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外文翻译--管理信息系统.doc

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外文翻译--管理信息系统.doc

MANAGEMENTINFORMATIONSYSTEMITISTHEMISMANAGEMENTINFORMATIONSYSTEMTHATWECONSTANTLYSAYTHATTHEMANAGEMENTINFORMATIONSYSTEM,ANDISLIVINGTOEMPHASIZETHEADMINISTRATION,ANDEMPHASIZESTHATITCHANGESINTOMOREANDMORESIGNIFICANTLYANDMOREANDMOREISUNIVERSALIZEDINTHECONTEMPORARYCOMMUNITYOFMESSAGEMISISAFRESHBRANCHOFLEARNING,ANDITLEAPEDOVERSEVERALTERRITORIES,ANDFORINSTANCEADMINISTERSSCIENTIFICKNOWLEDGE,SYSTEMSCIENCE,OPERATIONALRESEARCH,STATISTICALONGWITHCALCULATINGMACHINESCIENTIFICKNOWLEDGEISLIVINGONTHESETHEBRANCHESOFLEARNINGBASE,ANDTAKESSHAPETHATTHEMESSAGEISGATHEREDANDTHEPROCESSMEANS,THEREBYTAKESHAPETHESYSTEMTHATTHECROSSBARMINGLES1THEMANAGEMENTINFORMATIONSYSTEMSUMMARY20CENTURIES,INTHEWAKEOFTHEFLOURISHINGDEVELOPMENTOFWHOLEWORLDECONOMY,NUMEROUSECONOMISTSPROPOSETHEFRESHADMINISTRATIONTHEORYONEBYONEXIMENPROPOSETHEADMINISTRATIONANDWASDEPENDENTONIDEATOMESSAGEANDDECISIONOFSTRATEGICIMPORTANCEINTHE50’S20CENTURIESTHEDIMENSIONOFSIMULTANEOUSSTAGEISADMITTEDISSUINGCYBERNETICS,ANDHETHINKSTHATTHEADMINISTRATIONISACONTROLPROCEDUREIN1958,GERWRITETHELID“THEADMINISTRATIONSHALLOBTAINWITHOUTDELAYWITHTHELOWERCOSTANDEXACTMESSAGE,COMPLETESTHEBETTERCONTROL”THISPARTICULARPERIOD,THECALCULATINGMACHINESTARTSBEINGUSEDACCOUNTANCYWORKTHEDATAHANDLINGTERMHASRISENIN1970,WALTERTKENNEVANGIVEADMINISTRATIONTHATHASRAISEDTHEONLYASHORTWHILEAGOINFORMATIONSYSTEMTERMTOGETOFFADEFINITION“EITHERTHECOVEROFTHEBOOKSHAPEWITHTHEDISCOUNT,ISLIVINGAPPROPRIATELYTIMETODIRECTOR,STAFFMEMBERALONGWITHTHEOUTSIDEWORLDPERSONNELSTAFFSUPPLIESTHEPASTANDNOWANDMESSAGETHATINTERNALFORECASTINGTHEAPPROACHINGRELEVANTBUSINESSREACHESSUCHENVIRONMENT,INORDERTOASSISTTHEYMAKEASTRATEGICDECISION”ISLIVINGINTHISDEFINITIONTOEMPHASIZE,YETDOESNOTEMPHASIZEUSINGTHEPATTERN,ANDMENTIONTHECALCULATINGMACHINEAPPLICATIONINTHEWAYOFTHEMESSAGESUPPORTDECISIONOFSTRATEGICIMPORTANCEIN1985,ADMONISHINGINFORMATIONSYSTEMORIGINATOR,TITLEBUDDHISTNUNSUDAUNIVERSITYADMINISTRATIONPROFESSORGORDONBDAVISGIVETHEMANAGEMENTINFORMATIONSYSTEMRELATIVELYINTEGRATEDDEFINITION,INIMMEDIATEFUTURE“ADMINISTERTHEINFORMATIONSYSTEMISONEUSECALCULATINGMACHINESOFTWAREANDHARDWARERESOURCESALONGWITHDATABANKMANTHEENGINESYSTEMITBEABLETOSUPPLYMESSAGESUPPORTBUSINESSEITHERORGANIZATIONOPERATION,ADMINISTRATIONORTHEDECISIONMAKINGFUNCTION”COMPREHENSIVEDIRECTIONSOFTHISDEFINITIONMANAGEMENTINFORMATIONSYSTEMTARGETANDMERITORIOUSSERVICECAPACITYANDCOMPONENT,BUTALSOMAKEKNOWNTHEMANAGEMENTINFORMATIONSYSTEMTOBELIVINGTHELEVELTHATATTAINSATTHATTIME11THEDEVELOPINGHISTORYOFMISTHEMANAGEMENTINFORMATIONSYSTEMISLIVINGTHEMOSTPRIMARILYPHASEISCOUNTINGTHESYSTEM,THESUBSTANCEWHICHRESEARCHEDISTHEREGULARPATTERNONFACEBETWEENTHEINCREMENTALDATA,ITWHATMAYSEPARATEINTOTHEDATABEINGMUTUALLYRELATEDANDMORENOTBEINGMUTUALLYRELATEDSERIES,AFTERWARDSACTASTHEDATACONVERSIONTOMESSAGETHESECONDSTAGEISTHEDATAAREREPLACEDTHESYSTEM,ANDITISTHATTHESABRETHATTHEAMERICANAIRLINECOMPANYPUTUPTOINTHE50’S20CENTURIESSUBSCRIBESTOBOOKTHEBANKNOTESYSTEMTHATSUCHTYPESTANDSFORITPOSSESS1008BANKNOTEBOOKINGSPOTS,ANDMAYACCESS600000TRAVELERKEEPTHEMINUTESAND27000FLIGHTSEGMENTSRECORDITSOPERATIONISCOMPARATIVELYMORECOMPLEX,ANDISLIVINGWHATEVERONE“SPOT”WHOLLYTOCHECKWHETHERTOBETHEFREEPLACEUPSOMEONEFLIGHTNUMBERSYETTHROUGHAPPROXIMATELYATTENDINGSCHOOLUPTOSAY,ITISONLYADATAANDREPLACESTHESYSTEM,FORINSTANCEITCANNOTLETKNOWYOUWITHTHEBANKNOTETHESELLINGVELOCITYNOWWHENTHEBANKNOTESHALLBESELLTHROUGH,THEREBYTAKESREMEDYINGTHESTEPASARESULTITALSOISADMINISTERINFORMATIONSYSTEMRUDIMENTARYPHASETHETHIRDPHASEISTHESTATUSREPORTSSYSTEM,ANDITMAYSEPARATEINTOMANUFACTURESTATESPEECHANDSERVICESTATEANDMAKEKNOWNANDRESEARCHTHESYSTEMSSUCHASSTATUSREPORTSANDSOONITSTYPESTANDSFORTHEPRODUCTIONCONTROLSYSTEMTHATISTHEIBMCORPORATIONTOTHEFORINSTANCEMANUFACTURESTATESPEECHSYSTEMASISKNOWNTOALL,THECALCULATINGMACHINECORPORATIONTHATTHEIBMCORPORATIONISTHELARGESTONTHEWORLD,IN1964ITGIVENBIRTHTOMIDDLESIZEDCALCULATINGMACHINEIBM360ANDCAUSESTHECALCULATINGMACHINELEVELLIFTASTEP,YETFORMTHATTHEMANUFACTUREADMINISTRATIONWORKYETENORMOUSLYCOMPLICATEDLYDISSOLVEMOREOVER,THECALCULATINGMACHINEOVERTAKES15000DIFFERENCECOMPONENTSONCEMORE,INADDITIONTHEPLANTOFIBMEXTENDSALLOVERTHEAMERICANVARIOUSPLACESTOEVERYONECOMPONENTSONCEMORELIKEWORKSANELEMENT,ANDTHEORDEROFDIFFERENCEPOSSESSDIFFERENCECOMPONENTSANDTHEDIFFERENCEELEMENT,ANDHAVETOPOINTOUTTHATWHATELEMENTWHATPLANTWHATINSTALLATIONGIVESBIRTHTO,HENCENOTMERELYGIVINGBIRTHTOCOMPLEXLY,FITTING,INSTALLATIONANDTRANSPORTATIONWHOLLYFULLYCOMPLEXHAVETOTHEREBEAMANUFACTURESTATUSREPORTSSYSTEMTHATTAKESTHECALCULATINGMACHINEINORDERTOGUARANTEEBEINGUNDERWAYSUCCESSFULLYOFMANUFACTUREALONGWITHELSESEGMENTASTHEBASEHENCETHESAMEAGESIBMESTABLISHTHESYSTEMATICAASOFWELLDEVELOPEDADMINISTRATIONITBEABLETOCARRYON450PROFESSIONALWORKOPERATIONSIN1968,THECORPORATIONESTABLISHESTHECOMMUNALONCEMOREANDMANUFACTURESINFORMATIONSYSTEMCMISANDRUNSANDSUCCEEDSVERYMUCH,THEPASTNEEDS15WEEKSWORK,THATSYSTEMMERELYMAYBECOMPLETEDINTHEWAYOF3WEEKSITISTHEDATAHANDLINGSYSTEMTHATTHESTATUSREPORTSSYSTEMSTILLPOSSESSONEKINDOFSHAPE,ANDTHATITISUSEDFORHANDLESTHEEVERYDAYPROFESSIONALWORKTOMAKEKNOWNWITHMANUFACTURE,ANDSTRESSRESTSWITHBYTHEHANDWORKTASKAUTOMATION,ANDLIFTSTHEEFFECTIVENESSWITHSAVESTHELABORPOWERTHEDATAHANDLINGSYSTEMORDINARILYCANNOTSUPPLYDECISIONOFSTRATEGICIMPORTANCEMESSAGELASTPHASEISTHESUPPORTSYSTEMSMAKEASTRATEGICDECISION,ANDITISTHEINFORMATIONSYSTEMBEINGUSEDFORSUPPLEMENTARYMAKINGASTRATEGICDECISIONTHATSYSTEMMAYPROGRAMANDTHEANALYSISSCHEME,ANDGOESOVERKEYANDTHEERRORSOLVEAPROBLEMITSPROPERBETTERPERSONMACHINEDIALOGUEMEANS,MAYWITHNOTPARTICULARLYTHEPERSONNELSTAFFWHOHAVEANINTIMATEKNOWLEDGEOFTHECALCULATINGMACHINEHOLDCONVERSATIONITORDINARILYCONSISTSOFSOMEPATTERNSOASTOCOMEINTOBEINGDECISIONOFSTRATEGICIMPORTANCEMESSAGE,YETEMPHASIZECOMPREHENSIVEADMINISTRATIONMERITORIOUSSERVICECAPACITY12THEAPPLICATIONOFMANAGEMENTINFORMATIONSYSTEMTHEMANAGEMENTINFORMATIONSYSTEMISUSEDTOTHEMOSTBASEWORK,LIKEDUMPREPORTFORM,CALCULATIONPAYANDOCCURRENCESINHUMANTUBESANDSOON,ANDTHENDEVELOPINGUPBUSINESSFINANCIALAFFAIRSADMINISTRATIONSANDINVENTORYCONTROLANDSOONINDIVIDUALEVENTOPERATIONALCONTROL,THISPERTAINSTOTHEELECTRONDATAHANDLINGEDPDATAPROCESSINGSYSTEMWHENESTABLISHTHEBUSINESSDATABANK,THEREBYPOSSESSTHECALCULATINGMACHINEELECTRICNETWORKTOATTAINDATASHARINGQUEEN,THESLAVESYSTEMCONCEPTISSTARTOFF,WHENTHEIMPLEMENTATIONTHESITUATIONASAWHOLEISMADEPROGRAMANDTHEDESIGNINFORMATIONSYSTEM,ATTAINEDTHEADMINISTRATIONINFORMATIONSYSTEMPHASEINTHEWAKEOFCALCULATINGMACHINETECHNIQUEPROGRESSANDTHEDEMANDADJUSTTHESYSTEMOFPEOPLELIFTFURTHER,PEOPLEEMPHASIZEMOREFURTHERMOREADMINISTERTHEINFORMATIONSYSTEMPHASEPROGRESSANDPEOPLEINTHEWAKEOFTHECALCULATINGMACHINETECHNIQUELIFTATTHEDEMANDADJUSTTHESYSTEMFURTHER,PEOPLEEMPHASIZEMOREFURTHERMORETOADMINISTERTHEINFORMATIONSYSTEMWHETHERBACKBUSINESSHIGHERLEVELTOLEADMAKESASTRATEGICDECISIONTHISMERITORIOUSSERVICECAPACITY,STILLMORELAYSPECIALEMPHASISONTHEGATHERINGTOTHEEXTERNALMESSAGEOFBUSINESSANDINTEGRATEDDATASTOREHOUSE,MODELLIBRARY,MEANSSTOREHOUSEANDELSEARTIFICIALINTELLIGENCEMEANSWHETHERDIRECTLYTODECISIONOFSTRATEGICIMPORTANCEPERSON,THISISTHESUPPORTSYSTEMDDSMISSIONMAKINGASTRATEGICDECISIONTHEREISTHEPARTAPPLICATIONTHATFEWBUSINESSSTARTMISINNERPLACETHELIMITOFTHEWORLDATTHEEARLYDAYSOFBEINGLIVINGINTHE70’S20CENTURIESUPATTHEMOMENT,MISISLIVING,ANDTHEREBETHEAPPROPRIATEPOPULARIZATIONRATEINEVERYSTATENATIONINWORLD,ANDNEARLYCOVEREDTHATEVERYPROFESSIONREACHESEVERYDEPARTMENT13THEDIRECTIONOFMISDEVELOPMENTCLOSE20CURTAINS;EXTERNALGRANDDUKETAKESCHARGEOFHAVINGARISEN3KINDSOFALTERNATIONSAPAYINGSPECIALATTENTIONTOTHEADMINISTRATIONBEINGEMPHASIZEDTOESTABLISHINGMIS’SSYSTEM,ANDCAUSINGTHEADMINISTRATIONTECHNIQUEHEADFORTHEAGEINGBTHEMESSAGEISTHEDECISIONOFSTRATEGICIMPORTANCEFOUNDATION,ANDMISSUPPLIESTHEMESSAGESERVICEINTHEINTERESTOFDIRECTORATALLTIMESCDIRECTORCAUSESSUCHMANAGEMENTPROGRAMGETTINGINTOUCHWITHTOGETHERWITHTHECONCRETEPROFESSIONALWORKMANEUVERBYMEANSOFMISNOTMERELYBIGANDMIDDLESIZEDBUSINESSUNIVERSALLYESTABLISHMISSOMESMALLSIZEBUSINESSALSONOTEXCEPTIONSOFSELF,UNIVERSALLYESTABLISHTHECOMMUNALDATANETWORK,LIKETHEELECTRONICMAILANDELECTRONDATAEXCHANGEANDSOON,MISSUPPLIEDTHEWELLSUPPORTENVIRONMENTTOTHEAPPLICATIONOFINTRANET’STECHNIQUETOSPEEDILYDEVELOPINGOFINTERNETESPECIALLYINTHEPASTFEWYEARSINTHEINTERESTOFTHEBUSINESSTHROUGHINTERNATIONALTECHNIQUEDEVELOPMENTTENDENCYISSEE,INTHE90’S20CENTURIESHADARISENSOMEKINDSOFBRANDNEWADMINISTRATIONTECHNIQUE1BUSINESSPROCESSESREBUILDBPRABUSINESSSHOULDVALUECORRECTLYTIMEANDPRODUCEQUALITY,MANUFACTURINGCOSTANDTECHNICALSERVICEANDSOONSEVERALSECTIONADMINISTRATIONS,GRIPATTHEMOMENTORGANIZATIONANDTHEPROCESSCOMPOSEONCEMORE,ANDCOMPLETESTHATMERITORIOUSSERVICECAPACITYINTEGRATIONIST,OPERATIONPROCESSIZATIONANDORGANIZATIONFORMFLUCTUATION2INTELLIGENTIZATIONDECISIONSUPPORTSYSTEMIDSSTHEINTELLIGENTIZATIONDECISIONOFSTRATEGICIMPORTANCESUPPORTSYSTEMWASSUFFICIENTLYCONSIDERDEMANDANDTHEWORKDISTINGUISHINGFEATUREOFBUSINESSHIGHERLEVELPERSONNELSTAFF3LEANPRODUCTIONLPAPPLICATIONGIVEBIRTHTOONTIME,COMPREHENSIVEQUALITYCONTROLANDPARALLELPROJECTTHATPICKEDAMOUNTISGIVENBIRTHTOANDSOONTHETECHNIQUE,THEUTMOSTPRODUCTDESIGNCUTTINGDOWNANDPRODUCTIONCYCLE,RAISEPRODUCEQUALITYANDCUTSDOWNTHEREPRODUCEDGOODSTORESERVE,ANDISLIVINGINTHEMANUFACTUREPROMOTECORPSESSENCE,INORDERTOMEETTHEDEMANDTHATCLIENTCONTINUOUSLYCHANGES4AGILEMANUFACTUREAMONEKINDOFBUSINESSADMINISTRATIONPATTERNTHATPOSSESSTHEVISION,SUCHDISTINGUISHINGFEATUREISWORKERSANDSTAFFMEMBERS’QUALITYISHIGH,ANDTHEORGANIZATIONSIMPLIFIESANDTHEMULTIPURPOSEGROUPEFFECTIVENESSGAOMESSAGELOADINGISAGILEANDANSWERSCLIENTREQUIRESSWIFTLY2THEEFFECTTOTHEBUSINESSADMINISTRATIONOFMISDEVELOPMENTTHEEFFECTTOTHEBUSINESSADMINISTRATIONOFTHEMANAGEMENTINFORMATIONSYSTEMDEVELOPMENTISADMINISTEREDTHECHANGETOBUSINESSANDBUSINESSADMINISTRATIONOFINFORMATIONSYSTEMDEVELOPMENTANDCOMEINTOBEINGANDISCOMINGINTOBEINGTHEFARREACHINGEFFECTWITHDECISIONOFSTRATEGICIMPORTANCE,PARTICULARLYSTRATEGICDECISIONMAKINGMAYBEASSISTEDBYTHEADMINISTRATIONINFORMATIONSYSTEM,ANDITSGOODORBADDIRECTLYAFFECTSLIVINGANDTHEDEVELOPMENTUPTHEBUSINESSTHEMISISIMPEDINGTHEORIENTATIONDEVELOPMENTTHATTHEADMINISTRATIONMEANSONEANOTHERUNITESTHROUGHQUALITYANDRATIONTHISEXPRESSTOUTILIZETHEADMINISTRATIONINTHECALCULATIONWITHTHEDIFFERENTMATHEMATICALMODELTHEPROBLEMINTHEQUANTITATIVEANALYSISBUSINESSTHEPASTADMINISTERTHATTHEPROB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