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外文翻译--4H-2型花生收获机的设计原理和运动特征分析 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--4H-2型花生收获机的设计原理和运动特征分析 英文版.pdf

第21卷第1期2005年1月农业工程学报TransactionsoftheCSAEVol.21No.1Jan.2005Designprincipleandanalysesofthemotioncharacteristicsof4H2typepeanutharvesterShangShuqi,WangJiangang,WangFangyan,LiuShuguang,JiangYuanzhiEngineeringSchool,LaiyangAgriculturalUniversity,Laiyang,Shandong265200,ChinaAbstractThestructure,workingprincipleanddesignofmainpartsofthe4H22typepeanutharvesterweredescribedandanalyzed,andthekinematicsmodelofthemainworkpartswasfounded.Onthebasisoftheoptimizedstructure,therepresentativetracksoftheworkpartsweredescribedbymeansofVisualBasicandSPSSsoftwareandthemachinefunctioncharacteristics.Thetheoreticalfoundationhasbeenprovidedforfurtherstudyofthiskindofmachines.KeywordsPeanutharvesterdesignprinciplemotioncharacteristicsCLCnumberS225.73DocumentCodeAArticleID10022681920050120087205Receiveddate2004204219Accepteddate2004211218BiographyShangShuqi1958,borninQingzhouCity,ShandongProvince,Professor,HeadofEngineeringSchoolofLaiyangAgriculturalUniversity,ShandongProvince265200,China.Majoredindesignandperformancetestofagriculturalmachinery.Emailsqshanglyac.edu.cn1IntroductionThepeanutisoneofthemainoilplantsintheworld,whichisonlyinferiortosoybeanbutranksthesecondforoilproductionandinternationaltrade1,2.Foralongtime,theplanting,harvestingandprocessingofpeanutweremostlycompletedbymanualwork.Itisapieceoflaboredworkwithlowefficiency,whichaffectsthepeanutproductionseriously.Especiallyinthelastfewyears,asthetransferringsurplusrurallaborstourbanareas,thecontradictionofeachlinkofpeanutproductionismoreintensifying,themechanizationofthepeanutproductionbecomesparticularlyimportant.Ithasbeenalongtimeforresearchinganddevelopingthepeanutharvestersindevelopedcountries,itisatypicalrepresentativethattheLP22typepeanutharvesterandpeanutcombineharvesterofCourtesylfLillistonMfg.Co.intheUnitedStatesandPH22typepeanutharvesterofMichiganinNetherlands3.ThedevelopmentofpeanutharvesterinChinaislaterthanthatindevelopedcountries,perhapsthebeginningofthe1960s.Sincethe1970s,manyrepresentativemimicpeanutharvesterswereintroducedintoChinasuchastheDongfeng69type,4HW2800typeand4H2150typepeanutharvesteretc.4.Theseproductsbringconvenienceforharvestingpeanut,butthestructureofallcurrentharvestersadoptedthetwostepsofharvestprinciplescoopandseparatingchaincombinetogether.Thesemachineshavetomatchwiththemedium2bigpowertractors.Itisnotonlycomplexinstructure,highermanufacturingcosts,morepowerconsumption,poorreliability,butalsohigherharvestinglossrate,peanutvinesspreaddisorderly,andinconvenientformanualcollection.Itisnotsuitableforthecurrentrequirementofpeanutharvestingandresultsinthattheharvestingofpeanutisalmostcompletedbymanualworkatpresent.Themechanizationlevelofpeanutharvestingaffectedthedevelopmentofthepeanutproductionseriously.Withtheenvironmentdeterioration,atsowing2seasoninspringorautumn,thephenomenonofdryandlittlerainfallappears.Thepeanutproductionsufferedfromtheweather.IthadledtoadoptingtechniqueofplasticfilmcoveringFigure1showsitssectionstructure.Thisnewtechniquewillplayanimportantroleinkeepingthemoistureofsoil,increasinggroundtemperature,andreducingmanagementinseedlingperiod,andthenincreasingtheoutputofpeanut.Thepeanutseeding2machinewithmanyfunctionshasalreadyappliedinlarge2scaleareas,butthequantityofthefilmremainsisincreased,whichinfluencesthefollowingwork59.Fig.1Profileofpeanutcoveringplasticfilmandseedingbeds8Forsolvingtheproblemsmentionedabove,anewtypeofpeanutharvesterwithnewworkingprincipleandstructurewasinvented,whichhasalreadycometothemarket.Theharvesterhasalreadyacquiredthe78pettypatentnowpatentnumberZL01221476.0,andpatentforinventionpatentnumber99124518.0hasbeeninvestigatinginsubstance.2Structuredesignofthepeanutharvester2.1Analysisofthewholemachinestructure4H22typepeanutharvestercombineswiththeadvancedmethodofplantingandagriculturalrequirement,whichcanharvesttworowsatoneworkingstroke.Itmatcheswiththe8.8~13.0kWsmallfour2wheeltractors.4H22typepeanutharvesteriscomposedofgagingwheel,transmissionshaft,eccentricwheel,pitman,longrocker2arm,erectaxis,harvestingparts,longpitman,rocker2arm,mountingdeviceandframeetc.Thefigure2showsitsstructure.1.gagingwheel2.jointcoupling3.transmissionshaft4.erectaxis5.longrocker2arm6.longpitman7.mountingdevice8.rocker2arm9.erectaxis10.harvesterpart11.eccentricwheel12.pitman13.harvestpart14.frameFig.2DiagramofpeanutharvesterThedrivingpowerneededoftheworkpartsof4H22typepeanutharvestercomesfromthePTOoftractor.Whenthemachinewithtractorgoesforward,thePTOdriveseccentricwheel11passthroughjointcoupling2andtransmissionshaft3.Theneccentricwheel11driveslongrocker2arm5tomovepassthroughpitman12.Aserectaxis4andharvestparts13aremadetogether,rocker8withlongpitman6andlongrocker2arm5constituteaninverseparallelogrammechanism,thereforeharvestparts10and13swingwitherectaxis4and9withthesamefrequencyandanglebutcontrarydirection.Theworkingprocessisthescoops10and13diggingthepeanutoutandmovingthepeanutbackward,whilethelengthwaysgridscontinuouslymakethefanlikeswing,andthenbreaktheadmixtureofsoilandpeanuts.Bythismovementtheheavysoilsinksdownviathegrids,andthelighterpeanutmovesup,sothatpeanutisseparatedfromsoilwell.Thepeanutismovingrearwardcontinuously,finallyevenlayingontheexcavatedground,soitisconvenientformanualcollection.2.2MaintechniqueparametersThetable1showsthemaintechniqueparametersof4H22typepeanutharvester.Table1MaintechniqueparametersPowerrequirement8.8~13.0kWsmallfour2wheeledtractorProductivityhm2h10.10~0.13Losingrateofnuts≤2Containingrateofsoilinpeanutbyquantitycalculation5Brokenrateofnuts1Pickedrateofnutsbymechanisms3.5OverallsizeLWHmmmm31280l180780Netweightkg1583Designofmainworkingparts3.1DesignofthetransmissionpartsForovercomingtheweaknessofthetraditionalpeanutharvestersmentionedinthispaper,the4H22typepeanutharvesterhasbeeninventedwithanewstructureandprinciple.Itsscoopsandseparatingpartshavebeencombinedtogetherthatcanreducethepowerconsumption,thesizeofthemachineandharvestingloss.Thetransmissionandcontroldevicesaredesignedfortransmittingpowerefficientlyandadjustconveniently.Inordertomatchthetractorof8.8kW,thepowerinputshaft1of4H22typepeanutharvesterislocatedinflankofleft.Theinverseparallelogrammechanismistheremarkablecharacteristicsofthismachine.Itswingsbothscoopswiththesameanglebutoppositedirection.Thesideforcesactedontwoscoopframesarebalancedeachother.Thestabilityofthemachineisensuredandtheinvestmentofmanufacturingisreducedgreatly,whichisbenefitedtolarge2scaleproductionandpopularizationoftheharvesters.3.2DesignofscoopframesWhentheharvesterworkinginfieldwithdensepeanutstalks,theflowingchannelofthepeanutiseasilyjammed,resultinginthattheworkingresistan2ceisincreasing,andpeanutseparatingisineffective,eventheharvestercannotcontinuetowork.Forresolvingthisproblem,thestructureofhalfopenarmhasbeencreatedforthescoopframeshowinthefigure3andthebottomisthescoop.Astherearetowscoops,theformrespectivelyisand,towofthemformingthechannel,whichmakesthepeanutstalkseasilytopassit.88农业工程学报2005年Fig.3Diagramofscoopframes3.3DesignofthetransmissionwithVbeltAccordingtothedifferentcircumstancesofthefields,theswingfrequencyofharvestingpartsshouldbeadjustedandchanged.Forthisreason,theonestepV2belttransmissionhasbeenadoptedforchangingtheswingfrequencybyreplacingtheV2beltpulleys.Afteroptimizingthefour2barlinkageandthesizeofthebeltpulleys,thefrequenciesandtherangeofswingaremorereasonable.3.4DesignofthegridshapeIfthesectionalshapeofgridisround,theconnectionpointofgridswithscoopwillbebrokeneasilyafterworking.Inordertoincreaseitsanti2bentintensity,theflatrectanglesectionalgridshavebeenselectedoutandapplicationaftermakingtheoreticaldesignandexperimentalanalysisthefigure4showsitsstructure.Fig.4Diagramofgridshape4Equationofkinematics4.1TheoreticalanalysisofthemainpartsFigure5showsthestructureoftransmissionpartsof4H22typepeanutharvesters.Inthisfigure,No.3istransmissionshaftandNo.11iseccentricwheel,theAEandBDrespectivelyindicatetherocker2arm5Fig.5Diagramoftransmissionpartsstructureand8,theCDandEFindicatepitman6and12respectively,theAandBisrespectivelyerectaxes4and9referenceFigure2.Fig.6Simplificationdiagramofmovement9,10When4H22typepeanutharvesterworking,transmissionshaft3driveseccentricwheel11running.AsthetrackofpointEisaspacearc,butitslengthisfarshorterthanAErockersinXOYcoordinateplane10,sothatEpointtrackmayapproximatelybethestraightlinemovementwhichisintheXOYcoordinateplane.Thefigure6showsthemovementform.O′FstandsforeccentricityandEFstandsforpitman12.AsO′FR,EFL,thenthetrackofEpointmayapproximatebeconsideredastraightlineOE.Sotherectangularsystemofaxiscanbeestablishedtofindthekinematicsequation.TurnOtobetheoriginofcoordinates,thedirectionofOO′isthepositivedirectionofXaxes.Accordingtotheknowncondition,atbeginningt0,FisintheplaceforF′,EisintheplaceforO.ObviouslyOF′O′F′LR.AtanytimeEpointcoordinatesisxOEOO′EGGO′RLL2RsinU2RcosUR1cosUL11RL2sin2UCauseRLKıUXt,thenxR1cosXtL11K2sin2XtAccordingtothecrankrockerstructure,Kisusuallyamong16~14.Bythebinomialequation,then1K2sin2Xt112K2sin2Xt18K4sin4XtAstheothernumbersaremuchsmallfromthethirdnumber,soallofthemareignored.Videlicet1K2sin2Xt≈112K2sin2Xt,thenEpointkinematicsequationapproximatelyisxR1cosXt12Ksin2XtvxaRXsinXt12Ksin2XtThemotioncharacteristicsofinverseparallelogrammechanismABCDdependsonthetrackofpointE.Thefigure7showsthestructure.AandBstandforerectaxes4and9respectively,AEandBDarerespectivelyrocker5and8,CDispitman6.IfAisatzero0,0.ThedirectionofAXisthepositivedirectionofpolaraxes.AEL1.ThenAerectaxis98第1期尚书旗等4H22型花生收获机的设计原理及运动特性分析angularvelocityequationapproximateisHRL11cosXt12Ksin2XtXHaRXL1sinXt12Ksin2XtFig.7Schematicofinverseparallelogrammechanism4.2KinematicsequationoftheharvestpartsAsthefigure8shows,when4H22typepeanutharvesterisstatictothegroundrelatively,anypointofswinggridAHmotionashorizontalandfan2shapereciprocatingmovement,arounditserectaxis.Whenworking,themovementofanypointofswinggridAHiscomposedoftheswingmotionoferectaxisandmovingoftractor.Becauseoftheswingvelocityoferectaxisisdifferent,themotiontrackisnotthesame,butthereiscertainregulation.TakethefarthestpointHofswinggrid,itsrelativelystaticequationisv_sv_2L2XRL2L1XsinXt12Ksin2XtısinHiRL2L1XsinXt12Ksin2XtıcosHx_sx_2∫t0RL1XsinXt12Ksin2XtL2dtısinHi∫t0RL1XsinXt12Ksin2XtL2dtıcosHRL1L2cosXt14Kcos2Xt114KsinHiRL1L2cosXt14Kcos2Xt114KcosHItsrelativelykinematicsequationisv_v_1v_2v1L2Xv1RL2L1XsinXt12Ksin2XtısinHiRL2L1XsinXt12Ksin2XtıcosHx_x_1x_2v1t∫t0RL1XsinXt12Ksin2XtL2dtısinHi∫t0RL1XsinXt12Ksin2XtL2dtıcosHv1tRL1L2cosXt14Kcos2Xt114KsinHiRL1L2cosXt14Kcos2Xt114KcosHOnthebasisofoptimumparameter,thetrackofthefarthestpointHofswinggridhasbeengottenbymakinguseoftheVisualBasicandSPSSsoftwareShowsinthefigure9.Fig.8DiagramofvelocitysynthesisFig.9RelativelykinematicstrackofHpoint5FunctioncharacteristicsoftheharvesterTheswing2diggingprincipleandtheinverseparallelogrammechanismhavebeensuccessfullycreatedandappliedto4H22typepeanutharvester.Ithadbrokenthetraditionalwaywhichisscoopandseparatechaintocombinetogetherforharvesting.14H22typepeanutharvestershouldbematchedwiththesmallfour2wheeltractorswhichareveryuniversal.Itsdesignisreasonable,withreliableworking,steadyfunction,convenientadjustment,higheradaptability,andthismachinecanworkinvariousfieldsandharvestallkindsofpeanut.2Theswing2diggingprinciplehadbeencreatedformergingscoopandseparatortogether.Thathassuccessfullyrealizedtheworkofdiggingandseparatingpeanutbyonesetofpart,andsimplifiedtheworkingprocedure.Thetwoharvestpartswereusedthroughinverseparallelogrammechanismtotransferpower,turningthembythesameangleforswingbutoppositedirection,makingthetwosidesforceactedonscoopframesbalancedeachother,theoperationstabilityofitisensured,theresistanceandthepowerconsumptionhavebeenreduced.3Inharvestingprocess,plasticfilmwasnotbrokenandeasycollectedwiththepeanutstalks.Thereisnoneleavingsofthemontheground.4Ascreatedtheswing2diggingprinciple,the09农业工程学报2005年

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