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外文翻译--除雪机的自动驾驶系统 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--除雪机的自动驾驶系统 英文版.pdf

–1–AUTOMATICSTEERINGSYSTEMFORROTARYSNOWREMOVERSHIROFUMIHIRASHITA,TAKESHIARAI,TADASHIYOSHIDAADVANCEDTECHNOLOGYRESEARCHTEAM,PUBLICWORKSRESEARCHINSTITUTE16,MINAMIHARA,TSUKUBACITY,IBARAKIPREF,JAPAN,3058516TEL81298796757FAX81298796732EMAILHIRASITAPWRIGOJP,ARAI0333PWRIGOJP,YOSHIDAPWRIGOJPABSTRACTINCOLDANDSNOWYPARTSOFJAPAN,MOSTSNOWISREMOVEDFROMROADSBYMECHANICALSNOWREMOVERS,ANDTODEALWITHROADSIDECONDITIONSANDGUARANTEESAFEOPERATION,THESEMACHINESARENORMALLYOPERATEDBYTWOPEOPLEANOPERATORANDANASSISTANTWORKISINPROGRESSTODEVELOPAUTOMATICSTEERINGSYSTEMSFORSNOWREMOVERSINORDERTOLIGHTENTHEBURDENONSNOWREMOVEROPERATINGSTAFFANDTOREDUCEFUTURELABORREQUIREMENTSTHISREPORTDESCRIBESANAUTOMATICSTEERINGSYSTEMTHATINCORPORATESTHREETECHNOLOGIESTHELANEMARKERSYSTEMTHATHASBEENDEVELOPEDINRECENTYEARSASANITSTECHNOLOGY,RTKGPSTECHNOLOGY,ANDGISTECHNOLOGYTHISSTEERINGSYSTEMHASBEENDEVELOPEDFORROTARYSNOWREMOVERSTHETYPEOFSNOWREMOVERCONSIDEREDTOBETHEMOSTDIFFICULTTOOPERATETHEREPORTALSOEVALUATESTHETHREECONTROLMETHODSBASEDONTHERESULTSOFCORROBORATIVETESTINGDONEUSINGACTUALSNOWREMOVERSANDOUTLINESPROBLEMSWITHTHESECONTROLSYSTEMSTHATMUSTBEOVERCOMETOESTABLISHAWORKINGSYSTEMKEYWORDSROTARYSNOWREMOVER,AUTOMATICSTEERING,ITS,LANEMARKER,GIS,GPS1INTRODUCTIONINCOLDSNOWYPARTSOFJAPAN,SNOWISREMOVEDFROMROADSBYMECHANICALMEANSTOGUARANTEESMOOTHWINTERROADTRAFFICTOGUARANTEETHATMECHANICALSNOWREMOVALISPERFORMEDAPPROPRIATELYACCORDINGTOTHESTATEOFSNOWACCUMULATIONONROADSURFACES,ACAREFULLYPLANNEDATTENDANCECONTROLMETHODMUSTBEESTABLISHEDANDTHEMACHINERYMUSTBEOPERATEDCORRECTLYTHEAUTOMATICSTEERINGSYSTEMTHATHASBEENDEVELOPEDISINTENDEDFORUSEONROTARYSNOWREMOVERSATYPEWITHANOPERATINGMETHODMORECOMPLEXTHANTHATOFOTHERTYPESOFSNOWREMOVERSITHASBEENDEVELOPEDTOREDUCETHEBURDENONSNOWREMOVEROPERATORSANDTOLOWERFUTURELABORREQUIREMENTS2BACKGROUNDTOTHEDEVELOPMENTAROTARYSNOWREMOVERISOPERATEDBYTWOPEOPLEANOPERATORWHODRIVESTHEREMOVERANDANASSISTANTWHOCONTROLSTHEEJECTIONOFTHESNOWTHEOPERATORDRIVESTHEMACHINEALONGTHECURBONTHESHOULDEROFTHEROADWHILEWATCHINGOUTFORMANHOLESOROTHERLEVELDIFFERENCESONITSSURFACETHEASSISTANTEJECTSTHESNOWWHILEAVOIDINGPRIVATEPROPERTY,HOMES,ANDOTHERAREASWHERESNOWDISPOSALISFORBIDDENPHOTO1THEGOALISTOAUTOMATEPARTOFTHEVEHICLEOPERATINGWORKNOWPERFORMEDBYTHEOPERATORSTOALLOWTHEMTOCONTROLTHESNOWEJECTIONNOWDONEBYTHEASSISTANTS,PERMITTINGTHEINTRODUCTIONOFONEMANOPERATIONINTHEFUTURETHISREPORTINTRODUCESPOSITIONINGTECHNOLOGYANDCONTROLTECHNOLOGYTHATFORMTHEFOUNDATIONOFTHEAUTOMATICSTEERINGSYSTEMTHATHASBEENDEVELOPED,ANDPRESENTSANEVALUATIONOFTHESYSTEMBASEDONTHERESULTSOFCORROBORATIVETESTINGPERFORMEDWITHANACTUALSNOWREMOVERANDDESCRIBESPROBLEMSTOBEOVERCOMETOCOMPLETEAWORKINGSYSTEMPHOTOGRAPH1INSIDEOFAROTARYSNOWREMOVER–2–3AUTOMATICSTEERINGSYSTEMTHEAUTOMATICSTEERINGSYSTEMTHATHASBEENDEVELOPEDAUTOMATESTHEROTARYSNOWREMOVERSTEERINGOPERATIONTHATISONEOFTHETASKSOFTHEOPERATOR31STEERINGCONTROLOFAROTARYSNOWREMOVERTHESTEERINGMECHANISMOFAROTARYSNOWREMOVERDIFFERSFROMNORMALVEHICLESINTHATTHEFRONTANDBACKPARTSARELINKEDBYPINSANDARTICULATINGMECHANISMSAREINSTALLEDSOTHATTHEVEHICLECANBENDATTHEPINSTHESTEERINGISCONTROLLEDBYTHEEXACTLINEARIZATIONMETHODANDBYTIMESCALETRANSFORMATIONTHATAREEFFECTIVEWAYSTOCONTROLTHECOURSEOFAMOVINGVEHICLE1THISCONTROLMETHODISREPRESENTEDBYANEQUATIONOFMOTIONSUBJECTTONONHOLONOMICCONSTRAINTANDISBASEDONNONLINEARCONTROLTHEORYBUTASNOWREMOVERSLIDESLATERALLY,BECAUSEASITREMOVESSNOW,ITISSUBJECTEDTOLATERALREACTIONFORCEFROMTHESNOWEMBANKMENTASSHOWNBYPHOTOGRAPH2SIDEWAYSSLIDINGISCONTROLLEDBYUSINGTHEINTEGRATEDSERVOSYSTEMDESCRIBEDBELOWTOTREATTHISSLIDINGASANEXTERNALDISTURBANCE1COURSETRACKINGCONTROLFIG1SHOWSAMODELOFTHESNOWREMOVERSTEERINGMECHANISMINTHISFIGURE,THEDISTANCESFROMTHECONNECTINGPINOFTHESNOWREMOVERTOTHEFRONTWHEELSANDTOTHEREARWHEELSAREREPRESENTEDBYLWHENTHESTEERINGANGLEISREPRESENTEDBY2Α,THECOURSEFOLLOWEDBYTHESNOWREMOVERISANARCWITHRADIUSRL/TANΑWHENTHECOURSETANGENTDIRECTIONSPEEDVECTORATTHECENTERPOINTPOFTHEFRONTWHEELSISREPRESENTEDBYΝANDTHETANGENTDIRECTIONANGLEBYΘ,THEEQUATIONOFMOTIONOFTHEPOINTPCANBEWRITTENASFOLLOWSΘCOSVXG6ΘSINVYG6LVRVΑΘTANG61IFEXACTLINEARIZATIONANDTIMESCALETRANSFORMATIONAREDONEFOREQUATION1TOPERFORMSTATUSFEEDBACKCONTROL,THEQUANTITYOFSTEERINGOFTHESNOWREMOVERTHATIS1/2OFTHESTEERINGANGLEΑISDEFINEDBYTHEFOLLOWINGEQUATION{}ΘΘΑ3211COSTANFFTANLY−2INEQUATION2,LATERALSLIDINGISNOTCONSIDEREDINORDERTOELIMINATETHESTEADYSTATEDEVIATIONCAUSEDBYLATERALSLIDING,IFTHEINTEGRATEDSERVOSYSTEMISUSED,THEQUANTITYOFSTEERINGΑISREPRESENTEDBYTHEFOLLOWINGEQUATIONGBBGBBGBCGBAGABGABGACGAAGBFGBEGBDGAFGAEGAD−GB3−ΘΘΘΑTANFFDTCOSFCOSTAN210REF331YVYYLT3THESYMBOLFISTHECONTROLGAIN,ANDBASEDONEQUATION3,F1REPRESENTSPROPORTIONALGAIN,F2REPRESENTSDERIVATIVEGAIN,ANDF3REPRESENTSINTEGRALGAINPIDCONTROLWASUSEDTOCONSTRUCTTHESYSTEMFIGURE2INTEGRATEDSERVOSYSTEMCONTROLBLOCKDIAGRAMΘ2Α1Ψ2ΨVRLLXYXYPΑFIGURE1COORDINATESYSTEMMODELOFASNOWREMOVERTAN1†‡F1F2LCOS3TANYCMDCOSF3VS1YREFSNOWREMOVERPHOTOGRAPH2ROTARYSNOWREMOVERREMOVINGSNOW–3–32POSITIONINGMETHODITISNECESSARYTODETECTAVEHICLE’SPRESENTPOSITIONANDTOHAVEINFORMATIONTHATDETERMINESTHEDIRECTIONTOSTEERITINORDERTOPERFORMAUTOMATICSTEERINGTHESYSTEMTHATHASBEENDEVELOPEDISEQUIPPEDWITHTWOFUNCTIONSTHEGUIDANCEMETHODTHATUSELANEMARKERSENSORSTODETECTTHEVEHICLE’SPOSITIONANDTHESTEERINGMETHODTHATUSESGPSANDGISTODETECTTHEVEHICLE’SPOSITION33LANEMARKERSENSORGUIDANCEMETHODALANEMARKERSENSORISABASICTECHNOLOGYOFTHEADVANCEDCRUISEASSISTHIGHWAYSYSTEMAHSDEVELOPEDFORUSEASPARTOFTHEINTELLIGENTTRANSPORTATIONSYSTEMITSTHISTECHNOLOGYINCLUDESLANEMARKERSBURIEDATINTERVALSUNDERAROADSURFACEANDVEHICLEMOUNTEDSENSORSTHATDETECTSIGNALSTRANSMITTEDBYTHESELANEMARKERSTOGUIDETHEVEHICLEALONGTHECOURSEFORMEDBYTHEMARKERSTHEREARETWOVERSIONSOFTHISSYSTEMTHERADIOWAVEMETHODANDTHEMAGNETICMETHOD1STEERINGANGLECALCULATIONLOGICITISASSUMEDTHATTHEDISTANCEBETWEENTHELANEMARKERSWILLNOTBECONSTANT,BUTCANBEVARIEDACCORDINGTOTHESHAPEOFTHEROADANDDEMANDSOFTHESENSORSIDETHEREFORE,THISSYSTEMISEQUIPPEDWITHTWOROWSOFSENSORSSOTHATCONTROLCANBEPERFORMEDEVENWHENTHELANEMARKERINSTALLATIONINTERVALISNOTKNOWNUNTILTHEROTARYSNOWREMOVERPASSESOVERTHEMFIG3TOCONTROLSTEERINGWITHASINGLEROWOFSENSORSFIG3ONTHELEFT,THELATERALDIFFERENTIALANDTHEAZIMUTHALDIFFERENTIALYMANDΨMTHATARENECESSARYFORCONTROLBYTHETARGETCOURSECOORDINATESYSTEM∑XYREQUIREINFORMATIONABOUTTHEINTERVALBETWEENTHEMARKERSINADDITIONTOTHESENSORSIGNALYM1THATISMEASUREDBYTHEFRONTVEHICLEFIXEDCOORDINATESYSTEM∑FXFYFBUTWITHTWOROWSOFSENSORSFIG3ONTHERIGHT,THESYSTEMCANCALCULATETHELATERALDIFFERENTIALANDTHEAZIMUTHALDIFFERENTIALYMANDΨMOFTHETARGETCOURSECOORDINATESYSTEM∑XYBYHAVINGTWOOPPOSEDSENSORSHOLDTHETWOSENSORSIGNALSYM1ANDYM2MEASUREDBYTHEFRONTVEHICLEFIXEDCOORDINATESYSTEM∑FXFYFASITPASSEDAMARKERUNTILTHEYPASSTHENEXTMARKER,SOTHATSTEERINGCONTROLCANBEPERFORMEDEVENIFTHEINTERVALBETWEENMARKERSWASUNKNOWN2RADIOWAVEMARKERSENSORPOSITIONINGMETHODWITHTHERADIOWAVEMETHOD,ANANTENNAINSIDETHESENSORONTHEVEHICLETRANSMITSA2275KHSRADIOWAVETOWARDSTHEROADANDWHENARADIOWAVEMARKERPHOTO3RECEIVESTHISTRANSMISSION,ITRETURNSASIGNALOFDOUBLEFREQUENCYOF455KHZARECEIVINGANTENNAINSIDETHESENSORRECEIVESTHISRETURNRADIOWAVETODETECTTHEVEHICLE’SPOSITIONFIG6THESYSTEMDETECTSTHELOCATIONSOFTHEMARKERSINTHETRAVELINGDIRECTIONBYPASSINGTHROUGHTHEPEAKVALUEITDETECTSTHEPOSITIONINTHELATERALDIRECTIONBYCALCULATINGTHEDISTANCEBETWEENTHEANTENNASBYTHETRIANGULATIONMETHODBASEDONTHEDIFFERENCEINTHERECEIVEDSTRENGTHOFTHERETURNRADIOWAVESSENSEDBYTHETWORECEIVINGANTENNAS2PHOTOGRAPH3RADIOWAVEMARKERPHOTOGRAPH4RADIOWAVEMARKERSENSORFIGURE3LANEMARKERSENSORGUIDANCEMETHODΨM=-TAN1{(YM1-YM2)/LM}YM=-{YM1-LO(YM1-YM2)/LM}COSΨMLM134M、LO10MYM目標軌道NO1NO2YM1YM2LMΨMLOYFXFΨM=-SIN1{(YM1-YM1B)/20}YM=-{YM1-LO(YM1-YM1B)/20}COSΨMLO10MYM目標軌道NO1YM1YM1B2MΨMLOYFXFNO1センサで前回検出した値YM目標軌道NO1NO2YM1YM2LMΨMLOYFXF敷設マーカTARGETCOURSETARGETCOURSEBURIEDMARKERFRONTPARTOFTHESNOWREMOVERFRONTWHEELTIRESVALUEPREVIOUSLYDETECTEDBYTHENO1SENSOR–4–3MAGNETICMARKERSENSORPOSITIONINGMETHODWITHTHEMAGNETICMETHOD,MAGNETICMARKERSPERMANENTFERRITEMAGNETSPHOTO5UNDERTHEROADSURFACEPRODUCEMAGNETICFIELDSANDAMAGNETICSENSORTHATDETECTSMAGNETICFIELDDENSITYINSTALLEDONTHEVEHICLEDETERMINESTHEPOSITIONOFTHEVEHICLEBASEDONTHESTRENGTHOFEACHMAGNETICFIELDTHEMAGNETICFIELDDISTRIBUTIONOFTHEMAGNETICMARKERSHOWSTHEUNIMODALITYTHATTREATSTHECENTEROFTHEMARKERASTHEMAXIMUMMAGNETICFIELDSTRENGTHTHEMAGNETICFLUXDENSITIESOFTHEVERTICALCOMPONENTBZANDTHEVEHICLEWIDTHDIRECTIONCOMPONENTBXOFTHISMAGNETICFIELDAREDETECTEDBYTHEMAGNETICSENSORANDTHELOCATIONOFTHEMARKERISDETECTEDBYCALCULATINGTHEDISTANCEBETWEENTHESENSORANDTHEMARKERBASEDONTHEPREVIOUSLYSTIPULATEDBX/BZRELATIONALEQUATIONFIG4334GPS/GISPOSITIONDETECTIONMETHODASYSTEMBASEDONGPS/GISPOSITIONINGDETECTSTHEPOSITIONOFTHEVEHICLETOCONTROLITSOPERATIONBYCOMPARINGROTARYSNOWREMOVERPOSITIONCOORDINATEDATARECEIVEDFROMAGPSSATELLITEWITHPOSITIONCOORDINATESOFLINEARDATAFORTHEROADPROVIDEDINADVANCEBYROADGIS1ROADGISROADGISISADATABASEOFINFORMATIONCONCERNINGSTRUCTURESANDTRAFFICMANAGEMENTUSEDFORROADMAINTENANCETODEVELOPTHISSYSTEM,ROTARYSNOWREMOVERTARGETCOURSEINFORMATIONWASCREATEDSOTHATITCANBEHANDLEDASGISDATAOPERATORSOFROTARYSNOWREMOVERSREMOVESNOWTOWIDENTHEBAREROADBYDRIVINGTHEIRVEHICLESGUIDEDBYTHESNOWREMOVALEDGEFIG5BECAUSETHESNOWREMOVALEDGEISOFTENTHECURBOFTHESIDEWALKALONGTHESIDESOFTHEROAD,THEGISDATATHATWASUSEDISCURBDATA2RTKGPSRTKGPS,ASYSTEMCAPABLEOFHIGHPRECISIONPOSITIONINGERRORRADIUSBETWEEN2AND3CM,CONSISTSOFTWOGPSRECEIVINGANTENNAE,ONEAFIXEDSTATIONANDONEAMOBILESTATIONONTHESNOWREMOVERTHEFIXEDSTATIONTRANSMITSCORRECTIONINFORMATIONBASEDONGPSDATAITHASRECEIVEDTOTHEMOBILESTATIONTHESYSTEMCANPERFORMALMOSTREALTIMEPOSITIONING,BECAUSETHEGPSDATAISCORRECTEDATARATEOF20HZ4CORROBORATIVETESTINGCORROBORATIVETESTINGPLANNEDTOSIMULATESNOWREMOVALONAREALROADWASCARRIEDOUTUSINGAROTARYSNOWREMOVEREQUIPPEDWITHTHESTEERINGCONTROLSYSTEMINHOKKAIDOINJANUARYANDFEBRUARY2002THECORROBORATIVETESTINGWASPERFORMEDINORDERTOEVALUATETHEAPPLICABILITYANDPRACTICALITYOFEACHAUTOMATICSTEERINGMETHODUNDERTHEBEHAVIORCHARACTERISTICOFASNOWREMOVERONANACTUALROADLOWSPEED,LATERALSLIDING41OUTLINEOFTHECORROBORATIVETESTING1THEROTARYSNOWREMOVERTHEBODYOFTHEROTARYSNOWREMOVERWASTHEMEDIUMSIZEMODEL22MWIDEUSEDMOSTFREQUENTLYONNATIONALHIGHWAYS,ANDTHEBODYCONSTRUCTEDACCORDINGTONORMALSPECIFICATIONSWASPARTIALLYMODIFIEDFIG6PHOTOGRAPH5MA

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