.Inmanymanufacturingprocesses,theproductsurfaceisleftwithdirt,chips,grease,orotherharmfulmaterialuponit.Assembliesthataremadeofdifferentmaterials,orfromthesamematerialsprocessedindifferentmanners,manyrequiresomespecialsurfacetreatmenttoprovideuniformityofappearance.

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