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外文翻译--长梯形花键的冷挤压及其成形分析 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--长梯形花键的冷挤压及其成形分析 英文版.pdf

ORIGINALARTICLECOLDEXTRUSIONOFALONGTRAPEZIUMSPLINEANDITSFORMINGANALYSISYUANANFURECEIVED21AUGUST2007/ACCEPTED10MARCH2008/PUBLISHEDONLINE15APRIL2008SPRINGERVERLAGLONDONLIMITED2008ABSTRACTTHEMACHININGOFALONGTRAPEZIUMSPLINEISDIFFICULTDUETOITSSTIFFNESSINTHISPAPER,ASPECIALCOLDEXTRUSIONTECHNIQUEHASBEENADOPTEDONTHEBASISOFANALYZINGITSTHREEDIMENSIONALVELOCITYFIELDANDSIMULATIONUSINGTHESOFTWAREPROGRAMMEDEFORM3D50TOMAKEAQUALIFIEDTRAPEZIUMSPLINEOFΦ12840WITH16TEETHKEYWORDSCOLDEXTRUSIONTRAPEZIUMSPLINEFORMINGLIMITDEFORM1INTRODUCTIONTHERECTANGLESPLINEISMAINLYUSEDTOHOLDHEAVYLOADSDUETOITSTHICKROOTTHEREFOREITISWIDELYUSEDTOTRANSMITPOWERINTHEAUTOINDUSTRYTHISPAPERSMAINLYFOCUSESONTHEFORMINGOFALONGTRAPEZIUMSPLINE,WHICHISADIFFICULTPROBLEMTOSOLVEINTHEMACHININGINDUSTRYTRADITIONALMACHININGMETHODS,SUCHASMILLING,HOBBLING,ETC,ARENOTCAPABLEOFFORMINGSUCHSPLINEINBATCHESDUETOTHEIRLOWEFFICIENCYANDQUALITY;THEREFORESPECIALMANUFACTURINGMETHODSSUCHASTWISTING,EXTRUDING,ETCHAVEBECOMEMOREANDMOREWIDELYUSEDSTILL,FORLONGTRAPEZIUMSPLINE,ASSHOWNINFIG1,BOTHOFTHEMHAVESOMEDIFFICULTIESTOFORMAQUALIFIEDPART1–72DETAILSOFPARTTOBEFORMEDTHEDRAWINGOFATRAPEZIUMSPLINETOBEFORMEDREFERSTOFIG1ITSDETAILSAREASFOLLOWSTEETH16THICKOFTOOTH13MATERIAL20CRGBELASTICMODULE205GPAPOSSIONRATIO029DENSITY7850KGC14M3YIELDSTRENGTH685MPATOPDIAOFTOOTHDT128MMROOTDIAOFTOOTH1086MM3STEPSTOSOLVETHEREARETWOPROBLEMSWHICHNEEDTOBESOLVEDINORDERTOFORMAQUALIFIEDPRODUCT31STRUCTUREOFTHEDIECAVITYTHESTRUCTUREOFTHEDIECAVITYDIRECTLYINFLUENCESDEFORMATIONOFTHEWORKPIECEANDSTRESSANDSTRAINDISTRIBUTIONDURINGEXTRUSIONTHEREFOREITISNECESSARYTODESIGNAREASONABLEDIESTRUCTUREACCORDINGTOTHEACTUALFORMINGINTJADVMANUFTECHNOL200941461–467DOI101007/S001700081480YYANFUINFORMATIONANDCONTROLCOLLEGE,NANJINGUNIVERSITYOFINFORMATIONSCIENCETECHNOLOGY,NO114PANCHENGNEWSTREETPUKOUDISTRICT,NANJING,JIANGSUPROVINCE210044,CHINAEMAILCHARLESYUAN163COMCONDITIONSTOOBTAINAMINIMUMFORMINGFORCEINTHISPAPER,BASEDONTHEANALYSISTOTHETHREEDIMENSIONALVELOCITYFIELDINMETALEXTRUSIONACCORDINGTOASSUMPTIONOFISOEXTRUSIONRATIOFLOW,AREASONABLEDIESTRUCTURECANBEDESIGNEDANDTHENFORMINGOFEXTRUSIONUNDERTHESAMECONDITIONSWITHACTUALEXTRUSIONISSIMULATEDWITHDEFORMFINALLYTHEEXTRUSIONDIEISMACHINEDACCORDINGTOTHEABOVETWORESULTS32STIFFNESSOFPARTTOBEFORMEDASTOTHETHINLONGTHEWORKPIECETOBEFORMEDINTHISPAPER,HOWTOKEEPENOUGHSTIFFNESSOFTHEWORKPIECEDURINGCOLDEXTRUSIONBECOMESANOVERWHELMINGPROBLEMSOINACTUALEXTRUSION,TRADITIONALPUSHFORCEISCHANGEDTOAPULLFORCEAND,ATTHESAMETIME,SUPPORTEDBYSPECIALMECHANISMTHESETECHNIQUESABOVEAREPROVEDTOBEEFFECTIVE4ANALYSISOFEXTRUSIONINTHISPAPER,ALLANALYSISISMADEONTHEBASISOFOPENDIEEXTRUSION41SHAPEFUNCTIONOFSPLINESHAFTDUETOTHESYMMETRYOFTHETRAPEZIUMSPLINE,ONLYHALFTHESTRUCTUREOFITSSHAPEISDRAWNINFIG2ACCORDINGTOTHEWORKINGPRINCIPLEOFTRAPEZIUMSPLINE,ITSSHAPEFUNCTIONOFSURFACECANBEOBTAINEDASFOLLOWSFR;Θ;ZGΘC0RBC138ZLRB1WHERELVALIDLENGTHOFWORKINGZONEOFDIECAVITY;RBRADIUSOFBASECIRCLE,IE,RADIUSOFRAWBAR;GΘISDEFINEDASFOLLOWSGΘRT0ΘC2081SRΘ81ΘC2082RR81ΘC208282WHERERTRADIUSOFTOPCIRCLEOFSPLINERRRADIUSOFROOTCIRCLEOFSPLINESRΘEQUATIONOFTRAPEZIUMSPLINEWHICHISDESCRIBEDASFOLLOWSSRΘRRRSIN81C0ΘRTRSINΘC082RTRRSIN81C0823WHEREAKPRESSUREANGLEOFTHESPLINEΘTPOLARANGLEWHENTOPCIRCLEOFSPLINEISPOLARRADIUSFIG2SHAPEFUNCTIONOFTRAPEZIUMSPLINEANDITSCOORDINATIONSYSTEMFIG3DEFORMINGZONEOFTRAPEZIUMSPLINEFIG1PARTDRAWINGTOBEFORMED462INTJADVMANUFTECHNOL200941461–46742ACTUALANGLESACCORDINGTOACTUALDIMENSIONSOFTRAPEZIUMSPLINE,EQS1,2AND3CANBETRANSFERREDASFOLLOWS815830;826880821230ZONEIFR;Θ;ZRTC0RBZLRB4ZONEIIFR;Θ;ZRRTRRSIN81C082RRSIN81C0ΘRTSINΘC082ΘΘZZ85ZONEIIIFR;Θ;ZRRC0RBZLRB643ESTABLISHMENTOFTHREEDIMENSIONALVELOCITYFIELDBEFOREESTABLISHINGITSTHREEDIMENSIONALVELOCITYFIELD,ITISSUPPOSEDASFOLLOWS–THEMATERIALOFTHEWORKPIECETOBEFORMEDISANISOTROPYMATERIALANDCONSTRAINEDBYVONMISEPRINCIPLE–VOLUMEOFTHEWORKPIECEISKEPTTHESAMEDURINGEXTRUSION–APLASTICBOUNDARYISENCLOSEDBYTHESHEARSURFACEATTHEENTRANCEANDEXIT–THEMATERIALATTHEENTRANCEFANZONEANDEXITFANZONEISKEPTTHESAMEONTOTALEXTRUSIONRATIOSINCEEVERYPLASTICMETALMUSTEXPERIENCEPLASTICDEFORMATIONDURINGEXTRUSION,APLASTICDEFORMINGCELLREFTOFIG3ISCONSIDEREDITISENCLOSEDWITHSHAPEFUNCTIONANDTWOPLAINSATENTRANCEANDEXIT,WHICHAREPERPENDICULARWITHTHEZAXISNOW,SELECTONEPOINTPZ,R,ΘRANDOMLYWHOSEVELOCITYCANBEEXPRESSEDASVPVZ;R;QVVZ;VR;VQ7ACCORDINGTOEQS1AND2,THEFOLLOWINGEQUATIONCANBEOBTAINED1RRVRR1RVQQVZZ08WHEREVR,VQANDVZARERADIAL,CIRCUMFERENTIALANDAXIALVELOCITIES,RESPECTIVELY,ANDALLOFTHEMAREFUNCTIONSOFZ,R,Θ,WHICHARESTATEDASFOLLOWS1EXPRESSIONOFVZITISASSUMEDTHAT,DURINGEXTRUSION,AXIALVELOCITYV0ZISTHESAMEWITHINTHEPERIODOFO1O2REFTOFIG4,BUT,INTHEPERIODOFOO1,AXIALVELOCITYVZISCOMPOSEDWITHV0ZANDANADDITIONALAXIALVELOCITYV00Z,WHICHISASFOLLOWSVZV0ZV00Z9ITISSUPPOSEDTHATTHEVELOCITYOFPUSHBARATENTRANCEZ0ISV0ANDITSAREAISA0;THEREFORE,AREAATPOINTZZZISAZINADDITION,HALFGUIDEANGLEOFEXTRUSIONDIEISASSUMEDTOBEΑ,THEFOLLOWINGEXPRESSIONCANBEOBTAINEDZSVZDAVOA010WHEREA0Z2P012F2R;Q;0DQ;AZZ2P012F2R;Q;ZDQOFIG4EXTRUSIONZONEOFATRAPEZIUMSPLINEINTJADVMANUFTECHNOL200941461–467463REGARDINGV00Z,ITMEETSFOLLOWINGCONDITIONSV00ZZ0V0;V00ZC12C12C12C12ZLRVLAN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