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外文翻译--制定结晶器液位控制模型钢水流动的分析方法 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--制定结晶器液位控制模型钢水流动的分析方法 英文版.pdf

NIPPONSTEELTECHNICALREPORTNO89JANUARY200446UDC6217462768131ENVIRONMENTPROCESSTECHNOLOGYCENTER,TECHNICALDEVELOPMENTBUREAUFORMULATIONOFMOLDLEVELCONTROLMODELBYMOLTENSTEELFLOWANALYSISMETHODDAISUZUKI1ABSTRACTTHISPAPERDESCRIBESACTIVITIESRELATINGTOMOLDLEVELCONTROLINCONTINUOUSCASTINGPROCESSASCASEEXAMPLESOFOURPROCESSCONTROLSOLUTIONBUSINESS,INWHICHWECLARIFYANDEVALUATETHEPROCESSPHENOMENAANDDESIGNTHECONTROLSYSTEMINITIALLY,AMOLDLEVELCONTROLMODELHASBEENFORMULATEDBYFLUIDFLOWANALYSISTECHNIQUETHATEVALUATESMOLTENSTEELFLOWINTHEMOLDQUANTITATIVELYTHEMODELCALCULATESTHEFLUIDFLOWANDFREESURFACEINTHEMOLDBYMOLTENSTEELFLOWANALYSISMETHOD,WHILECONTROLSYSTEMANALYSISISPERFORMEDSIMULTANEOUSLYITENABLESREALISTICSIMULATIONOFTHEMOLDLEVELCONTROLSYSTEMCONSIDERINGTHEFLUIDFLOWTURBULENCEASACONSEQUENCE,MOLDLEVELCONTROLINHIGHSPEEDCASTINGCANBEPREDICTEDANDEVALUATEDWITHHIGHACCURACY1INTRODUCTIONMOLDLEVELCONTROLISAFUNCTIONOFTHEPROCESSCONTROLOFCONTINUOUSCASTINGTOMAINTAINTHELEVELOFMOLTENSTEELSURFACEINAMOLDHEREINAFTERREFERREDTOASTHEMOLDSTEELLEVELCONSTANTTHISHASASIGNIFICANTINFLUENCEOVERTHEQUALITYANDYIELDOFTHEFINALPRODUCTTHEREISACLOSECORRELATIONBETWEENTHEFLUCTUATIONOFTHEMOLDSTEELLEVELANDTHEOCCURRENCEOFSURFACEDEFECTSOFFINALPRODUCTSITISCONSIDEREDTHAT,WHENTHEMOLDSTEELLEVELFLUCTUATESSIGNIFICANTLY,CASTINGPOWDERANDOTHERIMPURITIESFLOATINGONTHESURFACEOFMOLTENSTEELAREENTRAPPEDINSTEELANDTHEYAPPEARINTHEFORMOFSURFACEDEFECTSOFSTEELSHEETPRODUCTSDURINGROLLINGTOPREVENTTHIS,MOLDLEVELCONTROLISDESIGNEDSOASTOMINIMIZETHEFLUCTUATIONOFTHEMOLDSTEELLEVELTHEDYNAMICSOFTHEMOLDSTEELLEVELIS,ROUGHLYSPEAKING,ASIMPLEINTEGRALSYSTEMANDFORTHISREASON,THEEFFECTOFMOLDLEVELCONTROLHASCONVENTIONALLYBEENCALCULATEDINITSDEVELOPMENTSTAGEONANASSUMPTIONOFANINTEGRALSYSTEMINPRACTICE,HOWEVER,DISTURBANCESINMOLTENSTEELFLOWTENDTOSHOWINTHEFORMOFSURFACERIPPLESASTHECASTINGSPEEDINCREASESASARESULT,WITHACONVENTIONALCRUDEMODEL,ITWASDIFFICULTTOOBTAINARELIABLESIMULATIONRESULTANDITWASIMPOSSIBLETOACCURATELYPREDICTANDEVALUATETHECONTROLPERFORMANCEOFAMOLDLEVELCONTROLSYSTEMUNDERACONDITIONOFAHIGHCASTINGSPEEDINVIEWOFTHESITUATION,THEAUTHORHASFORMULATEDAMOLDLEVELCONTROLMODELAPPLYINGMOLTENSTEELFLOWANALYSISFIG1SHOWSABLOCKDIAGRAMOFTHEDEVELOPEDMODELTHISMODELISCHARACTERIZEDBYDESCRIBINGTHEMOLTENSTEELFLOWINAMOLDANDTHEDYNAMICSOFAMOLTENSTEELSURFACEFROMTHEVIEWPOINTOFFLUIDFLOWANALYSISANDCOMBININGTHEMWITHCONTROLSYSTEMANALYSISASARESULT,AMOLDPLANTMODELMOLTENSTEELFLOWANALYSISLEVELCONTROLFREESURFACEDISTRIBUTEDSENSORCONTROLLERDETECTEDLEVELPOURINGVELOCITY13DNUMERICALFLUIDDYNAMICSMETHOD2CONTINUITYEQ,INCOMPRESSIBILITY3NAVIERSTOKESEQ4FINITEDIFFERENCEMETHOD5TURBULENCEMODELLARGEEDDYSIMULATIONMODEL6FREESURFAETRACKINGVOLUMEOFFLUIDMETHODFIG1MOLDLEVELCONTROLMODELBASEDONMOLTENSTEELFLOWANALYSISNIPPONSTEELTECHNICALREPORTNO89JANUARY200447LEVELCONTROLSIMULATIONINCONSIDERATIONOFTHETURBULENCEOFMOLTENSTEELFLOWWASMADEVIABLE,ANDITBECAMEPOSSIBLETOACCURATELYPREDICTANDEVALUATETHEPERFORMANCEOFMOLDLEVELCONTROLATAHIGHCASTINGSPEED2CONTINUOUSCASTINGPROCESSBEFOREDISCUSSINGTHEMOLDLEVELCONTROLMODEL,CONTINUOUSCASTINGEQUIPMENTANDMOLDLEVELCONTROL,WHICHCONSTITUTETHEBACKGROUNDOFTHEMODEL,AREBRIEFLYEXPLAINED21CONTINUOUSCASTINGEQUIPMENTCONTINUOUSCASTINGEQUIPMENTARESTEELPRODUCTIONFACILITIESFOREFFICIENTLYPRODUCINGSLABSORBLOOMSORBILLETSFORTHESUBSEQUENTROLLINGPROCESSBYCONTINUOUSLYSOLIDIFYINGMOLTENSTEELAFTERITSREFININGINASTEELMAKINGFURNACESUCHASACONVERTERMOLTENSTEELDISCHARGEDFROMALADLEISTEMPORARILYSTOREDINATUNDISHANDTHENPOUREDTHROUGHANIMMERSIONENTRYNOZZLEINTOAMOLDTHEINSIDEWALLSOFWHICHARELINEDWITHWATERCOOLEDCOPPERPLATESTHESOLIDIFICATIONOFTHECASTSTEELBEGINSATITSINTERFACEWITHTHEMOLDANDPROGRESSESTOATTAINCOMPLETESOLIDIFICATIONINTHESECONDARYCOOLINGZONE,ANDTHENTHECASTSTEELISCUTTOAPRESCRIBEDLENGTHBYACUTTERACONTINUOUSCASTERISSCHEMATICALLYILLUSTRATEDINFIG222MOLDLEVELCONTROLASSEENINFIG2,THEMOLDSTEELLEVELISCONTINUOUSLYMONITOREDWITHASENSORANDITSDEVIATIONFROMAPRESCRIBEDTARGETLEVELISFEDBACKTOACONTROLLER,WHICHOUTPUTSASIGNALTOANACTUATINGCYLINDERTOADJUSTTHEOPENINGOFASLIDINGNOZZLETHEAMOUNTOFMOLTENSTEELFLOWINTOTHEMOLDISTHUSCONTROLLEDANDTHEMOLDSTEELLEVELISCONTROLLEDTOTHETARGETLEVELTHEFLUCTUATIONOFTHEMOLDSTEELLEVELISCAUSEDBYDISTURBANCESORIGINATINGFROMTHEFILLINGANDWITHDRAWALSYSTEMSOFACASTERTHEDISTURBANCEORIGINATINGFROMTHEFILLINGSYSTEMMEANS,MORESPECIFICALLY,THECHANGEOFMOLTENSTEELFLOWCHARACTERISTICSRESULTINGFROMCLOGGINGOFANENTRYNOZZLEWITHNONMETALLICINCLUSIONS,ANDTHATORIGINATINGFROMTHEWITHDRAWALSYSTEMMEANSPERIODICALMOLDSTEELLEVELFLUCTUATIONRESULTINGFROMBULGINGTHERMALDEFORMATIONOFCASTSTEELOCCURRINGINTHEWATERCOOLINGZONEOFACASTER3MOLDLEVELCONTROLMODELTHEDEVELOPEDMOLDLEVELCONTROLMODELISEXPLAINEDHERETHEBLOCKDIAGRAMOFTHEMODELWASSHOWNEARLIERINFIG1,ANDTHEEXPLANATIONSHEREAFTERAREFOCUSEDONTHECOMPONENTEQUATIONSOFTHEPHYSICALMODELSTOEXPRESSTHEDYNAMICSOFTHEPROCESSINQUESTIONTHEDEVELOPEDMODELBASEDONMOLTENFLOWANALYSISISALSOCOMPAREDWITHACONVENTIONALINTEGRALSYSTEMMODEL,ANDTHEDIFFERENCEBETWEENTHETWOISCLARIFIED31INTEGRALSYSTEMMODELANINTEGRALSYSTEMMODELTAKESINTOCONSIDERATIONONLYTHESTATICVOLUMETRICBALANCEBETWEENTHEINFLUXANDOUTFLUXOFMOLTENSTEEL,ANDASSUMESTHATTHEDYNAMICCHARACTERISTICOFTHEMOLDSTEELLEVELCANBEEXPRESSEDINTERMSOFASIMPLEINTEGRALSYSTEMINTHISCASE,THEGOVERNINGEQUATIONOFTHEMOLDSTEELLEVELISGIVENINTHEFORMOFTHEFOLLOWINGLINEARORDINARYDIFFERENTIALEQUATION1WHEREHISTHEHEIGHTOFTHEMOLDSTEELLEVELM,AISTHESECTIONALAREAOFAMOLDM2,VINISTHEVOLUMETRICINFLUXRATEOFMOLTENSTEELM3/S,VOUTISTHEVOLUMETRICOUTFLUXRATEOFMOLTENSTEELM3/S,ANDTISTIMESEQUATION1MEANSTHATTHEMOLDSTEELLEVELCHANGESINPROPORTIONTOTHEVOLUMEOFMOLTENSTEEL,ANDITGIVESAGOODAPPROXIMATIONASFARASTHETURBULENCEOFMOLTENSTEELFLOWLITTLESHOWSONTHESURFACEHOWEVER,INHIGHSPEEDCASTING,INWHICHTHETURBULENCEOFMOLTENSTEELFLOWSHOWSITSELFASSURFACERIPPLES,THISKINDOFMODELISNOTEFFECTIVEANYLONGERINSUCHACASE,AMODELBASEDONMOLTENSTEELFLOWANALYSISASEXPLAINEDBELOWISREQUIRED32MOLTENSTEELFLOWANALYSISMODELAMOLTENSTEELFLOWANALYSISMODELISBASEDONATECHNIQUEOFFLUIDDYNAMICSANDISCAPABLEOFACCURATELYEXPRESSINGTHEDYNAMICCHARACTERISTICSOFMOLDSTEELLEVELINCONSIDERATIONOFTURBULENCEOFMOLTENSTEELFLOWWHENTHEREISTURBULENCEOFMOLTENSTEELFLOW,THEMOLTENSTEELFLOWINAMOLDISREGARDEDASA3DIMENSIONALTURBULENTFLOWOFANONCOMPRESSIBLEFLUIDHAVINGAFREESURFACE,ANDITSGOVERNINGEQUATIONSAREGIVENINTHEFORMOFTHEFOLLOWINGNONLINEARPARTIALDIFFERENTIALEQUATIONS23EQUATION2ISTHATOFCONTINUITYANDEQUATION3THATOFCONSERVATIONOFMOMENTUM,WHEREUISTHEFLOWRATEOFMOLTENSTEELM/S,ΡISTHEDENSITYOFMOLTENSTEELKG/M3,PISPRESSUREN/M2,ΝEISEFFECTIVEKINEMATICVISCOSITYM2/S,GISGRAVITATIONALACCELERATIONM/S2,ANDFISATERMOFANEXTERNALFORCEM/S2ALARGEEDDYSIMULATIONLESMODELISUSEDASATURBULENCEMODELINORDERTOEXPRESSTHEDISTURBANCE,ORTHETIMEDIFFERENCE,OFATURBULENTFLOWTHEPOSITIONOFTHEBOUNDARYOFAFREESURFACEISDEFINEDBYTHEVOLUMEOFFLUIDVOFMETHODTHETIMEDIFFERENCESOFMOLTENSTEELFLOWRATEANDTHEFREESURFACEARECALCULATEDBYDISCRETIZINGTHESEEQUATIONSUSINGTHECALCULUSOFFINITEDIFFERENCEANDNUMERICALLYSOLVINGTHEMUSINGTHEITERATIVEANALYSISMETHODFIG3SHOWSTHEBOUNDARYCONDITIONSOFAMOLTENSTEELFLOWANALYSISMODELAPHYSICALMODELTOACCURATELYEXPRESSTHEMOLTENSTEELFLOWINAMOLDANDTHEDYNAMICCHARACTERISTICSOFAWHOLEMOLTENSTEELSURFACEISTHUSCONSTRUCTEDTHISMODELISCAPABLEOFACCURATELYEXPRESSINGTHEDYNAMICCHARACTERISTICSOFMOLTENSTEELSURFACEATHIGHSPEEDCASTINGCYLINDERMOLDCONTROLLERSLIDINGVALVETUNDISHWATERSPRAYROLLSNOZZLEWITHDRAWALDIRECTIONSENSORFIG2MOLDLEVELCONTROLINCONTINUOUSCASTINGPROCESSH1AVIN–VOUTDT0∇⋅U∂U∂TU⋅∇U–1Ρ∇PΝE∇2UGFNIPPONSTEELTECHNICALREPORTNO89JANUARY2004484MOLDLEVELCONTROLSIMULATIONUSEFULNESSOFTHEMOLDLEVELCONTROLMODELBASEDONMOLTENSTEELFLOWANALYSISINACTUALAPPLICATIONISEXPLAINEDBELOWBASEDONSIMULATIONRESULTSTHERESULTSOBTAINEDUSINGANINTEGRALSYSTEMMODELAREALSOEXPLAINEDFORCOMPARISONPURPOSESTHECONDITIONSFORTHEANALYSISARESHOWNINTABLE1THESIMULATIONRESULTSWEREANALYZEDUNDERACONDITIONOFHIGHSPEEDCASTINGFORTHEPURPOSEOFPREDICTINGTHEINFLUENCEOFTURBULENCEOFMOLTENSTEELFLOWOVERTHEMOLDLEVELCONTROLASSUMINGTHEOCCURRENCEOFBULGINGASANEXTERNALFORCE,AMOLDSTEELLEVELFLUCTUATIONHAVINGACYCLETIMEOF10SAFREQUENCYOF010HZWASIMPOSED,THEMOLTENSTEELLEVELWASMONITOREDWITHASENSOR,ANDTHEAMOUNTOFMOLTENSTEELINFLUXWASCONTROLLEDAPPLYINGPICONTROL41INTEGRALSYSTEMMODELFIG4SHOWSTHETIMEFLUCTUATIONOFDETECTEDMOLTENSTEELLEVELCALCULATEDBYTHESIMULATIONUSINGANINTEGRALSYSTEMMODEL,ANDFIG5ITSPOWERSPECTRUMITISCLEARFROMTHEFIGURESTHATTHEINTEGRALSYSTEMMODELDETECTEDONLYAMOLTENSTEELLEVELFLUCTUATIONHAVINGAFREQUENCYOF010HZCAUSEDBYTHEIMPOSEDEXTERNALFORCE42MOLTENSTEELFLOWANALYSISMODELFIG6SHOWSTHETIMEFLUCTUATIONOFDETECTEDMOLTENSTEELLEVELCALCULATEDBYTHESIMULATIONUSINGTHEMOLTENSTEELFLOWANALYSISMODEL,ANDFIG7ITSPOWERSPECTRUMITISCLEARFROMTHEFIGURESTHATTHEMOLTENSTEELFLOWANALYSISMODELDETECTEDNOTONLYTHELEVELFLUCTUATIONOF010HZBUTALSOAHIGHFREQUENCYLEVELFLUCTUATIONHAVINGAFREQUENCYOFAPPROXIMATELY070HZTHE070HZLEVELFLUCTUATIONISPRESUMEDTOREPRESENTASTATIONARYWAVEINAMOLDHERE,THEFREQUENCYOFTHESTATIONARYWAVEISCALCULATEDUSINGTHEFOLLOWINGTHEORETICALEQUATION4WHEREFISFREQUENCYHZ,NISANINTEGER,GISGRAVITATIONALACCELERATIONM/S2,ANDLISTHEWIDTHOFAMOLDMWHENN1ANDL1,500,THENF071HZISOBTAINEDFROMEQUATION4,WHICHVALUEAGREESWELLWITHTHEFREQUENCYOFTHERIPPLINGOBTAINEDBYTHEMOLTENSTEELFLOWANALYSISMODELTHEFACTTHATSUCHHIGHFREQUENCYRIPPLINGISOBSERVEDINACTUALCASTINGSPEEDSENRIGIDWALL1FREESURFACEVOFSOLIDIFIEDSHELLRIGIDWALL2CASTERBOTTOMOUTFLOWBOUNDARYNOZZLEINLETINFLOWBOUNDARYPOURINGVELOCITYFIG3BOUNDARYCONDITIONSOFMOLTENSTEELFLOWANALYSISMODELDETECTEDLEVELMM20160150140130120110151001055TIMESPOWERNORMALIZED01010010206100804FREQUENCYHZMOLDWIDTH1,500MMMOLDTHIKNESS240MMCASTINGSPEED21MPMREFERENCELEVEL5MMCONTROLMETHODPITABLE1ANALYSISCONDITIONSOFMOLDLEVELCONTROLSIMULATIONDETECTEDLEVELMM20160150140130120110151001055TIMESPOWERNORMALIZED01010010206100804FREQUENCYHZFIG4DETECTEDMOLTENSTEELLEVELCALCULATEDBYINTEGRALSYSTEMMODELFIG5FREQUENCYCHARACTERISTICOFDETECTEDMOLTENSTEELLEVELFLUCTUATIONCALCULATEDBYINTEGRALSYSTEMMODELFIG6DETECTEDMOLTENSTEELLEVELCALCULATEDBYMOLTENSTEELFLOWANALYSISMODELFIG7FREQUENCYCHARACTERISTICOFDETECTEDMOLTENSTEELLEVELFLUCTUATIONCALCULATEDBYMOLTENSTEELFLOWANALYSISMODELF12ΠNΠGLCASTEROPERATIONSERVESASEVIDENCEOFTHECAPABILITYOFTHEMOLTENSTEELFLOWANALYSISMODELTOACCURATE

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