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外文翻译--除雪机的自动驾驶系统 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--除雪机的自动驾驶系统 英文版.pdf

–1–AUTOMATICSTEERINGSYSTEMFORROTARYSNOWREMOVERSHirofumiHIRASHITA,TakeshiARAI,TadashiYOSHIDAAdvancedTechnologyResearchTeam,PublicWorksResearchInstitute16,Minamihara,TsukubaCity,IbarakiPref,Japan,3058516Tel81298796757Fax81298796732Emailhirasitapwri.go.jp,arai0333pwri.go.jp,yoshidapwri.go.jpABSTRACTIncoldandsnowypartsofJapan,mostsnowisremovedfromroadsbymechanicalsnowremovers,andtodealwithroadsideconditionsandguaranteesafeoperation,thesemachinesarenormallyoperatedbytwopeopleanoperatorandanassistant.Workisinprogresstodevelopautomaticsteeringsystemsforsnowremoversinordertolightentheburdenonsnowremoveroperatingstaffandtoreducefuturelaborrequirements.ThisreportdescribesanautomaticsteeringsystemthatincorporatesthreetechnologiesthelanemarkersystemthathasbeendevelopedinrecentyearsasanITStechnology,RTKGPStechnology,andGIStechnology.Thissteeringsystemhasbeendevelopedforrotarysnowremoversthetypeofsnowremoverconsideredtobethemostdifficulttooperate.Thereportalsoevaluatesthethreecontrolmethodsbasedontheresultsofcorroborativetestingdoneusingactualsnowremoversandoutlinesproblemswiththesecontrolsystemsthatmustbeovercometoestablishaworkingsystem.KEYWORDSRotarysnowremover,automaticsteering,ITS,lanemarker,GIS,GPS1.INTRODUCTIONIncoldsnowypartsofJapan,snowisremovedfromroadsbymechanicalmeanstoguaranteesmoothwinterroadtraffic.Toguaranteethatmechanicalsnowremovalisperformedappropriatelyaccordingtothestateofsnowaccumulationonroadsurfaces,acarefullyplannedattendancecontrolmethodmustbeestablishedandthemachinerymustbeoperatedcorrectly.Theautomaticsteeringsystemthathasbeendevelopedisintendedforuseonrotarysnowremoversatypewithanoperatingmethodmorecomplexthanthatofothertypesofsnowremovers.Ithasbeendevelopedtoreducetheburdenonsnowremoveroperatorsandtolowerfuturelaborrequirements.2.BACKGROUNDTOTHEDEVELOPMENTArotarysnowremoverisoperatedbytwopeopleanoperatorwhodrivestheremoverandanassistantwhocontrolstheejectionofthesnow.Theoperatordrivesthemachinealongthecurbontheshoulderoftheroadwhilewatchingoutformanholesorotherleveldifferencesonitssurface.Theassistantejectsthesnowwhileavoidingprivateproperty,homes,andotherareaswheresnowdisposalisforbiddenPhoto1.Thegoalistoautomatepartofthevehicleoperatingworknowperformedbytheoperatorstoallowthemtocontrolthesnowejectionnowdonebytheassistants,permittingtheintroductionofonemanoperationinthefuture.Thisreportintroducespositioningtechnologyandcontroltechnologythatformthefoundationoftheautomaticsteeringsystemthathasbeendeveloped,andpresentsanevaluationofthesystembasedontheresultsofcorroborativetestingperformedwithanactualsnowremoveranddescribesproblemstobeovercometocompleteaworkingsystem.Photograph1.InsideofaRotarySnowRemover–2–3.AUTOMATICSTEERINGSYSTEMTheautomaticsteeringsystemthathasbeendevelopedautomatestherotarysnowremoversteeringoperationthatisoneofthetasksoftheoperator.3.1SteeringcontrolofarotarysnowremoverThesteeringmechanismofarotarysnowremoverdiffersfromnormalvehiclesinthatthefrontandbackpartsarelinkedbypinsandarticulatingmechanismsareinstalledsothatthevehiclecanbendatthepins.Thesteeringiscontrolledbytheexactlinearizationmethodandbytimescaletransformationthatareeffectivewaystocontrolthecourseofamovingvehicle1.Thiscontrolmethodisrepresentedbyanequationofmotionsubjecttononholonomicconstraintandisbasedonnonlinearcontroltheory.Butasnowremoverslideslaterally,becauseasitremovessnow,itissubjectedtolateralreactionforcefromthesnowembankmentasshownbyPhotograph2.Sidewaysslidingiscontrolledbyusingtheintegratedservosystemdescribedbelowtotreatthisslidingasanexternaldisturbance.1CoursetrackingcontrolFig.1showsamodelofthesnowremoversteeringmechanism.Inthisfigure,thedistancesfromtheconnectingpinofthesnowremovertothefrontwheelsandtotherearwheelsarerepresentedbyL.Whenthesteeringangleisrepresentedby2α,thecoursefollowedbythesnowremoverisanarcwithradiusRL/tanα.WhenthecoursetangentdirectionspeedvectoratthecenterpointPofthefrontwheelsisrepresentedbyνandthetangentdirectionanglebyθ,theequationofmotionofthepointPcanbewrittenasfollows.θcosvxG6θsinvyG6LvRvαθtanG61Ifexactlinearizationandtimescaletransformationaredoneforequation1toperformstatusfeedbackcontrol,thequantityofsteeringofthesnowremoverthatis1/2ofthesteeringangleαisdefinedbythefollowingequation.{}θθα3211costanfftanLy−2Inequation2,lateralslidingisnotconsidered.Inordertoeliminatethesteadystatedeviationcausedbylateralsliding,iftheintegratedservosystemisused,thequantityofsteeringαisrepresentedbythefollowingequation.GbbGbbGbcGbaGabGabGacGaaGbfGbeGbdGafGaeGad−Gb3−θθθαtanffdtcosfcostan210ref331yvyyLt3Thesymbolfisthecontrolgain,andbasedonequation3,f1representsproportionalgain,f2representsderivativegain,andf3representsintegralgain.PIDcontrolwasusedtoconstructthesystem.Figure2.IntegratedServoSystemControlBlockDiagramθ2α1ψ2ψvRLLxyXYPαFigure1.CoordinateSystemModelofaSnowRemovertan1†‡f1f2Lcos3tanycmdcosf3vs1yrefSnowremoverPhotograph2.RotarySnowRemoverRemovingSnow–3–3.2PositioningmethodItisnecessarytodetectavehiclespresentpositionandtohaveinformationthatdeterminesthedirectiontosteeritinordertoperformautomaticsteering.ThesystemthathasbeendevelopedisequippedwithtwofunctionstheguidancemethodthatuselanemarkersensorstodetectthevehiclespositionandthesteeringmethodthatusesGPSandGIStodetectthevehiclesposition.3.3LanemarkersensorguidancemethodAlanemarkersensorisabasictechnologyoftheAdvancedCruiseAssistHighwaySystemAHSdevelopedforuseaspartoftheIntelligentTransportationSystemITS.Thistechnologyincludeslanemarkersburiedatintervalsunderaroadsurfaceandvehiclemountedsensorsthatdetectsignalstransmittedbytheselanemarkerstoguidethevehiclealongthecourseformedbythemarkers.Therearetwoversionsofthissystemtheradiowavemethodandthemagneticmethod.1SteeringanglecalculationlogicItisassumedthatthedistancebetweenthelanemarkerswillnotbeconstant,butcanbevariedaccordingtotheshapeoftheroadanddemandsofthesensorside.Therefore,thissystemisequippedwithtworowsofsensorssothatcontrolcanbeperformedevenwhenthelanemarkerinstallationintervalisnotknownuntiltherotarysnowremoverpassesoverthemFig.3.TocontrolsteeringwithasinglerowofsensorsFig.3ontheleft,thelateraldifferentialandtheazimuthaldifferentialymandψmthatarenecessaryforcontrolbythetargetcoursecoordinatesystem∑xyrequireinformationabouttheintervalbetweenthemarkersinadditiontothesensorsignalym1thatismeasuredbythefrontvehiclefixedcoordinatesystem∑fxfyf.ButwithtworowsofsensorsFig.3ontheright,thesystemcancalculatethelateraldifferentialandtheazimuthaldifferentialymandψmofthetargetcoursecoordinatesystem∑xybyhavingtwoopposedsensorsholdthetwosensorsignalsym1andym2measuredbythefrontvehiclefixedcoordinatesystem∑fxfyfasitpassedamarkeruntiltheypassthenextmarker,sothatsteeringcontrolcanbeperformedeveniftheintervalbetweenmarkerswasunknown.2RadiowavemarkersensorpositioningmethodWiththeradiowavemethod,anantennainsidethesensoronthevehicletransmitsa227.5kHsradiowavetowardstheroadandwhenaradiowavemarkerPhoto3receivesthistransmission,itreturnsasignalofdoublefrequencyof455kHz.AreceivingantennainsidethesensorreceivesthisreturnradiowavetodetectthevehiclespositionFig.6.Thesystemdetectsthelocationsofthemarkersinthetravelingdirectionbypassingthroughthepeakvalue.Itdetectsthepositioninthelateraldirectionbycalculatingthedistancebetweentheantennasbythetriangulationmethodbasedonthedifferenceinthereceivedstrengthofthereturnradiowavessensedbythetworeceivingantennas2.Photograph3.RadioWaveMarkerPhotograph4.RadioWaveMarkerSensorFigure3.LaneMarkerSensorGuidanceMethodψm=-tan1{(ym1-ym2)/Lm}ym=-{ym1-Lo(ym1-ym2)/Lm}cosψmLm1.34m、Lo1.0mym目標軌道No.1No.2ym1ym2LmψmLoyfxfψm=-sin1{(ym1-ym1b)/2.0}ym=-{ym1-Lo(ym1-ym1b)/2.0}cosψmLo1.0mym目標軌道No.1ym1ym1b2mψmLoyfxfNo.1センサで前回検出した値ym目標軌道No.1No.2ym1ym2LmψmLoyfxf敷設マーカTargetcourseTargetcourseBuriedmarkerFrontpartofthesnowremoverFrontwheeltiresValuepreviouslydetectedbytheNo.1sensor–4–3MagneticmarkersensorpositioningmethodWiththemagneticmethod,magneticmarkerspermanentferritemagnetsPhoto5undertheroadsurfaceproducemagneticfieldsandamagneticsensorthatdetectsmagneticfielddensityinstalledonthevehicledeterminesthepositionofthevehiclebasedonthestrengthofeachmagneticfield.Themagneticfielddistributionofthemagneticmarkershowstheunimodalitythattreatsthecenterofthemarkerasthemaximummagneticfieldstrength.ThemagneticfluxdensitiesoftheverticalcomponentBzandthevehiclewidthdirectioncomponentBxofthismagneticfieldaredetectedbythemagneticsensorandthelocationofthemarkerisdetectedbycalculatingthedistancebetweenthesensorandthemarkerbasedonthepreviouslystipulatedBx/BzrelationalequationFig.43.3.4GPS/GISpositiondetectionmethodAsystembasedonGPS/GISpositioningdetectsthepositionofthevehicletocontrolitsoperationbycomparingrotarysnowremoverpositioncoordinatedatareceivedfromaGPSsatellitewithpositioncoordinatesoflineardatafortheroadprovidedinadvancebyroadGIS.1RoadGISRoadGISisadatabaseofinformationconcerningstructuresandtrafficmanagementusedforroadmaintenance.Todevelopthissystem,rotarysnowremovertargetcourseinformationwascreatedsothatitcanbehandledasGISdata.OperatorsofrotarysnowremoversremovesnowtowidenthebareroadbydrivingtheirvehiclesguidedbythesnowremovaledgeFig.5Becausethesnowremovaledgeisoftenthecurbofthesidewalkalongthesidesoftheroad,theGISdatathatwasusediscurbdata.2RTKGPSRTKGPS,asystemcapableofhighprecisionpositioningerrorradiusbetween2and3cm,consistsoftwoGPSreceivingantennae,oneafixedstationandoneamobilestationonthesnowremover.ThefixedstationtransmitscorrectioninformationbasedonGPSdataithasreceivedtothemobilestation.Thesystemcanperformalmostrealtimepositioning,becausetheGPSdataiscorrectedatarateof20Hz.4.CORROBORATIVETESTINGCorroborativetestingplannedtosimulatesnowremovalonarealroadwascarriedoutusingarotarysnowremoverequippedwiththesteeringcontrolsysteminHokkaidoinJanuaryandFebruary2002.Thecorroborativetestingwasperformedinordertoevaluatetheapplicabilityandpracticalityofeachautomaticsteeringmethodunderthebehaviorcharacteristicofasnowremoveronanactualroadlowspeed,lateralsliding.4.1Outlineofthecorroborativetesting1TherotarysnowremoverThebodyoftherotarysnowremoverwasthemediumsizemodel2.2mwideusedmostfrequentlyonnationalhighways,andthebodyconstructedaccordingtonormalspecificationswaspartiallymodifiedFig.6.Photograph5.MagneticMarkerBx/B21.510.500.511.5230025020015010050050100150200250300横位置BxH300mmH500mmLaterallocationFigure4.Bx/BzRelationship除雪目標作業ラインSnowremoverstargetworklineFigure5.RoadGISData

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