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外文翻译--叶片泵磨损理论和实践方面【优秀】.doc

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外文翻译--叶片泵磨损理论和实践方面【优秀】.doc

英文原文WEAR1811831995868875CASESTUDYTHEORETICALANDPRACTICALASPECTSOFTHEWEAROFVANEPUMPSPARTBANALYSISOFWEARBEHAVIOURINTHEVICKERSVANEPUMPTESTAKUNZA,RGELLRICHB,GBECKMANNC,EBROSZEITAAINSTITUTEOFMATERIALSCIENCE,TECHNICALUNIVERSITYDARMSTADT,POBOX111452,64229DARMSTADT,GCMBUNIVERSITYFORTECHNOL08Y,ECONOMYANDSOCIALSCIENCEZITTAU/GODITZ,FACUKYOFMAIHEMATICS,POBOX264,02763ZUTAUCPETERSILIENSRR2D,03044COTTBUS,RECEIVED16AUGUST1994;ACCEPTEDLNOVEMBER1994ABSTRACTTHEWEARBEHAVIOUROFTHEVANEPUMPUSEDINTHESTANDARDMETHODFORINDICATINGTHEWEARCHARACTERISTICSOFHYDRAULICFLUIDSASTMD2882/DIN51389HASBEENEXAMINEDBYCOMPARISONOFTHECALCULATEDWEARANDEXPERIMENTALDATAUSINGALUBRICANTWITHOUTANYADDITIVESINADDITIONTOTHETESTSERIESACCORDINGTODIN51389,TEMPERATUREPROFILESFROMTHEPUMPHAVEBEENANALYSEDUSINGTHEBULKTEMPERATURESOFTHECONTACTINGCOMPONENTSANDTHETEMPERATUREINTHELUBRICATIONGAPASINPUTDATAFORTHEWEARCALCULATIONCARTRIDGESUSEDINTESTSACCORDINGTOTHEGENNANSTANDARDHAVEBEENEXAMINEDEXTENSIVELYBEFOREANDAFTEREACHRUNTOOBTAININPUTDATAFORTHEMATHEMATICALMODELANDTOJOCATEWEARANANALYSISOFTHETLUIDPROPERTIESANDANINVESTIGATIONOFTHEINNUENCEOFWEARPARTICLESINTHEHYDRAULICCIRCUITWEREPERFORMEDTHEEXPERIMENTALRESULTSWERECOMPAREDWITHTHEWEARPREDICTION,WHICHWASVERIFIEDBYTHEAGREEMENTINTERMSOFLOAD,TEMPORALWEARPROGRESSANDLOCALWEARCONCLUSIONSHAVEBEENDRAWNWITHREGARDTOTHEVALIDITYOFTHELOADASSUMPTIONSANDWEARCALCULATION,ASWELLASTOTHELIMITSOFAPPLICABILITYOFTHISMETHODINTHEPRESENCEOFADDITIVESKEYWORDSVANEPUMPS;HYDRAULICFLUIDS;WEARPREDICTION;VICKERSVANEPUMPTEST1INTRODUCTIONEFFORTSTODEVELOPAMATHEMATICALTOOLFORWEARPREDICTIONWILLNOTBESUCCESSFULWITHOUTCONSIDERINGWEARANDITSPHENOMENATHETASKOFPARTBOFTHISSTUDYISTODESCRIBETHEANALYSISOFTHEWEARBEHAVIOURINTHETRIBOSYSTEMINVESTIGATEDANDHOWTHEKNOWLEDGEACHIEVEDINFLUENCESTHECALCULATIONSINPUTDATAAREDERIVEDFROMTHEMEASUREMENTOFMECHANICALANDGEOMETRICALQUANTITIES,SUCHASTHEHARDNESS,STYLUSPROFILOMETRY,FLUIDPROPERTIESANDCONTACTRADIITHERMALQUANTITIESAREALSOESSENTIALFORTHEMODELLINGOFLUBRICATIONTHECALCULATIONSMUSTBEVERIFIEDWITHWEARDATABECAUSETHETRIBOSYSTEMTOBEANALYSEDISTHEVANEPUMPEMPLOYEDINTHEVICKERSVANEPUMPTEST,WHICHHASBEENINUSEFORABOUT40YEARS,SEVERALWEARDATACANBEUSEDFORCOMPARISONBETWEENCALCULATEDANDMEASUREDWEARRESULTSTHESEARETHEWEARMASSES00431648/95/09501995ELSEVIERSCIENCESAALLRIGHTSRESERVEDSSDI0043164894070873AFTEREACHTCSTRUN,THEPROGRCSSIONOFWEAROVERTIMEANDTHELOCALWEARONTHEINNERRINGSURFACE;INCOMBINATION,THESEENABLEACOMPREHENSIVESTATEMENTTOBEMADEONTHEVALIDITYOFTHEMATHEMATICALMODELDESCRIBEDINPARTA2EXPERIMENTSALIVICKERSVANEPUMPTESTSDESCRIBEDWERERUNWITHTHESAMEFIUIDITISAREFERENCEOILOFTHEGERMANRCSCARCHASSOCIATIONFORTRANSMISSIONTECHNIQUEFVA,ANDISAMINERALOILWITHOUTANYADDITIVESFVA3THUSTHEDISTURBINGINFLUENCESOFADDITIVESCANBEEXCLUDED2/INPUTDATAFORCALCULATIONFIG1LISTSTHEINPUTANDOUTPUTQUANTITIESOFTHECALCULATIONSMOSTOFTHEINPUTPARAMETERSWEREDERIVEDSURFACEPROFILESCONTACTFORCEANDCONTACTVELOCITYDYNAMICVISCOSITYCONTACTRADIIHARDNESSVALUESYOUNGSMODULI,POISSONNUMBERSANDLUBRICATIONGAPSPECIFICSHEARENERGYDENSITIESPRESSUREEXPONENTC,FVISCOSITY;TLUBRICATIONGAPTEMPERATUREROUGHSURFUCE←→SHAARENERGYHYPOT←→ELASTOLIUBICTION↓WMF(T)WFF(Ɑ)FIG1INPUTPARAMETERSANDOUTPUTQUANTITIESOFTHEMATHEMATICALMODELOFPARTAFIG2CARTRIDGEV104CBUSHING,ROTOR,RING,BUSHINGABCWE,SINGLEVANE,PINBELOWEXPERIMENTALLYFROMALLTHECOMPONENTSINVOLVEDBEFOREANDAFTERUSEINTHEVANEPUMPTESTSTHEMECHANICALCOMPONENTS,WHICHMUSTBERENEWEDFOREACHTESTRUN,ARESHOWNINFIG2SUCHACARTRIDGEKITCONSISTSOFAROTOR,RING,12VANES,BUSHINGSANDPINSTYLUSPROFILOMETRYWASPERFORMEDONTHEINNERSURFACEOFTHERINGANDONTHETIPSOFTWOVANESOFTHECARTRIDGEBEFOREANDAFTEREACHTESTRUNEARLIERINVESTIGATIONSHAVESHOWNTHATTENPARALLELSECTIONSINTHESLIDINGDIRECTIONONEACHBODYARESUFFICIENTTODESCRIBETHESURFACETOPOGRAPHYINASTATISTICALLYSATISFACTORYMANNERASATWODIMENSIONALISOTROPICGAUSSIANFIELDACCORDINGTOREF1ONLYTHEHIGHPASSFILTEREDCOMPONENTSOFTHEPROFILESAMPLINGLENGTH,15MM;CUTO五025MMWEREUSEDTODETERMINETHESPECTRALMOMENTSMO,M2,M4ANDTHEPARAMETEROFROUGHNESSAACCORDINGTOTHEPARTITIONOFTHECONTACTFORCEINTODIFFERENTLOADINGZONES,THETOPOGRAPHICDATAOFTHENEWSURFACESWEREUSEDFORZONEIVLOWLEVELLOAD,SEEPARTAFORTHEOTHERZONESWITHHIGHERCONTACTFORCES,THEPROFILESOFTHESURFACESINTHEFINALCONDITIONWEREUSED,WHICHCORRESPONDSTOTHEAPPEARANCEOFTHEINNERRINGSURFACEAFTERTHETESTRUNSTHECONTACTFORCEANDCONTACTVELOCITYWERECALCULATEDWITHDIFFERENTFLUIDPRESSURESANDDYNAMICFORCESACTINGONTHEVANES,REVOLUTIONNUMBERANDRINGRADU,WHEREASTHECHANGEINCONTACTRADIUSWASDOCUMENTEDWITHAPROFILEPROJECTORBECAUSETHERINGRADIIAREMUCHLARGERTHARTHERADIIOFTHEVANESINTHECONTACTZONE,THEVANESCANBEASSUMEDTOBEHERTZIANCYLINDERSSLIDINGALONGAPLANESURFACEANDTHECONTACTRADIIARESIMPLYTHERADIIOFTHEVANETIPSEACHVANETIPWASTWICEDRAWNUPATMAGNIFICATIONSOF1001ANDTHECONTACTRADIIANDCONTACTLOCATIONSWEREMEASUREDWITHASTENCILMEANVALUESOFTHECONTACTRADIIWERETRANSFERREDTOTHECALCULATION,WHICHISBASEDSIMILARTOTHESURFACEPROFILESONVANESINBOTHCONDITIONSTHEVICKERSHARDNESSHVLOWASMEASUREDONTHERINGANDTHREEVANESOFEACHCARTRIDGETHISHARDNESSLEADSTOABETTERREPRODUCIBILITYTHANMICROHARDNESSVALUES,BUTDUETOTHELARGEINDENTERLOAD,ITCOULDONLYBETAKENAFTERTHETESTRUNSTHEREFORECHANGESINHARDNESSVALUESCOULDNOTBEREGISTEREDTHEYOUNGSMODULI,POISSONNUMBERSANDDENSITIESOFTHERINGAISI52100ANDVANEMATERIALSM2REGCARETHEFIRSTINPUTPARAMETERSINTHESHEARENERGYHYPOTHESISANDWEREOBTAINEDFROMTHELITERATURETHESPECIFICSHEARENERGYDENSITIESSEEPARTAAREMATERIALSPECIFICCONSTANTS2LTHEFLUIDPROPERTIESFIG1WEREMEASURED,DERIVEDFROMTHELITERATUREORCALCULATEDTOOBTAINTHEDYNAMICVISCOSITY,THEDENSITIESANDKINEMATICVISCOSITIESAT20,40AND800CWEREMEASUREDBECAUSETHEFLUIDISAREFERENCEOILOFFVA,THEPRESSUREEXPONENTOFTHEVISCOSITYISGIVEN3THETEMPERATUREINTHELUBRICATIONGAPBETWEENTHERINGANDVANESWASAPPROXIMATEDBYMEASUREMENTSANDCALCULATIONSDESCRIBEDBELOW22TEMPERATUREPROFILESTEMPERATUREMEASUREMENTWASPERFORMEDTOOBTAININFORMATIONONHOWAHEATABLETRIBOMETERMUSTBECONTROLLEDTOSIMULATETHEWEARBEHAVIOUROFTHEVANEPUMPTHEREFORESHORTENEDTESTRUNSWERECARRIEDOUTUNTILTEMPERATURESWERESTABILIZEDTHESE10HVANEPUMPTESTSDELIVEREDTHEINPUTDATAFORTHEAPPROXIMATIONOFTHELUBRICATIONGAPTEMPERATUREINTHERINGVANECONTACT,ASWELLASADDITIONALWEARMASSESTOBECOMPAREDWITHTHECALCULATEDPROGRESSIORTOFWEARINTIMETHESAMPLINGPRINCIPLESFORACQUIRINGTHETEMPERATUREPROFILESOFTHEVANEPUMPAREILLUSTRATEDINFIG3THETEMPERATUREOFTHELUBRICANTINTHEGAPBETWEENTHERINGANDVANESWASESTIMATEDTOBEEQUALTOORGREATERTHANTHEBULKTEMPERATUREONTHEINNERRINGSURFACEFOLLOWINGTHEFIRSTMAINSTATEMENTOFTHERMODYNAMICS,THEHEATFLUXQMPINTOTHECOMPONENTSOFTHEPUMPCANBEDERIVEDFROMWITHTHEFLUIDASTHEMEDIUMFORENERGYTRANSPORTQA,MPCANONLYBETRANSFERREDTOTHECOMPONENTSSHOWNINFIG2FORTHESAMETEMPERATUREDIFFERENCESANDMATERIALS,THISHEATNUXCANBEDIVIDEDINTOSINGLECOMPONENTFLUXESACCORDINGTOTHERELATIONOFMASSESTHEDERIVEDFLUXQRINGISTHEHEATWHICHFLOWSINACERTAINTIMEPERIODINARADIALDIRECTIONTHROUGHTHERINGWITHTHEKNOWNTEMPERATURESONTHEOUTERRINGSURFACE,THEBULKTEMPERATURESONTHEINNERRINGSURFACECANBECALCULATEDANDTRANSFERREDTOTHEMODELOFELASTOHYDRODYNAMICLUBRICATIONALLTESTRUNSWITHTHEVICKERSVANEPUMPV104CWEREPERFORMEDONATESTRIGACCORDINGTOASTMD2882/DIN51389,WHICHISSHOWNSCHEMATICALLYINFIG4THESESTANDARDSDESCRIBETHEPROCEDUREFORTESTINGTHEANTIWEARPROPERTIESOFHYDRAULICFIUIDSTOSTARTTHEVICKERSVANEPUMPTESTACCORDINGTOTHEGERMANSTANDARD,THESYSTEMPRESSUREMUSTBERAISEDINSTEPSOF2MPAEVERY10MIN,BEGINNINGAT2MPA,UNTILAFINALPRESSUREOF14MPAISREACHEDATTHISSTAGE,THEFLUIDTEMPERATUREMEASURCDBCFORETHEPUMPSEEFIG4MUSTBECONTROLLEDTOGUARANTEEAKINEMATICVISCOSITYOF13MM2SIATTHEINLETFOREVERYTLUIDTESTEDTHESECONDITIONSMUSTBEMAINTAINEDUNTILTHETESTISABORTEDNORMALLYAFTER250HBYOPENINGTHEBYPASSOFTHEPRESSURECONTROLVALVEBEFORETHEMOTORISSTOPPEDBYACOMPARISONOFTHEWEARACHIEVEDONTHERINGANDVANESWITHTHEUPPERWEARLIMITS,THEANTIWEARPROPERTIESOFTHEFLUIDTESTEDCANBEDERIVEDFORPERFORMINGTHETESTSSAFELYWITHTHEFLUIDFVA3,ITWASPREHEATEDT0400CANDCIRCULATEDINAPRESSUREFREEWAYTHEDAMAGEWHICHMAYOCCURDURINGTHECRITICALFIRSTHOUROFTHERUNSCANBEAVOIDEDUSINGTINCOATEDBUSHINGS4FORCOMPARISONWITHTHERESULTSDERIVEDFROMCOMPUTATION,THEWEARPRODUCEDINTHESERUNSMUSTBEDOCUMENTEDASAMOUNTS,BOTHLOCALLYANDTEMPORALLYTHEWEARMASSESWEREDERIVEDFROMTHEWEIGHTDIFFERENCESOFTHERINGANDVANESBEFOREANDAFTEREACHRUNTHEYWEREOBTAINEDFROMASEQUENCEOFFOUR250HTESTRUNSANDTW010HRUNSFORTEMPERATUREMEASUREMENTTHELOCALLINEARAMOUNTOFWEARWASDOCUMENTEDBYTHEDIFFERENCESINTHEINNERRINGRADIIPERDEGREEOFREVOLUTION,WHICHWEREMEASUREDBYSURFACEDIGITIZATIONALONGTHEINNERRINGSURFACEATTHREEDIFFERENTPOSITIONSOFTHERINGWIDTHBEFOREANDAFTERTHETESIRUNSINEARLIERINVESTIGATIONS5,THEWEARPROGRESSIONOVERTIMEOFTHEVANESWASMEASUREDUNDERIDENTICALTESTINGCONDITIONS,EXCEPTFORALOWERFLUIDTEMPERATUREFORTHISEXPERIMENT,THERADIOTRACERTECHNIQUEWASUSEDTWOVANETIPSINTHESETOF12VANESOFEACHCARTRIDGEWERERADIOLOGICALLYACTIVATEDBYBOMBARDMENTWITHPROTONSADETECTORCLOSETOTHEPUMPBODYALLOWEDTHEDECREASEINRADIOLOGICALACTIVITYTOBEMONITOREDCONTINUOUSLY,WHICHWASFOUNDTOBERECIPROCALLYPROPORTIONALTOTHELINEARAMOUNTOFVANEWEARASAFUNCTIONOFTIME5LDUETOTHEGOODTEMPERINGPROPERTIESOFTHEVANEMATERIALM2REGC,WITHASPECIFICSECONDARYHARDNESSMAXIMUMBETWEEN450AND5500C,THEINFIUENCEOFTHEACTIVATIONPROCESSAT2200CONTHEWEARBEHAVIOUROFTHEACTIVATEDZONEOFTHEVANETIPSCOULDBEEXCLUDEDPHYDPFRICQCOMPQFLUID01QFLUIDMCFLUID△TFLUID2

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