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外文翻译--蔬菜移栽机在发展中国家的展望.doc

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外文翻译--蔬菜移栽机在发展中国家的展望.doc

外文翻译单行蔬菜钵体苗自动移栽机的设计取苗装置设计原文1VegetableTransplantersforUseinDevelopingCountriesAReview译文1蔬菜移栽机在发展中国家的展望原文1Developingcountriescontribute72ofthetotalvegetableproductionintheworld.Thetransplantingoperationisoneofthemostlaborintensiveinvegetableproduction.ItislargelydonebyhandinIndiaandmostdevelopingcountriesandincurslargeinvestmentsinlabor,time,andcost.Thisarticlepresentsthedetailsofconstructionofvegetabletransplantersinadditiontorecentadvancesintheirdevelopment.Performanceoftransplantersunderactualfieldconditionsisdiscussed.TraditionalMethodsofTransplantingVegetableSeedlingsFerminger1953reportedthatinIndia,forsmallscalevegetablegardening,holesof60cmdiameterand30cmdeeparemanuallyduginthefieldatdesiredspacings.Thesoilismixedwithfarmyardmanure,bonemeal,andwoodashes.Theholeisthenfilledtoadepthof15–20cmandpacked.Aseedlingisplacedinthemiddleoftheholeandtopsoilisfilledaroundtheseedling,compacted,firmed,andsoakedwithwater.Ashelterisbuilttoshadetheseedlingunderdryweatherconditions.Thismethoddoesnotrequireanyfieldpreparation.Ashovelorspadeistheonlyimplementused.ClassificationofVegetableTransplantersandSeedlingsTransplantersaredesignedbasedonseedlingtypetobeused.ThesemiautomatictransplanterscanbeusedforalmostalltypesofseedlingsTable1.Thebarerootseedlingsareobtainedbypullingseedlingsdirectlyfromnurserybeds.Thesoilblockseedlingsareobtainedbysowingofseedsinmoistsoilcubesmadebymixingsoil,peat,compost,andsandPress,2001.ThecellmoldseedlingsaregrowninflexibleplasticTsuga,2000orheavydutyinjectionmoldedtraysHorticulturalSuppliesCo.,Mumbai,Indiawithcellstofillwiththesoilmixandsowtheseed.Trayscancontain128,200,or288cells,inwhichthearrangementofcellsis816,1020,and1224,respectivelyTsuga,2000.TheHorticulturalSuppliesCo.trayhasfivesections,eachwith30or40cells,supportedbyanoutertray,whichcanhold150or200seedlings.Theshapeofthecellisaninvertedtruncatedpyramid.Anothermethodfortransplantproductionisthepaperpot,generallymadefromrecycledpaper.PaperpotsprovideanindividualareaforeachseedtogerminateandtheplanttodevelopIndianInstituteofHorticulturalResearchIIHR,2006.Atotalof128or200potscanbeplacedonatrayin88or1010arrangementsTsuga,2000.Semiautomaticandfullyautomatictransplanterscanbeusedforplantingcellmoldandpaperpot–producedseedlings.Thelinkedpaperpot,orachainofpotspreparedbyconnectingaseriesofpaperpots,ismadebyjoiningtwoplysheetsofpaperwithwaterresistantadhesiveNambuandTanimura,1992.Theydonotrequireatrayforholdingseedlingsbutrequireanarrangementtoseparatethechainofpotsintoindividualsbeforefeedingthemtotheplantingunit.Linkedpaperpotsareusedonlywithfullyautomatictransplanters.Thewalkingtypesemiautomatictransplantersareeitherselfpropelledorhandtractor–operatedmachines.Theyarerarebecausetheoperatorhastoconcentrateontheoperationofthemachineandfeedingtheseedlings.Ridingtypetworoworthreerowsemiautomatictransplantersaretractormountedortractorpulledmachines,whereasthosethatareusedwithmorerowsaretractorpulled.Thewalkingtypeautomatictransplantersareselfpropelledmachinesforsowingamaximumoffourrows.Ridingtypeautomatictransplantersareeitherselfpropelleduptofourrowsortractorpulleduptoeightrows.Further,Marr1994describedtypesoftransplanterscalledpunchplantersautomaticandwaterwheelplanterssemiautomatic.Thepunchplanterstransplantthroughplasticmulchesbypuncturingthemulchandthesoilandsettingtheseedlingintotheholes.Thewaterwheelplantersaresimilartothepunchplanterswiththeadditionofalargetankfilledwithwaterorfertilizersolution.Astheholeisformedforthetransplant,aportionofthesolutionisinjectedintothetransplanthole.SeedlingsarehandsetintothewateredholebyoperatorsridinglownearthegroundModel1600ofRobertMarvelPlasticMulch,Annville,Pa..Astheseedlingispushedin,mudfromthebottomcomesupalongthesidesandcoversthetoptocompletethetransplantingoperation.MunillaandShaw1987describedadibblingtransplanterinwhichholesaremadeinthesoilandseedlingsareplantedintheholes.SeedlingBoxorTrayHolderAseedlingboxisprovidedonsemiautomatictransplanterstostorebarerootseedlingsforfeedingtotheplantingunit.Itisrectangularincrosssectionandisopenatthetop.LongrectangularseedlingboxesareusedintransplantersModel2000,MechanicalTransplanterCo.,Holland,Mich.usedforplantinglongseedlings,inwhichaconveyorbeltisprovided,whichcanbedrivenbyfootaction.CarrouseltrayholdersFigure1canalsobeusedintransplantersMechanicalTransplanterCo.smodels5000,5000W,5000WD,4000,and6000thatusecellmoldseedlings.Eachtrayholderstoresfourtosixtrays,eachcarrying200cellmoldseedlings.Inautomatictransplanters,thetrayiskeptataplacewithitsorientationsuitableforthepickupdevicetoremoveseedlingsfromtrays.Italsohasamechanismtomovetraysforwardasseedlingsareremovedfromthetray.Recentadvancesinthedesignofvegetabletransplanters.Apartfromtheessentialcomponentsforefficientplantingofvegetableseedlings,vegetabletransplantersareprovidedwithsystemsformaintainingtheaccuracy,precision,andeffectivenessinplantingseedlingswithminimumhumanintervention.ResearchershavereportedrecentdevelopmentsinautomaticvegetabletransplanterintheUnitedStatesParish,2005,Italy,Japan,Australia,andEnglandLabowsky,2001.RobotictransplantershavebeendevelopedBrewer,1994Kimetal.,1995Ryuetal.,2001Sakaue,1992Taietal.,1994,andFigure7presentsaschematicdiagramforthistypeoftransplanterdevelopedbyRyuetal.2001.IthasaCCDcamera,whichidentifiesemptycellsinhighdensityplugtrays,passesthisinformationtothecomputer,whichfeedsittothemanipulator.Themanipulatoractuatestheendeffectertopickuponlythegoodqualityseedlingstothelowdensitygrowingtrays.ThelaborandtimeinvolvedindiscardingthepoorqualityseedlingsarefullyFIGURE7.Schematicsoftherobotictransplanterathefrontviewofthemanipulatorbthesideviewofthemanipulator,thetraymovingsystem,andthevisionsystemRyuetal.,2001.ReprintedwithpermissionoftheInstituteofAgriculturalEngineers,UK.Further,acameralinkedtoacomputerfeedstheinformationontheleafdirectionofthegoodqualityseedlingsandthemanipulatoraccordinglyorientstheendeffecter

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