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外文翻译--船舶焊接.doc

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外文翻译--船舶焊接.doc

Weldingistoensurethattheshipoftheshipandthestrengthofthekey.Thispaperdescribestheshipintheweldingofseveralcommonreasonsfortheshortcomingsandproposepreventivemeasures.Weldingistoensurethattheshipoftheshipandthestrengthofthekeyistoensurethatthekeytothequalityoftheship,istoensurethesafetyofshipsnavigatingandoperatinganimportantconditionfor.Ifthereisaweldingdefect,itmaycausestructuralfaults,leakage,orevencausetheshipsank.Accordingtotheshipbrittlefractureaccidentinvestigationshowedthat40percentofbrittlefracturefromtheaccidentwasthebeginningofthewelddefects.Shipsinthetownshipinshipbuilding,shiptheweldingqualityisparticularlyprominent.Intheinspectionofshipsintheprocessofweldingthetestisparticularlyimportant.Therefore,shouldtheearlydetectionofdefects,theweldingdefectsrestrictedtoacertainextent,toensurenavigationalsafety.Manytypesofshipweldingdefects,accordingtotheirdifferentpositions,thedefectscanbedividedintoexternalandinternaldefects.Defectshavepores,slag,weldingcracks,lackofpenetration,notfusion,weldandshapeofDimensionarenotmet,thebitingedge,ofwelding,suchasarcpit.firststomatalporestomatalporemeansthatthewelding,bubblebathinthesolidificationofthefailedescapetheholeformed.Themainreasontherehavestomatagrooveedgeofdirty,water,oilandXiujielectrodeornotprovisionsofcuringflux,solderorrustcoreskindegeneration,suchasspalling.Inaddition,lowhydrogenweldingelectrode,thearcistoolong,weldingtoofastsubmergedarcweldingvoltagetoohigh,areeasilygeneratedintheprocessofweldingstomata.Becausethepresenceofporositysothattheseamofeffectivecrosssectiondecreased,toolargeporeswillreducethestrengthofwelds,thedestructionoftheweldmetaldensity.PreventionistohaveastomachoosetherightweldingcurrentAndweldingspeedandgrooveedgetocleanupwater,oilandXiuji.Strictlyinaccordancewiththeregulationscustody,clearingandcuringweldingmaterials.Nottousedegenerateelectrode,whentheskindegenerationdrugdiscoveryelectrode,spallingorweldingcorecorrosion,shouldstrictlycontroltheuseof.SAW,shouldusetheappropriateweldingprocessparameters,particularlytheplateautomaticwelding,weldingspeedshouldbeassmallaspossiblemore.Sendcent,slagSlagistheresidueoftheweldslag.Weldslagwillalsoreducetheintensityanddensity.AslagisthemainreasonforWeldaerobiccuttingedgeofgasorcarbonarcshaverresidualslaggrooveangleorweldingcurrentistoosmall,toofastorwelding.Acidintheuseofelectrode,thecurrentistoosmallorbecauseofimpropertransportofapasteresiduetousealkalineelectrode,thearcistoolongorbecauseofincorrectpolaritywillcausetheslag.ASAWbackcover,fromweldingwirecenter,butalsoeasytoslagformation.PreventionSlagproducedthemeasuresareselecttherightgroovesize,tocleanupgrooveedge,choosetherightweldingcurrentandweldingspeed,andtransportoftheswingshouldbeappropriate.Multiwelding,shouldbecarefullyobservedgrooveonbothsidesofmelting,eachlayermustbeweldedtocleanupweldingslag.Backcoverweldingslagshouldbethoroughlyremoved,SAWattentionshouldbepaidtopreventthesolderside.Third,bite–WeldleftedgeoftheDepression,knownasthebitingedge.Abitingedgebecausetheweldingcurrentistoolarge,Yunofthespeedandarcweldingrodstretchedtoolongorinappropriateangle.SAWweldingspeedtoofastorwelderorbitcausesofinequality,willcausethemeltingofweldingtoacertaindepth,andfilledwithmetalalsofailedtofilltheresultingbitingedge.Reducethebitingedgeofthebasemetaljointcrosssectionofwork,therebyresultinginthebitingedgeofstressconcentration,itwasimportanttothestructureorstructureofthedynamicload,isgenerallynotallowedtobiteWhilethere,ortobitedepthlimit.BitepreventionapproachisChoosetherightoftheweldingcurrentandtransportpractices,theattentionofcontrolatanytimearcweldingrodangleandlengthSAWprocessparameterstobeappropriate,withspecialattentiontoweldingspeedshouldnotbetoohigh,weldingmachinetotrackformation.Fourth,lackofpenetration,nofusionWelding,thejointswerenotfullyrootpenetrationofthephenomenon,knownasthelackofpenetrationintheweldingpiecesofmetalandweldseamorapartiallayerofpenetrationphenomenon,knownasFusiondidnot.Lackofpenetrationorfusionisamoreseriousflaw,sincelackofpenetrationorfusion,Weldwillappearintermittentormutation,weldstrengthgreatlyreduced,orevencausecracks.Therefore,inthehulloftheimportantpartsofthestructuredoesnotallowexistenceoflackofpenetration,thesituationisnotfusion.LackofpenetrationandfusionisnotthecauseoftheweldingassemblyspaceorslopeargumentOfsmall,bluntthick,toomuchelectrodediameter,thecurrentistoosmall,toofastandtoolongarc,andsoon.Weldmentgroovesurfaceoxidefilm,oil,andsodidnotremoveclean,orwhenitflowsintheweldingofmetalslaghinderthetransportofthefusionorimproperpractices,thearcinthegroovewhilepartialandotherreasons,willnotcausetheedgefusion.Preventthelackofpenetrationorfusionapproachistherightsizeselectedgroove,areasonablechoiceofweldingcurrentandspeed,grooveandthesurfaceofskintoremoveoilpollutioncleanbackcoverweldingrootsthoroughly,andtransportoftheswingshouldbeappropriate,paycloseattentiontoslopeIfusiononbothsidesofthesituation.fifth,weldingcracksWeldingCrackisaveryseriousshortcomings.Morefromthedestructionofthecracks,intheprocessofweldingtotakeallnecessarymeasurestopreventtheemergenceofcrackintheweldingusedvariousmethodstocheckforcracks.Foundacrack,shouldberemoved,andthentorepair.Weldingcrackahotcrack,crackcold.Weldmetalfromliquidtosolidinthecrystallizationprocessknownasthecrackofcrack,itscharacteristicisthatimmediatelyafterthewelding,andmoreinthecenterseamalongtheseamlengthofthedistribution.Heatcracksthesurfacethroughoutmostofthegap,showingofcolor,slightlycracktheendofround.AhotcrackintheweldpoolbecausetherearelowmeltingpointimpuritiessuchasFeS,etc..Asaresultoftheseimpuritieslowmeltingpoint,crystalsolidifiedthelatest,afterthesolidificationofplasticandintensityisverylow.BecauseThis,inthestructureofbindingstressenoughtheoutsideworldandthesolidificationoftheweldmetalcontraction,thepooloflowmeltingpointoftheseimpuritiesinthesolidificationprocesswasstarted,orshortlyafterbeingopenedcoagulation,resultingincracksbetweenthecrystal.Weldingelectrode,andpiecesofsulphur,copperandotherimpuritiesinalongtime,butalsoeasytoproducethermalcracks.Preventhotcrackthemeasuresareasfollows1tostrictlycontroltheweldingprocessparameters,slowdownthecoolingrate,toincreaseweldshapefactor,asfaraspossible,usingsmallcurrentmultichannelmultiwelding,inordertoavoidweldcracksCentreandtheotherisseriouslyTheimplementationofapointoforder,selectareasonableweldingprocess,weldingtoreducestress.Weldmetalinthecoolingprocessorcooling,thebasemetalorinthebasemetalandweldthejunctionofthefusionlineknownasthecoldcrackcrack.Suchcracksarelikelytoariseimmediatelyaftertheweldingisalsopossibleinafewhoursafterwelding,afewdaysorevenlongerbeforethere.Coldcrackthemainreasonfor1theroleofheatcycle,theheataffectedzonegeneratedHardenedorganizations,2aweldintheexcessiveproliferationofhydrogen,andhasaconcentrationoftheconditions3jointbearBindingagreaterstress.PreventThecoldcrackmeasuresare1choiceoflowhydrogenelectrode,intheweldtoreducethespreadofthecontentofhydrogen,2strictlyabidebytheweldingmaterialselectrode,Fluxcustody,baking,usethesystem,guardagainstexposedtomoisture,3carefullycleaningupslopeIedgeoftheoilpollution,waterandXiuji,toreducethesourcesofhydrogen,4Accordingtomaterialgradesofcarbonequivalent,componentthickness,theenvironment,suchaswelding,areasonablechoiceoftheweldingprocessparametersandenergylines,suchasweldingbeforepreheating,solderAfterthecoldease,takingmultichannelmultiwelding,acertainlevelofcontroltemperature,5aftertheheatemergencyTreatmenttodehydrogenase,toeliminatethestressandtemperhardenedorganizations,toimprovejointtoughness6thereasonableuseofweldingprocedures,theuseofsubretreatlaw,suchaswelding,andweldingtoreducestress.sixth,otherflawsWeldingisalsocommontoanumberofwelding,arcweldingpitandontheexternaldimensionsandshapeofthedefect.Aweldingofthemainreasonsistheunevendistributionoftransport,resultingpooltemperatureistoohigh,theliquidmetalsolidifiedslowlyfalling,thusformedonthesurfaceoftheweldmetalaneurysm.Li,Yangwelding,theuseoftoomuchcurrentandarcwelding,butalsolikelytobeofwelding.Hanggeneratedarcisputoutthereasonsforthearcoftimeistooshort,orweldingsuddenlyinterruptedorwhenthecurrentweldingplatetoomuch,andsoon.Weldingseamsurfaceappearanceofinfluence,andeasytocreatefolderssurfaceJavaarcpitsandcracksareoftenaccompaniedpores,seriouslyweakenedweldingstrength.Preventweldingofthemainmeasurestostrictlycontrolthepooltemperature,Li,Yangwelding,weldingcurrentratioshouldbe1015percentofsmallwelding,theuseofalkalineelectrode,shouldbeusedshortarcwelding,andmaintainuniformityoftransport.Hangpreventarcisthemainmeasuresinhandtoarcwelding,weldingrodshouldstayforashortperiodoftimeorforseveraloftheringshipped.Someshortcomingsoftheexistenceofthesafetyofshipsnavigatingisverydangerous,oncediscovereddefectsshouldbepromptlyamended.Theporosityoftheamendments,particularlyforinternalpores,toconfirmlocation,applicationofwindspadeorcarbonarcshaverclearalltheporositydeficienciesandtoacorrespondinggroove,andthencarryoutweldingtheslag,thelackofpenetration,Fusionisnotthedefect,butalsohavetousethesamemethodofremovingdefects,andtheninaccordancewiththeregulationsforwelding.Forcrack,shouldbecarefullyexaminedbeforethecrack,crackandtheendofThedepth,andtheneliminatedefects.Windshovelusedtoeliminatedefects,cracks,shouldfirstcrackatbothendsofthedrillholeonlytopreventtheextensionofcrack.Boredat812mmbybit,thedepthshouldbemorethancrackdepth23mm.Carbonarcgasplaningtoeliminatecracks,theyshouldfirstcrackatbothendsofarouting,untilthecrackeliminated,thenthewholecrackPaochu.Nomatterwhatmethodtoeliminatedefectscracks,itshouldbeacorrespondinggroove,inaccordancewiththeregulationsforwelding.Welddefectthattheattentionshouldbepaid1Weldingdefects,shouldadoptthesmallcurrent,donotswing,multimultichannelwelding,usedtoprohibitthecurrentWelding2oftherigidstructureoftheWelding,Inadditiontothefirstlayerandthefinallayerofwelding,weldingcanbecarriedoutunderheatafterhammering.Eachfloorfromthearcweldingandarcshouldtrytostagger3requirepreheatingof

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