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外文翻译--叶片泵磨损理论和实践方面【优秀】.doc

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外文翻译--叶片泵磨损理论和实践方面【优秀】.doc

英文原文wear1811831995868875CaseStudyTheoreticalandpracticalaspectsofthewearofvanepumpsPartB.AnalysisofwearbehaviourintheVickersvanepumptestA.Kunza,R.Gellrichb,G.Beckmannc,E.BroszeitaaInstituteofMaterialScience,TechnicalUniversityDarmstadt,P.O.Box111452,64229Darmstadt,GcmbUniversityforTechnol08y,EconomyandSocialScienceZittau/Goditz,FacukyofMaihematics,P.O.Box264,02763ZutaucPetersiliensrr.2d,03044Cottbus,Received16August1994acceptedlNovember1994AbstractThewearbehaviourofthevanepumpusedinthestandardmethodforindicatingthewearcharacteristicsofhydraulicfluidsASTMD2882/DIN51389hasbeenexaminedbycomparisonofthecalculatedwearandexperimentaldatausingalubricantwithoutanyadditives.InadditiontothetestseriesaccordingtoDIN51389,temperatureprofilesfromthepumphavebeenanalysedusingthebulktemperaturesofthecontactingcomponentsandthetemperatureinthelubricationgapasinputdataforthewearcalculation.CartridgesusedintestsaccordingtotheGennanstandardhavebeenexaminedextensivelybeforeandaftereachruntoobtaininputdataforthemathematicalmodelandtoJocatewear.Ananalysisofthetluidpropertiesandaninvestigationoftheinnuenceofwearparticlesinthehydrauliccircuitwereperformed.Theexperimentalresultswerecomparedwiththewearprediction,whichwasverifiedbytheagreementintermsofload,temporalwearprogressandlocalwear.Conclusionshavebeendrawnwithregardtothevalidityoftheloadassumptionsandwearcalculation,aswellastothelimitsofapplicabilityofthismethodinthepresenceofadditives.KeywordsVanepumpsHydraulicfluidsWearpredictionVickersvanepumptest1.IntroductionEffortstodevelopamathematicaltoolforwearpredictionwillnotbesuccessfulwithoutconsideringwearanditsphenomena.ThetaskofPartBofthisstudyistodescribetheanalysisofthewearbehaviourinthetribosysteminvestigatedandhowtheknowledgeachievedinfluencesthecalculations.Inputdataarederivedfromthemeasurementofmechanicalandgeometricalquantities,suchasthehardness,stylusprofilometry,fluidpropertiesandcontactradii.Thermalquantitiesarealsoessentialforthemodellingoflubrication.Thecalculationsmustbeverifiedwithweardata.BecausethetribosystemtobeanalysedisthevanepumpemployedintheVickersvanepumptest,whichhasbeeninuseforabout40years,severalweardatacanbeusedforcomparisonbetweencalculatedandmeasuredwearresults.Thesearethewearmasses00431648/95/09.501995ElsevierScienceS.A.AllrightsreservedSSDI0043164894070873aftereachtcstrun,theprogrcssionofwearovertimeandthelocalwearontheinnerringsurfaceincombination,theseenableacomprehensivestatementtobemadeonthevalidityofthemathematicalmodeldescribedinPartA.2.ExperimentsAlIVickersvanepumptestsdescribedwererunwiththesamefiuid.ItisareferenceoiloftheGermanRcscarchAssociationforTransmissionTechniqueFVA,andisamineraloilwithoutanyadditivesFVA3.Thusthedisturbinginfluencesofadditivescanbeexcluded.2./.InputdataforcalculationFig.1liststheinputandoutputquantitiesofthecalculations.MostoftheinputparameterswerederivedsurfaceprofilescontactforceandcontactvelocitydynamicviscositycontactradiihardnessvaluesYoungsmoduli,Poissonnumbersandlubricationgapspecificshearenergydensitiespressureexponentc,fviscositytlubricationgaptemperatureRoughsurfuce←→shaarenergyhypot←→elastoliubiction↓Wmf(t)Wff(ɑ)Fig.1.InputparametersandoutputquantitiesofthemathematicalmodelofPartA.Fig.2.CartridgeV104Cbushing,rotor,ring,bushingabcwe,singlevane,pinbelow.experimentallyfromallthecomponentsinvolvedbeforeandafteruseinthevanepumptests.Themechanicalcomponents,whichmustberenewedforeachtestrun,areshowninFig.2.Suchacartridgekitconsistsofarotor,ring,12vanes,bushingsandpin.Stylusprofilometrywasperformedontheinnersurfaceoftheringandonthetipsoftwovanesofthecartridgebeforeandaftereachtestrun.EarlierinvestigationshaveshownthattenparallelsectionsintheslidingdirectiononeachbodyaresufficienttodescribethesurfacetopographyinastatisticallysatisfactorymannerasatwodimensionalisotropicgaussianfieldaccordingtoRef.1.Onlythehighpassfilteredcomponentsoftheprofilesamplinglength,1.5mmcuto五0.25mmwereusedtodeterminethespectralmomentsmo,m2,m4andtheparameterofroughnessa.Accordingtothepartitionofthecontactforceintodifferentloadingzones,thetopographicdataofthenewsurfaceswereusedforzoneIVlowlevelload,seePartA.Fortheotherzoneswithhighercontactforces,theprofilesofthesurfacesinthefinalconditionwereused,whichcorrespondstotheappearanceoftheinnerringsurfaceafterthetestruns.Thecontactforceandcontactvelocitywerecalculatedwithdifferentfluidpressuresanddynamicforcesactingonthevanes,revolutionnumberandringradu,whereasthechangeincontactradiuswasdocumentedwithaprofileprojector.Becausetheringradiiaremuchlargerthartheradiiofthevanesinthecontactzone,thevanescanbeassumedtobehertziancylindersslidingalongaplanesurfaceandthecontactradiiaresimplytheradiiofthevanetips.Eachvanetipwastwicedrawnupatmagnificationsof1001andthecontactradiiandcontactlocationsweremeasuredwithastenciLMeanvaluesofthecontactradiiweretransferredtothecalculation,whichisbasedsimilartothesurfaceprofilesonvanesinbothconditions.TheVickershardnessHVlOwasmeasuredontheringandthreevanesofeachcartridge.Thishardnessleadstoabetterreproducibilitythanmicrohardnessvalues,butduetothelargeindenterload,itcouldonlybetakenafterthetestruns.Thereforechangesinhardnessvaluescouldnotberegistered.TheYoungsmoduli,PoissonnumbersanddensitiesoftheringAISI52100andvanematerialsM2regCarethefirstinputparametersintheshearenergyhypothesisandwereobtainedfromtheliterature.ThespecificshearenergydensitiesseePartAarematerialspecificconstants2l.ThefluidpropertiesFig.1weremeasured,derivedfromtheliteratureorcalculated.Toobtainthedynamicviscosity,thedensitiesandkinematicviscositiesat20,40and800Cweremeasured.BecausethefluidisareferenceoilofFVA,thepressureexponentoftheviscosityisgiven3.Thetemperatureinthelubricationgapbetweentheringandvaneswasapproximatedbymeasurementsandcalculationsdescribedbelow.2.2.TemperatureprofilesTemperaturemeasurementwasperformedtoobtaininformationonhowaheatabletribometermustbecontrolledtosimulatethewearbehaviourofthevanepump.Thereforeshortenedtestrunswerecarriedoutuntiltemperatureswerestabilized.These10hvanepumptestsdeliveredtheinputdatafortheapproximationofthelubricationgaptemperatureintheringvanecontact,aswellasadditionalwearmassestobecomparedwiththecalculatedprogressiortofwearintime.ThesamplingprinciplesforacquiringthetemperatureprofilesofthevanepumpareillustratedinFig.3.Thetemperatureofthelubricantinthegapbetweentheringandvaneswasestimatedtobeequaltoorgreaterthanthebulktemperatureontheinnerringsurface.Followingthefirstmainstatementofthermodynamics,theheatfluxQmpintothecomponentsofthepumpcanbederivedfromwiththefluidasthemediumforenergytransport.Qa,mpcanonlybetransferredtothecomponentsshowninFig.2.Forthesametemperaturedifferencesandmaterials,thisheatnUXcanbedividedintosinglecomponentfluxesaccordingtotherelationofmasses.ThederivedfluxQringistheheatwhichflowsinacertaintimeperiodinaradialdirectionthroughthering.Withtheknowntemperaturesontheouterringsurface,thebulktemperaturesontheinnerringsurfacecanbecalculatedandtransferredtothemodelofelastohydrodynamiclubrication.AlltestrunswiththeVickersvanepumpV104CwereperformedonatestrigaccordingtoASTMD2882/DIN51389,whichisshownschematicallyinFig.4.Thesestandardsdescribetheprocedurefortestingtheantiwearpropertiesofhydraulicfiuids.TostarttheVickersvanepumptestaccordingtotheGermanstandard,thesystempressuremustberaisedinstepsof2MPaevery10min,beginningat2MPa,untilafinalpressureof14MPaisreached.Atthisstage,thefluidtemperaturemeasurcdbcforethepumpseeFig.4mustbecontrolledtoguaranteeakinematicviscosityof13mm2Siattheinletforeverytluidtested.Theseconditionsmustbemaintaineduntilthetestisabortednormallyafter250hbyopeningthebypassofthepressurecontrolvalvebeforethemotorisstopped.Byacomparisonofthewearachievedontheringandvaneswiththeupperwearlimits,theantiwearpropertiesofthefluidtestedcanbederived.ForperformingthetestssafelywiththefluidFVA3,itwaspreheatedt0400Candcirculatedinapressurefreeway.ThedamagewhichmayoccurduringthecriticalfirsthouroftherunscanbeavoidedusingTiNcoatedbushings4.Forcomparisonwiththeresultsderivedfromcomputation,thewearproducedintheserunsmustbedocumentedasamounts,bothlocallyandtemporally.Thewearmasseswerederivedfromtheweightdifferencesoftheringandvanesbeforeandaftereachrun.Theywereobtainedfromasequenceoffour250htestrunsandtw010hrunsfortemperaturemeasurement.Thelocallinearamountofwearwasdocumentedbythedifferencesintheinnerringradiiperdegreeofrevolution,whichweremeasuredbysurfacedigitizationalongtheinnerringsurfaceatthreedifferentpositionsoftheringwidthbeforeandafterthetesiruns.Inearlierinvestigations5,thewearprogressionovertimeofthevaneswasmeasuredunderidenticaltestingconditions,exceptforalowerfluidtemperature.Forthisexperiment,theradiotracertechniquewasused.Twovanetipsinthesetof12vanesofeachcartridgewereradiologicallyactivatedbybombardmentwithprotons.Adetectorclosetothepumpbodyallowedthedecreaseinradiologicalactivitytobemonitoredcontinuously,whichwasfoundtobereciprocallyproportionaltothelinearamountofvanewearasafunctionoftime5l.DuetothegoodtemperingpropertiesofthevanematerialM2regC,withaspecificsecondaryhardnessmaximumbetween450and5500C,theinfiuenceoftheactivationprocessat2200Conthewearbehaviouroftheactivatedzoneofthevanetipscouldbeexcluded.PhydPfricQcompQfluid01Qfluidmcfluid△Tfluid2

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