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外文翻译--能提供低成本风电的新型风力机.doc

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外文翻译--能提供低成本风电的新型风力机.doc

LOWCOSTWINDPOWERCANPROVIDEANEWWINDTURBINEABSTRACTTHEFIRSTGENERATIONOFCOMMERCIALPROLIFERATIONOFENHANCEDWINDTURBINEDAWTINNEWZEALANDHASJUSTBEGUNTRIALOPERATIONTWOYEARS,IFTHEDEVELOPERSTOACHIEVETHEEXPECTEDRESULTS,THISNEWDESIGNOFWINDMACHINESTOBESIGNIFICANTLYREDUCEDCOSTOFWINDPOWERNEWZEALANDINTHEDISTANCEABOUT100KMAOKELANNANTHEWAIKARETUONTOPOFAHILL,AREVOLUTIONARYNEWWINDTURBINEISATWOYEARTRIALOPERATIONTHEWINDMACHINESANDTHEAPPEARANCEOFCONVENTIONALWINDTURBINECOMPLETELYDIFFERENTCOMPAREDTOITSHEIGHTOF17M,MUCHLIKEAJUWUSQUATTEDONTHEPEAK,ANDTHECONVENTIONALWINDTURBINEISASLENDERBODY,TALLANDTOWERINGOVERTHETOPOFTHEHILLTHISISPUTINTOOPERATIONTHEFIRSTGENERATIONOFCOMMERCIALPROLIFERATIONOFENHANCEDWINDTURBINEDAWTDIFFUSERAUGMENTEDWINDTURBINE,IFTHEDEVELOPERSTOACHIEVETHEEXPECTEDRESULTS,WILLLEADTOSIGNIFICANTREDUCTIONINTHECOSTOFWINDPOWERDURINGTHETRIALTHENEWWINDTURBINETECHNOLOGY,CANALSOTESTTHEPROLIFERATIONOFCENTRALCOVERNEWMATERIALS,HIGHSTRENGTHFIBERSTOSTRENGTHENTHESTEELREINFORCEDCONCRETESUCHWINDTURBINEONTHEGROUNDREFERREDTOASCONCRETEWINDTURBINEINBUSINESS,ITISCALLEDVORTEC7OFWINDMACHINES,BECAUSEITHASA7MINDIAMETERROTORWINDMACHINESFROMNEARLY100SMALLINVESTORS,SETUPAPRIVATECOMPANYVORTECENERGYLIMITEDRESPONSIBLEFORTHEDESIGNANDCONSTRUCTION,THECOMPANYRAISED35MILLIONUSDOLLARSDEVELOPMENTOFTHEPROTOTYPEVORTECENERGYLIMITEDISCURRENTLYBEINGFURTHERRAISEABOUT700MILLIONDOLLARSTOBUILDTWOSETSOFROTORDIAMETEROF20MOFTHEUNITONEOFTHENEWUNITSWILLBEINAREASOFHIGHWINDSPEEDTEST,PROBABLYINTHEVICINITYOFWELLINGTON,NEWZEALAND,THEAVERAGEWINDSPEEDINANOTHERAREASOUTHAUSTRALIASTATEGOVERNMENTSAIDTHATTHEDESIGNHASALOTOFINTERESTINADELAIDEANDWILLSPEEDUPTHEINSTALLATIONOFANAVERAGEWINDSPEEDNEARTHECREW,BECAUSETHESTATEGOVERNMENTTHATISARAREWINDOFRENEWABLEENERGY,THENEEDTOPROMOTETECHNICALBREAKTHROUGHSSTATEADVANTAGEOFTHEMORELOWERAVERAGEWINDSPEEDRESOURCEDEVELOPMENTTWONEWTYPEOFROTORDIAMETEROF20MOFTHEUNITAFTERTHESUCCESSFULOPERATION,VORTECENERGYLIMITEDWILLCONSIDERTHEPOSSIBILITYOFNASDAQSTOCKEXCHANGEVORTEC7UNITPERFORMANCEDATASHOWTHATTHEROTORDIAMETEROF20MBELOWTHEDESIGNTO0031USDOLLARS/KWHTHEPRICEOFINTERNETACCESS,ITWILLENABLENEWZEALANDANDWINDPOWERCANCOMPETEEXISTINGPOWERPLANTS,ANDOTHERNEWMETHODSOFPOWERGENERATIONCOMPAREDTOMORECOMPETITIVEIFVORTECFUNCTIONOFWINDPOWERGENERATIONINTHISPRICELEVEL,INTHEDEVELOPMENTOFWINDPOWERWILLRAPIDLYBECOMEAPOWERFULNEWFORCEVORTECENERGYLIMITEDISTHEBACKINGOFENTREPRENEURSROBINJOHANNINK,HESUCCESSFULLYOPERATINGASERIESOFOPERATIONS,BUTALSOPACIFICLITHIUMANEXTRACTFROMSEAWATERLITHIUMCOMPANIESBACKINGJOHANNINK,SAIDVORTECTECHNOLOGYISANINTERNATIONALPRODUCT,BUTTHETECHNOLOGYINTHENEWZEALANDSTOCKMARKETWASONTHERECOGNITIONANDATTENTIONISNOTTOOHIGH,INTHISDIFFICULTMARKETTHEREFOREVORTECENERGYLIMITEDISCONSIDERINGTHENASDAQINNEWYORKSTOCKEXCHANGELISTINGISLIKELYTOACHIEVEIN1999APROLIFERATIONOFTECHNOLOGYUSAEROSPACEGIANTGRUMMANSPACECOMPANYNOWNORTHROPGRUMMANCORPORATIONSPENTEIGHTYEARSDEVELOPINGTHEPROLIFERATIONOFTECHNOLOGYANDAPROLIFERATIONOFENHANCEDWINDTURBINETECHNOLOGYPATENTSITWASTHESPREADOFADETAILEDANALYSISOFFLUIDDYNAMICSANDTHEUSEOFA5MINTHEWINDTUNNELMODELCONFIRMEDTHERESULTSTHEPROLIFERATIONOFWINDTURBINEROTORINTHELOWERREACHES,ANDITSROLEASAWING,THEREARROTORINALOWVOLTAGEPARTSTHISSUCTIONEFFECTEFFECTIVEINAROUNDTHEROTORSPEEDMULTIPLIEDCONVENTIONALWINDTURBINEROTORCANONLYBEEFFECTIVEUSEOFWINDAROUND60PERCENTFIGURE01SHOWAPATTERNOFPROLIFERATIONTHEPROLIFERATIONOFECONOMYISTHEKEYTOTHELOWESTCOSTTOMAXIMIZETHESIZEWINDTUNNELSTUDIESSHOWTHATIN45DEGREEPROLIFERATIONSTRUCTURE,THEWALLOFSURFACEWINDFLOWMAYBETWOSLOTMAINTAINEDBYTHEJETINTHEPROTOTYPE,THETOTALSIZEOFTHESPREADOFFURTHERREDUCTION,THROUGHTHEUSEOFGENERALANDEXPORTSINDIAMETERTHAN30PERCENTOFTHEARCSTRUCTURE,ENHANCETHEHARDNESSOFCENTRALENCLOSURESSOTHATTHEDESIGNHASBEENCHOSENTORECEIVETHEMINIMUMAMOUNTOFMATERIALTHESIZEOFTHEGREATESTPROLIFERATIONVORTECENERGYLIMITEDWASAWARDEDTHENORTHROPGRUMMANCORPORATIONWITHTHEPROLIFERATIONOFTECHNOLOGYFORAPERIODOF20YEARSOFGLOBALPATENTSAND20PATENTSSINCETHERIGHTTOUPDATETHEPERMITNORTHROPGRUMMANCORPORATIONTORETAINTHEIROWNINTERNALUSEOFTHEPROLIFERATIONOFTECHNOLOGYRATHERTHANENHANCETHECOMMERCIALMARKETFORWINDRIGHTSKENNETHFOREMAN,FORMERGRUMMANSPACERESEARCHTEAMLEADER,VORTECENERGYCORPORATIONFORTECHNICALADVICE,VORTECENERGYLIMITEDACCESSTOTHEGRUMMANSPACERESEARCHGROUPEIGHTYEARSONALLTHERECORDS,TESTREPORTSANDPATENTS2MATERIALSTECHNOLOGYGRUMMANSPACERESEARCHGROUPINTHEDEVELOPMENTOFPROLIFERATIONENHANCINGTECHNOLOGIESINTHEFACEOFAPROBLEMISTHATCOMMERCIALSCALEWINDTURBINEMATERIALSMUSTHAVEHIGHSTRENGTHANDLONGLIFE,LOWCOSTFEATURESHAVEALUMINUM,GLASSFIBER,STEELANDREINFORCEDCONCRETEFORTHETRADITIONALASSESSMENTANDACCOUNTING,BUTTHEWINDCANNOTMEETTHEREQUIREMENTSOFECONOMICDEVELOPMENTINALLTHEASSESSMENTMATERIALS,THEMOSTDESIRABLEISREINFORCEDCONCRETE,BUTTHEUSEOFTRADITIONALREINFORCEDCONCRETE,THESIZEOFTHESPREADOFTHEWINDRATEDOUTPUTCANONLYMEET70KWASSMALLSCALEUNITSCANNOTENHANCETHEDIFFUSIONOFTECHNOLOGYBUSINESSDEVELOPMENTNEWZEALANDINTHEUSEOFREINFORCEDCONCRETETOWERSANDTHECONSTRUCTIONOFOCEANGOINGBOATSSUCHEQUIPMENTHASALONGHISTORYONTHISBASIS,THESTRUCTURALENGINEERALEXANDERANDASSOCIATESIN20YEARSHASDEVELOPEDANEWPRODUCTHIGHSTRENGTHFIBERSTOSTRENGTHENTHESTEELREINFORCEDCONCRETETHISNEWMATERIALBENDINGSTRENGTHISTHREETIMESTHELOWCARBONSTEEL,BASICALLYDONOTNEEDMAINTENANCETHISNEWMATERIALCOULDBEECONOMICTOBUILDTHEPROLIFERATIONOFLARGER,SOTHATTHEREISSUFFICIENTWINDMACHINESANDCONVENTIONALWINDTURBINEOUTPUTOFTHECOMPETITIONPROTOTYPEROTORDIAMETEROF7M,HEIGHTOF17M,THEHIGHESTOUTPUTFOR1MWWILLBETHECONSTRUCTIONOFTWOUNITSUSINGTHEROTORDIAMETEROF20M,HIGH52M,ANDEFFORTSTO3MWTHEPROLIFERATIONOFTHEUSEOFTWOTIER3M1M30MMOFHIGHSTRENGTHSTEELFIBERREINFORCEDCONCRETESLABOFREINFORCEDCOMPOSITEFORMEDFIRSTLAMINATEALONGTHECOMPLEXFRAMEWORKOFTHENECESSARYTWOWAYWANCHENGSURFACEANDFIXEDINPLACETHESECONDLAMINATEONTOP,BENDING,ANDTHENFILLINGINTHEFOUNDATIONBOARDSURFACETWOWAYLOCKQUTHENTHESEPANELSBONDEDTOGETHER,ANDTHEHARDENEDEDGEOFDEALINGWITHAPROLIFERATIONOFSEGMENTCOMPLETEASSEMBLYOFTHEPROLIFERATIONOFGOODBEFORETHEACADEMYOFENGINEERING,UNIVERSITYOFAUCKLANDINTHESINGLEPLATEASSEMBLYANDAGOODSEGMENTOFTHESPREADOFTHESTRESSTESTSAMPLES3EQUIPMENTBALANCEINADDITIONTOENHANCINGTHEPROLIFERATIONOFTECHNOLOGYANDMATERIALSTECHNOLOGY,WINDMACHINESAREALLCONVENTIONALROTOREQUIPPEDWITHAFIXEDPITCHOFTHEFOURLEAVES,LEAVESFORTHEWELDINGOFTHESTEELSTRUCTURE,THESURFACEMATERIALFORGLASSFIBERDAVIDBROWNTHROUGHAROTORSPEEDGEARBOXORACONVENTIONALDRIVERS1200MIN1,400VOFTHEABBCOMPANYSSYNCHRONOUSGENERATOR,INVERTERGENERATORSRUNNINGROTOR,GEARBOXANDGENERATORFIGURE02FROMTHEUSNEWWORLDPOWERCOMPANYNEWWORLDPOWERTOPROVIDEFREQUENCYACDCRECTIFIERFIRST,ANDTHENTHEINVERTERFORAC50HZ,THESTEPUPTRANSFORMERINTOTHELOCALELECTRICITYCOMPANY11KVPOWERGRIDRECTIFIER/CONVERTEREQUIPMENTFROMAUCKLANDCOMPANYSANTONTECHNOLOGYCO,LTDDESIGNANDMANUFACTURE,THECOMPANYBATTERYCHARGERSANDSPEEDDRIVEMANUFACTURERSHAVEYEARSOFEXPERIENCETAKINGINTOACCOUNTTHEPROLIFERATIONOFSIZE,NEEDSALARGEANDSTABLEFOUNDATIONTOPREVENTTHEWINDLOADSANDSEISMIC,LODGINGEQUIPMENTWASINSTALLEDTOALARGEDIAMETERCIRCULARORBIT,THEWINDMACHINECANALONGITS360DEGREEROTATION,THEROTATINGDEVICEONTRACKWITHTHEWINDCONTROLSYSTEMFORELECTRICALDEVICESFIGURE03THISARRANGEMENTPROVIDESTHEFOUNDATIONFORSTABILITYBECAUSETHISTYPEOFWINDTURBINECOULDAVOIDTHEPROLIFERATIONOFHIGHWINDSANDAPROTECTIVECOVERFROMTHEROTORIMPACTONTHEABILITYOFSTRONGWINDS,WHICHDONOTNEEDTOCONTROLASIMPLEDESIGNOFTHEROTORBLADEPITCHTHISMAKESTHISTYPEOFWINDTURBINEISVERYSUITABLEFORUSEINWINDYAREAS,ANDMAINTENANCEISVERYSMALL4DESIGNADVANTAGESTHEPROLIFERATIONOFENHANCEDWINDMACHINESCOMPAREDWITHCONVENTIONALWINDTURBINEHASMANYADVANTAGES,INCLUDINGLOWNOISECONVENTIONALWINDTURBINENOISEFROMTHEMAXIMUMSPEEDATTHETOPOFTHEROTORANDBLADETHROUGHTOTHEPILLARSINVORTECUNIT,THEROTORWASAHIGHDENSITYMATERIALCOVEREDBYTHEPROLIFERATIONOF,WHICHPREVENTTHENOISEFROMTHEROTORENDOFTHEFIELDRADIATIONANDTHEREFOREDIDNOT,ASWITHCONVENTIONALEQUIPMENT,AMAJORPILLAROFTHENOISELESSLANDONTHESAMETERMSOFENERGYOUTPUT,VORTECUNITCOMPAREDWITHCONVENTIONALWINDTURBINEREQUIRESLESSSPACE,REDUCINGTHELANDPURCHASEANDRENTALCOSTSWITHOUTAFFECTINGTHELANDSCAPEVORTECUNITEASILYPAINTEDVARIOUSCOLORS,WHENWATCHEDFROMADISTANCEWHENINTEGRATEDWITHAVARIETYOFBACKGROUNDS,EQUIPMENTDUNZUOTHESHAPEANDUNDULATINGMOUNTAINVILLAGEISCOORDINATIONDECAYMAYGUSTTHEPROLIFERATIONOFINCREASEINOUTPUTATTHESAMETIME,BUTALSOASAWAYTHROTTLE,THEPEAKWINDGUSTDECAY,THUSREDUCINGTHEROTORTOWITHSTANDTHEFLUCTUATIONSANDDRIVEAWAYFROMTHESTRESSBIRDSLESSIMPACTDESPITETHEWINDFUNCTIONPAINTEDDIFFERENTCOLORSTOREDUCETHEVISUALIMPACT,BUTTHEBIRDFLEWNEARTHEVERYEYECATCHING,NOBIRDSIMPACTOFTHERAPIDLYROTATINGBLADESOFTHEWINDMACHINEACCIDENTINFRASTRUCTURECOSTSANDLOWCOSTPOWERGENERATIONWINDMACHINESUSEAVERYSIMPLESETPITCHLEAVES,ORDONOTNEEDTOPITCHCONTROLBRAKECONTROLSYSTEMTHISWILLSIGNIFICANTLYREDUCEMAINTENANCECOSTS,PARTICULARLYINNEWZEALANDSSTRONGWINDS,ANDTHEEQUIPMENTAVAILABLETOENSUREAHIGHRATE5PROSPECTSROTORDIAMETEROF7MPROTOTYPEWINDTURBINEWILLBECONDUCTEDSIXMONTHSOFTRIALOPERATION,THECONTROLSYSTEMCAREFULLYDEBUGANDVERIFYTHEDESIGNPARAMETERSINITIALMEASUREMENTSSHOWEDTHATTHEWINDTURBINEROTORWINDSPEEDINCREASEDABOUT172TIMES,ANDTHISGRUMMANSPACERESEARCHGROUPINTHECALCULATIONOF05MANDTHEIRMODELONTHERESULTSOFWINDTUNNELTESTMATCHVORTECENERGYCOMPANIESHAVEACCESSTONEWZEALANDSCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGYRESEARCHFUNDOFTHEMINISTRYOFBUSINESSDEVELOPMENTFUNDINGOFABOUT350,000USDOLLARSTOPAYFORSIXMONTHSTHECOSTOFTHETRIALPERIODSURVEILLANCEANDTESTINGPROGRAMMEOFTECHNICALSUPPORTFROMTHEINDUSTRIALRESEARCHLTDINDUSTRIALRESEARCHLTDADVISORYGROUPANDTHEUNIVERSITYOFAUCKLANDAUCKLANDUNISERVICESPROVIDE,INADDITIONTOTHEINVITATIONOFTHEBRITISHWINDENERGYCONSULTINGINTERNATIONALEXPERTSGARRADHASSANINDEPENDENTINSPECTIONANDMONITORINGUNITVORTEC7THETRIALOPERATIONPLAN

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