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外文翻译--软件体系结构的现状及发展方向.doc

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外文翻译--软件体系结构的现状及发展方向.doc

英文原文ThecurrentsituationofthesystemstructureofthesoftwareanddevelopingdirectionInthearticleofconceptofsystemstructureofthesoftware,wespeakoffromthecrisisofthesoftware,haveexplainedorigin,definesandthefunctionintheprojectofthesoftwareisdevelopedofthesystemstructureofthesoftware.Then,howisthecurrentsituationofthesystemstructureofsoftwareatpresentWhatisthedevelopmenttrendofthesystemstructureofsoftwareThisisthecontentthatthistextwillintroduce.Atpresent,inthesystemstructureofthesoftwareisstillindevelopingrapidly,moreandmoreresearchersarecastingattentionontheresearchofthesystemstructureofthesoftware.Itisstillveryirregulartouseforcarryingonmodel,marklawandtoolthatthespecificationdescribestothesystemofthesoftware.Thoughtheseirregularmodelsareuseful,inordertomakeitmoreaccurateandmorestalwart,theresearchworkinmanyaspectsneedscontinuinggoingon.Sincelaterstageof1990s,theresearchofthesystemstructureofthesoftwarehasbecomeafocus.Themassesofsoftwareworkerrealizesoftwaresystemgreatmeaninganditthatstructurestudydesigntheimportancedevelopedtothesoftwaresystemalready,havelaunchedalotofresearchandpracticework.Isitwatchtocomebysystemcurrentsituationthatstructurestudyfromsoftware,presentresearchandtosoftwaresystemdescriptionofstructure,cometosaytostillstayonthebasisofthethingthatitisnotformalizedtoagreatextent.Teacher,frameworkofsoftware,lackessentialtoolstill,thetoolshouldexplicitdescribe,haveformalizedtoolofindependentcharacter.Atpresentamongtheincommonusesoftwaredevelopmentapproach,itisituseformalizedpictureandtextnonusuallytodescribe,cantdescribetheinterfacebetweenthecomponentsofexistencethatthesystemexpects,cantdescribethemeaningofdifferentsystematicassociationrelationofcomposition.Difficulttounderstanddeveloper,letaloneuseforanalysingitscharacteristics,suchasconsistencyandintegrality,etc..isstudiedComponentofsystemnearlybyonewhendescribingformalizedmethodnonasonesoftware,thesystematicputtinginanpositionwillbeinfluencedtoo,theeffortsinthecourseofdesigningasystematicstructureareverydifficulttotransplanttoanothersystem.Connecttosystemcomponentstructurizationofrelationisitgetaexplicitonetosuppose,whentheformalizeddescription,itwillberiskytotransplantsuchasystematiccomponenttoanothersystem,evenimpossibleone.Softwaresystemstructureisitremaininformalizedblockdiagramstagenononlytostudy,ithasbeenalreadydifficulttomeettheneedsoffurtherdevelopment.Forsupportbasedonsystemstructuredevelopment,needformalizedmodelingsymbol,systemanalysisanddevelopinginstrumentthatstructureprove.Isitwatchtocomefromsoftwaresystemcurrentsituationthatstructurestudy,infieldthisthereareprogressrecently,arepresentativeoneMellonofAmericanCarnegieuniversityamongthemRobertJ.A11enonCarnegieMellonUniversityonWrightsystemthatl997getoutofeveryyear.Wrightisakindofstructuredescribeslanguages,thislanguageisonthebasisofakindofformalized,abstractsystematicmodel,haveofferedakindofpracticaltoolforthethingthatdescribeandanalysethesystemstructureofthesoftwareandstructurizationmethod.Wrightlaysparticularemphasisonanddescribessystematicsoftwarecomponentandstructure,dispositionandmethodtojoinmainly.Itusestheexplicit,independentconnectionmodeltocomeasmutualway,thismakesystemthiscanspendlogicpredicatesymbolsystem,relyonspecificsystematicinstancedescribetheabstractbehaviorofthesystem.Systemthiscanalsojudgesystematicstructureconsistencyandintegralityofspecificationsthroughcheckinginagroupofstaticbehavior.Bythelookofanalysisofthesecharacteristics,Wrightsystemisreallysuitablefortolargescaleandsystematicdescriptionandanalysis.Studyprimaryproblemofthesystemstructureofthesoftwareishowtoexpressthesystemstructureofthesoftware,namelywhatsystemstructuremodelingtothesoftware.Accordingtothedifferenceofemphasispointsofmodeling,candividethemodelofthesystemstructureofthesoftwareinto5kindsStructuremodel,framemodel,dynamicmodel,coursemodelandfunctionmodel.Inthese5models,themostfrequentlyusedoneisthestructuremodelanddynamicmodel.Thisisamostocular,mostgeneralmodelingmethod.Themethodportraythestructurewithsystemcomponent,attachmentandotherconceptsofstructure,andisitisitreflectimportantsemantemecontentofsystemtocomethroughstructuretotryhard,includingsystematicdisposition,restraint,implicitassumedconditions,style,nature.Thecoretostudystructuremodelisthatthesystemstructuredescribeslanguages.Theframemodelissimilartostructuremodel,butitdoesnotlayparticularemphasisondescribingthedetailofthestructureandlayingparticularemphasisonthestructureofthewholeevenmoreverymuch.Framemodelregardsomespecialproblemsasgoalsetuponlymainlytomeetstructureofquestionthis.Dynamicmodeltostructureorframesupplementofmodel,studybehaviornatureofbigparticleofsystem.Forexample,describesystematicdeconfigurationorevolution.Thetrendsmaymeanthedisposition,settingupofthesystematicensemblearchitectureorremovethecourseofthecommunicationpasswayorcalculation.Thiskindofsystemisoftenencouragingtype.Studythestepandcoursewithsystematicstructureincoursemodel.Thereforethestructureisaresultoffollowingsomecoursescripts.Modelthisthinksystemstructuretomakeupbyonegroupfunctioncomponentaccordingtothelevel,thelowerfloorprovidesservicetotheupperstrata.Itcanberegardedasakindofspecialframemodel.Havingtheirownstrongpointseachinthese5kindsofmodels,perhapsunify5kindsofmodelstogetherorganically,formoneintactmodelitcomestobesystemstructuresuitabletoportraysoftware.ForexampleKruchtenproposeonevisualanglemodelof41in1995.41modelincludethelogicvisualanglefrom5differentvisualangles,coursevisualangle,physicsvisualangle,developingthevisualangleandscenevisualangletodescribethesystemstructureofthesoftware.Everyvisualanglecareonesideofsystemonly,5visualangleisitcanreflectsystematicsoftwaresystemcontentsofstructuretoconbinetogether.41modelisasFig.1shows.enduserFunctionrequirementprogrammerSoftWareManagementsystemintegratedpersoncapabilityextending、thuoughputetc..systemprocesspersonsystemtopology、installtion、communicationetc..41modelisasFig.Softwaredevelopmentmodelcrossoverwholesoftwaresystemdevelop,operate,allworkandstructureframeoftaskimplementedtomaintainoflifecycle,providetherelationthatsoftwaredevelopmentmovesaboutbetweeneverystages.Atpresent,thecommonsoftwaredevelopmentmodelcanroughlybedividedintothreekindsWaterfallmodelifthedemandofthesoftwareistotallyconfirmed.Progressivedevelopmentmodeladoptedwhensoftwaredevelopmentcanonlyofferthebasicdemandatinitialstage,forinstancespiralmodel,etc..Basedonformalizationdevelopmentapproachtovarymodels.Alldevelopmentapproachesaretosolvethedemandanddisparitywhilerealizing.Butthreesoftwaredevelopmentmodelofkindthesethereareallkindsofdefects,cantwellsupportthedevelopmentcoursebasedonsystemstructureofthesoftware.So,researchershavedonecertainworkindevelopingthesoftwaredevelopmentmodelbasedonsystemstructure.Forexample,inordertoexpressthelifecycleofthesystemstructurevividly,ZhouYingXinDr.ofBeijingUniversityofPostTelecommunicationestablishthesystemofapieceofsoftwarethelifecyclemodelofthestructure.Softwaresystemdevelopmentofstructurelargescalesoftwarekeylinkthatsystemdevelops.Thesystemstructurehasessentialfunctioninthedevelopmentoftheproductionlineofthesoftware,inproducing,becauseofsamesoftwaresystemstructure,canisithavedifferentalotofsystemoffunctiontoestablishinthedevelopment.Sharesystemstructureandagroupofreusablecomponentsbetweenthesoftwareproductclans,canincreasethesoftprojectandreducedevelopingandsafeguardthecost.Aproductlinehaspublicsystematicsoftwaresystemthatiscollectedofdemandonbehalfofonegroup,theyallcustomizethestandardproductlineframeworkaccordingtothebasicusersneeds,integratedandgottheuniquepartofreusablecomponentandsystem.Adopttheproductionlinetypemodeofthesoftwaretoproducesoftware,willproducehugeprogrammingenterprises.ButthesoftwareproductclanmajorityproducedatLogicalVisionDevelopedVisionProcessVisionPhysicalVisionSceneVisionpresentisinthesamefield.Atpresent,thesystemstructureisstillaverynewresearchfield,itsconceptisstillquitefuzzy.Butsoftwaresystemstructureregardassoftprojectacomponentoffield,havingalreadyobtainedconsiderabledevelopment,theonesthathavebeendesignedwithresearchersbymostsoftwaresystemsarepaidattentionto.Whethersoftwaresystemstructureactiveresearchdirectionincludeatpresent.1Researchofthesystemstructureformfoundationofthesoftware2Studythenewspecialhighlevellanguagetothequestionthatthesystemstructureofthesoftwareispeculiarwhendescribed3Setupandisusedinthetoleranceandappraisethemodelandmethodofthesystemstructureofthesoftware4SetupfacingspecialfieldsoftwaresystemstructureFantypestorehouse.5Carryoutthetransitiontothetheorysoftwaresystemstructurefrompresentintuitionandexperiencestate.Inbetweensoftwareengineerandsoftwaredescriptionandunderstandingabilityofsystemofraising,thoughthesystemstructureofthesoftwaredescribesthatplaysanimportantrole,theseabstractdescriptionisusuallynonformalizedandrandomone.Systemstructuraldesignfrequentlydifficulttounderstand,difficulttoisitcarryonformalizedanalysisandsimulationtosuitablefor,lackcorrespondingsupporttoolhelpframeworkteacherfinishthedesignwork.Forsolvetheproblem,isitdescribeformalizedlanguageinreasoningcandeveloptousefor,languagethesenamesystemstructuredescribelanguageArchitectureDescriptionLanguage,ADLsissoughttobeincreasedtheintelligibleandputtinginanpositionofthesystemstructuraldesignofthesoftware.ADListhislanguage,thesystematicframeworkteachercanexploitthecharacteristicofferedbyitsinstituteandcarryonthesystematicconceptsystemstructuremodelingofthesoftware.ADLhasofferedtheconcretegrammarandportrayedtheconceptframeofthesystemstructure.ADLsmakesthesystematicdeveloperabletowelldescribethesystemstructurethattheydesign,inordertoexchangewithpeople,cananalysealotofinstanceswiththetoolthatisoffered.Thepurposeofthiskindofdescriptionlanguageistoofferakindofstandardizedsystemstructuretodescribe,thusmaketheautomationofthesystemstructureanalysethatispossible.Researchershavealreadydesignednearly20kindsofADLs,themorepowerfuloneisC2,UniCon,MetaH,Aesop,SADL,Rapide,Wright,etc..Languagethesecangoontosystemstructureconnectorthefirstabstract,atthesametime,stillcandescribethereciprocationbetweenthestructureofthemodelandinsidecomponent,andhasintroducedsomenewnetworkanalysismodes.Workofinthisrespecttoobtainofdifferentsystemstructureprinciple,arrangementandclassificationofmodeamongsoftwaredevelopmentpracticesoftwareengineermainly.Forexampletosoftwaresystemstructureclassificationandcomparisonofstyle,describetothesystemstructurethatthesynthesisofthelanguageisanalysedetc..Sofarasatpresent,domesticstudyonsystemstructureofthesoftwareconcentrateontosoftwaresystemarrangementofspecialknowledgeofstructuremainly.

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