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外文翻译--高精度自动组合机床设计 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--高精度自动组合机床设计 英文版.pdf

DESIGNOFULTRAPRECISIONMODULAR,FREEFORMMACHINETOOLRKONINGANDMWALTERPRECITECHINC,KEENE,NH03431KEYWORDSULTRAPRECISIONMACHINING,FREEFORMOPTICS,DIAMONDMILLING,MODULARABSTRACTTHEFREEFORM3000ULTRAPRECISIONMACHINETOOLHASBEENDEVELOPEDTOSATISFYANEEDFORAUNIFIEDAFFORDABLEMULTIAXISMACHINEWITHTHECAPABILITYOFMILLING,GRINDINGANDTURNINGULTRAPRECISIONSURFACESDEMANDFORAUNIVERSALULTRAPRECISIONMACHINEEMERGESFROMDEVELOPMENTSINGRINDINGANDMILLINGCONFORMALOPTICS,LENSARRAYS,GROOVEDPATTERNSANDDIAMONDTURNINGTHISPAPERDISCUSSESTHEDESIGNCHALLENGESOFTHEFREEFORM3000MACHINEANDTHECULMINATIONOFENABLINGTECHNOLOGIESTHEFINALMACHINECONFIGURATIONWASDETERMINEDBYEVALUATINGPRECISION,STIFFNESSANDMODULARITYULTRAPRECISIONMACHINEELEMENTSHAVEBEENREINVENTEDTOACCOMMODATETHENEWCONFIGURATIONFINITEELEMENTMODELSWEREUSEDTOEVALUATESTATICANDDYNAMICPERFORMANCEOFMACHINECOMPONENTSASTEADYSTATETHERMALANALYSISOFTHEMACHINEHASBEENCOMPILEDWHICHPINPOINTEDAREASFORTHERMALERRORREDUCTIONATHERMALENVIRONMENTHASBEENCREATEDTOHOLDTHEMACHINETEMPERATURESTABLETOLESSTHAN05C1FCUTTINGTESTSDISPLAYTHATTHEMACHINEISAPPROPRIATEFORMILLINGTHREEDIMENSIONALFORMS,DIAMONDTURNINGAXISSYMMETRICCOMPONENTSANDGRINDINGINAFLOODCOOLEDENVIRONMENTCONFIGURATIONSEVERALMACHINECONFIGURATIONSHAVEBEENEVALUATEDFORTHEFOLLOWINGCRITERIAFLOODCOOLANTCOMPATIBLE,COMMONALITYOFPARTS,EASEOFBUILD,ABILITYTOSINGLEPOINTDIAMONDTURN,ABILITYTODIAMONDMILL,ANDMODULARITYITISCOMMONTOTHINKOFMACHINECONFIGURATIONSINACONVENTIONALMANNER,HOWEVERTHISCANLEADTHEULTRAPRECISIONDESIGNERDOWNTHEWRONGPATHFUNDAMENTALTOULTRAPRECISIONMACHINEDESIGNISTHATRELATIVEMOTIONBETWEENMOVINGELEMENTSBEFACILITATEDBYAFLUIDFILMANDBEFREEOFCONTACTTHEFLUIDFILMPROVIDESANAVERAGINGEFFECT,WHICHINTURNPRODUCESSTRAIGHTNESSANDTRUTHOFMOTIONINEXCESSOFTHEINDIVIDUALELEMENTSCONTACTBETWEENMOVINGELEMENTSTHROUGHASEALORSERVICELOOPPRODUCESUNDESIRABLEFORCESANDERRORMOTIONSEALINGSLIDESFROMMACHININGDEBRISMUSTBEFACILITATEDTHROUGHTHEUSEOFNONCONTACTINGLABYRINTHSSERVICELOOPSMUSTBESUPPLEANDTHENUMBEROFCABLESMINIMIZEDWHENEVERPOSSIBLEFINALLY,CABLESMUSTBEBUNDLEDINAMANNERTOPROVIDEANEUTRALAXISTHATREMAINSPARALLELTHROUGHOUTTHESLIDETRAVELFIGURE1FREEFORM3000MACHINEGUARDSANDCOVERSREMOVEDTOPRODUCETHREEAXESOFMOTION,ATLEASTONEAXISMUSTBEMOUNTEDONTOANOTHERHOWEVER,IFTHEMOVINGSLIDEWAYCAUSESATRANSFEROFMASS,THENACOMPROMISEINSLIDESTRAIGHTNESSWILLRESULTTHEFREEFORM3000WASDESIGNEDWITHA150MMVERTICALSLIDEMOUNTEDONTOA350MMHORIZONTALSLIDEANDATHIRD250MMHORIZONTALSLIDEMOUNTSORTHOGONALTOTHEOTHERTWOSLIDESTOPRODUCETHEFINALAXISOFMOTIONDURINGTHECONCEPTUALPHASEOFTHEFREEFORM3000,ITWASDETERMINEDTHATANONCONTACTINGBULKHEADDESIGNWOULDSEPARATETHECUTTINGPROCESSFROMTHECOMBINATIONSLIDEWAYS,TOPROVIDEISOLATIONFORFLOODCOOLANT1THEFREEFORM3000ISBASEDONAMODULARDESIGNTHEMACHINEBASE,OILHYDROSTATICBOXSLIDES,FRAME,ELECTRICALANDPNEUMATICCABINETSWEREDESIGNEDTOBECOMMONFORAFAMILYOFTHREESEPARATEMACHINETOOLS,NANOFORM350,NANOFORM700ANDTHEFREEFORM3000THECOMMONMODULARDESIGNFACILITATESECONOMIESOFSCALEFORTHECOMPONENTSANDANABILITYTOBUILDUPTHEMACHINESUBASSEMBLIESTOALEVELANDTHENQUICKLYREACTTOCUSTOMERDEMANDSMACHINEELEMENTSALLTHREELINEARSLIDEWAYSUTILIZEOILHYDROSTATICPADS,ATASUPPLYPRESSUREOF250PSI,ANDLINEARMOTORSTOPRODUCEULTRAPRECISIONCONTOURINGANDPOSITIONINGHYDROSTATIC“BOXTYPE”SLIDEWAYSWERECHOSENINEACHAXISFORTHEIRSTIFFNESSANDABILITYTOPROVIDESTRAIGHTSLIDETRAVELASMALLHIGHSTIFFNESSVERTICALSLIDEWASDEVELOPEDTOMOUNTONTOAHORIZONTALAXISVIAANANGLEBRACKETEMPHASISFORTHEVERTICALSLIDEDESIGNWASPLACEDONREDUCINGTHEMOVINGMASS,WHICHWOULDENABLETHESERVOBANDWIDTHTOREMAINHIGHSEVERALCOUNTERBALANCEDESIGNCONCEPTSWEREEVALUATEDFORTHEIRABILITYTOPRODUCEANEUTRALIZINGFORCE,BENONINFLUENCING,CONVENIENTANDINEXPENSIVEACOUNTERBALANCEAIRPISTONWASCHOSENBECAUSEITWOULDNOTCONTRIBUTEASIGNIFICANTAMOUNTOFINERTIAOTHERFRICTIONLESSDESIGNSSUCHASACABLEMASSCOUNTERBALANCEDOUBLETHEMOVINGMASSANDCREATEASECONDORDERHARMONICFINALLY,THEAIRPISTONCOUNTERBALANCEWOULDBECONVENIENTANDINEXPENSIVETOIMPLEMENTASTANDARDCOMMERCIALLYAVAILABLECYLINDERWASINITIALLYUSEDWHICHWASRATEDFORAFRICTIONALFORCEEQUALTO12OFAPPLIEDLOADDURINGIMPLEMENTATIONOFTHECYLINDERSONTHEVERTICALSLIDE,ITWASFOUNDTHATTHEFRICTIONPRODUCEDANUNDESIRABLESLIDEERRORSEVERALEFFORTSTOREDUCETHEFRICTIONRESULTEDINADESIGNOFANONCONTACTINGAEROSTATICPISTONTHATWASNONINFLUENCING2FIGURE2TOAVOIDREVERSALERRORANDHYSTERESIS,ADESIGNWASEMPLOYEDWHICHPROVIDESCONSTANTPRESSURETOTHEAIRPISTONTHESYSTEMINCLUDESAPRECISIONREGULATOR,WHICHMAINTAINSCONSTANTPRESSURETOABLEEDVALVETHEBLEEDVALVEALLOWSANEXCESSOF10TIMESTHEVOLUMEDISPLACEDBYTHEMAXIMUMTRAVERSERATE,TOBEEXHAUSTEDTOTHEENVIRONMENTFIGURE3THE1ALEXANDERHSLOCUM,“PRECISIONMACHINEDESIGN”,PRENTICEHALL,1992,P372JULIUSCBOONSHAFT,USPATENTNO3,319,534,1967FIGURE2FRICTIONLESSAIRPISTONCOUNTERBALANCEFIGURE3COUNTERBALANCEAIRPISTONSCHEMATICCONSTANTNONREVERSINGFLOWTHROUGHTHESYSTEMREDUCESVARIATIONSINFORCEASAFUNCTIONOFSLIDETRAVELDIRECTIONTHENEWGENERATIONOFLENSANDREFLECTORELEMENTSISTHEFREEFORMSURFACESHAPE,THATHASNOAXISOFREVOLUTIONBUTCESHAPETHATCOULDBEDEFINEDBYAMAPOFPOINTS,ANEQUATION,ORACOMPUTEREPRESENTEDINSOLIDFFREEFORMCOMPONENTSREQUIREPARTCUTSOFUPTOSEVERALDAYSANDCOMPLETETHERMALSTABILIZATIONTHEFREEFORM3000REQUIREDATHERMALENCLOSUREANDTEMPERATURECONTROLLERWHICHPRODUCEDANENVIRONMENTWITHIN05C1FFIGURE4KEYMACHINEELEMENTSSUCHASTHESPINDLERISERANDFLYCUTTERWHEELWEREMANUFACTUREDWITHINVAR36,ALOWCOEFFICIENTOFEXPANSIONNICKELBASEDALLOYWITHADIAMONDTOOLHOLDERMOUNTEDONTOTHEMILLINGSPINDLERISERFIGURE5ANDASPINDLEMOUNTEDONTOTHEHORIZONFREEFORM3000CANBECONFIGUREDASALATHEATOOLHOLDERDESIGNWASEVELEMENTANALYSISFORSTIFFNESSANDMODESOFVIBRATIONBASELINEDESIGNPARKNOWNDIAMONDTURNINGLATHEHAVEASTIFFNESSGREATERTHAN150,000LBS/INANDFIRSTMODEOFVIBRATIONGREATERTHAN700HZSEVERALITERATIONSWEREREQUIREDTOPRODUCEATOOLHOLDER,WHICHMETTHESECRITERIAANDSTILLMAINTAINEDASMALLMOVINGMASSFIGURE63PDBREHM,THESINGLEPOINTDIAMONDMACHININGOFOPTICALMICROSTRUCTURESANDFREEFCONFERENCEPROCEEDINGS,VOL2,199920521215222252323521000021400022200023000023400002000100001400022000300003400044000200000004000TIMETEMPERATURECROOMTEMPPRECITEMPDUCTABOVESPINDLEAIRSUPPLYFIGU10HRMACHINETEMPERATUREFIGURE5FREEFORM3000SHOWNASADIAMONDTURNINGLATHEFIGURE6TOOLHOLDERFORDIAMONDTURNING20000000ISINSTEADASURFARMODELORM3TALSLIDE,THEALUATEDUSINGFINITEAMETERSDERIVEDFROMAORMSURFACES,EUSPEN55677RE4STABILITYCHART714HZMACHININGRESULTSDIAMONDMILLEDSURFACESHAVEBEENGENERATEDTOAFORMACCURACYOF0204MPER1500MM2INAN8HRCYCLEWITHASURFACEFINISHOF15NMRMSDIAMONDTURNEDSURFACESHAVEBEENCREATEDTOAFORMACCURACYOF057MPVWITHASURFACEFINISHOF3NMONA75MM250MMCONVEXRADIUSSPHERICALALUMINUMPARTPERIPHERALGROUNDPARTSHAVEBEENGENERATEDTOAFORMACCURACYOF214MANDASURFACEFINISHOF44NMRMSAREPEATABILITYTESTDISPLAYEDTHATFREEFORMPARTSCANBECREATEDCONSISTENTLYINA25HRCUTTINGTESTTOTALVARIATIONFORFIVEPARTCUTS,WAS0038UMPVSURFACEFINISHFORFREEFORMMACHININGISDEFINEDBYTHECUSPHEIGHTOFTHEINTERRUPTEDCUTTHERMALSTABILITYOFTHEMACHINEISREQUIREDFORLONGPARTCUTSSURFACEFINISHCANBEPREDICTEDUSINGTHEFOLLOWINGEQUATIONSCONCLUSIONTHEFREEFORM3000ESTABLISHESANULTRAPRECISIONDIAMONDMACHININGPLATFORMWHICHISVERSATILEINCONFIGURATION,THERMALLYSTABLE,ANDEASYTOOPERATETHEMACHINEHASBEENDEVELOPEDTOMEETTHENEEDFORCONFORMALFREEFORMOPTICS,LENSARRAYSANDGRATINGPATTERNS,WHILEMAINTAININGUTILITYASATURNING/GRINDINGPLATFORMPRECISIONENGINEERINGDISCIPLINESHAVEBEENAPPLIEDTOPRODUCEACOSTEFFECTIVEROBUSTDESIGNMACHININGRESULTSHAVEPRODUCEDCOMPONENTSTHATEXCEEDINITIALEXPECTATIONSFIGURE9CUSPHEIGHTDEFINITIONFIGURE8FREEFORMCUTTINGRESULTS

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