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外文翻译--在钻孔中偏心距对切削力的影响 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--在钻孔中偏心距对切削力的影响 英文版.pdf

EFFECTOFMISALIGNMENTONTHECUTTINGFORCESIGNATUREINDRILLINGAALHAMDANMECHANICALENGINEERINGDEPARTMENT,MUTAHUNIVERSITY,MUTAH,KARAK,JORDANRECEIVED27JUNE2000;ACCEPTED2JANUARY2002ABSTRACTTHISPAPERPRESENTSASTUDYWHICHINVESTIGATESTHEEFFECTOFMISALIGNMENTBETWEENTHEAXESOFROTATIONOFDRILLANDTHEWORKPIECEONTHESTEADYSTATEANDDYNAMICOFTHEAXIALCUTTINGFORCEANDTORQUEANOVELMETHODOLOGYHASBEENPROPOSEDTOMEASURETHEMISALIGNMENTBETWEENTHEAXESOFROTATIONOFTHEDRILLANDTHEWORKPIECETHISUSESALASERBASEDSYSTEMTOMEASURETHISMISALIGNMENT,WHEREAREFERENCEBEAMHASBEENGENERATEDBYALASERTUBE,WHICHISHELDINTHECHUCKOFTHEMACHINEUSINGASPECIALENCLOSURETHELASERBEAMISCAPTUREDBYAPHOTOSENSORCAMERAHAVINGAVIDEOCAPTURECARDTOSTUDYTHEEFFECTOFTHEMISALIGNMENT,THESTARTINGBUSHWASINTENTIONALLYMISALIGNEDBYMOVINGTHEPRESSUREHEADOVERTHECARRIAGEUSINGTHELEADSCREWOFTHECROSSSLIDEKEYWORDSMETALCUTTING;DRILLING;DEEPHOLEMACHINING;IMAGEPROCESSING;MISALIGNMENT;CUTTINGFORCES1INTRODUCTIONTHERELATIVEPOSITIONANDMOTIONBETWEENTHETOOLANDWORKPIECEMAYAFFECTBOTHTHESTEADYSTATEANDDYNAMICCUTTINGFORCESDRAMATICALLYTHUSITBECOMESDIFFICULTTODISTINGUISHBETWEENTHECUTTINGSIGNATUREDUETOTHEDYNAMICRESPONSEOFTHECUTTINGPROCESSANDTHATDUETOTHENOISEORIGINATINGFROMANYINACCURACYINTHEPOSITIONOFTHEWORKPIECERELATIVETOTHECUTTINGTOOLSURPRISINGLY,THEREHASBEENLITTLEATTENTIONPAIDTOTHISEFFECTINPREVIOUSSTUDIESSOMEOFTHESCATTERINTHECUTTINGFORCEMEASUREMENTSREPORTEDINTHELITERATUREMAYBEPARTIALLYEXPLAINEDBYTHEMENTIONEDINACCURACYTHISBECOMESPARTICULARLYIMPORTANTIFANEWMODELOFCHIPFORMATIONHASTOBEVERIFIEDBYEXPERIMENTSINDEEPHOLEDRILLINGBTA,THERELATIVELOCATIONOFTHETOOLANDTHEWORKPIECEISDEFINEDBYTHERELATIVELOCATIONOFTHEAXESOFROTATIONOFTHETOOL,WORKPIECEANDSTARTINGBUSHASSHOWNINFIG1SAKUMAETAL1–3INVESTIGATEDRUNOUTINDEEPHOLESDRILLEDUNDERDIFFERENTMISALIGNMENTCONDITIONSTHEAUTHORSKEPTCHANGINGBETWEENGUNDRILLSANDBTADRILLSWHENRUNNINGEXPERIMENTSWITHDIFFERENTSETUPSTHUSTHEWORKHASNOCLEARREFERENCETOAPARTICULARTYPEOFTOOLORTOOLGEOMETRYFURTHERTOTHISNOINFORMATIONWASPROVIDEDONTHERIGIDITYOFTHEBORINGTHEYUSEDINTHEEXPERIMENTSINTOOLROTATINGSYSTEMSTHEMISALIGNMENTOFTHEPILOTBUSHORATOOLSHANKSUPPORTMAKESTHEPATHOFTHETOOLDEVIATEANDCAUSESTHEAXESTODEVIATEFROMASTRAIGHTPATH4BEINGASELFGUIDEDMACHININGPROCESS,THESTRAIGHTNESSERRORONTHEHOLEAXISISFURTHERAFFECTEDBYTHERIGIDITYOFTHETOOL–WORK–MACHINESYSTEMTHESTRAIGHTNESSOFTHEHOLEAXESPRODUCEDBYBTADRILLINGISUSUALLYMEASUREDASTHERUNOUTMEASUREMENTSAREINFLUENCEDBYTHESETTINGERRORSWHILEDRILLING,NAMELYOFFSETANDNONPARALLELISMOFAXESOFTOOLANDWORKPIECETHEREFORE,ADIFFERENTAPPROACHISNECESSARYTOSTUDYTHEERRORONTHESTRAIGHTNESSOFTHEAXIS,ELIMINATINGTHESETTINGERRORS5KATSUKIETAL6STUDIEDTHEINFLUENCEOFTHESHAPEOFTHECUTTINGEDGEONAXIALHOLEDEVIATIONINDEEPDRILLINGSOFAR,THEREHASBEENNOSYSTEMATICSTUDYOFTHEOVERALLEFFECTOFMISALIGNMENTONTOOLWEARANDTOOLPERFORMANCE,EXCEPTFORTHESTUDYONITSEFFECTONRUNOUT3INGENERAL,AUTHORSATTRIBUTEAVARIETYOFUNDESIRABLEEFFECTSTOMISALIGNMENTBUTMOSTLYASEXPERIENCEBASEDGUESSWORKCOMMONPROBLEMSINCLUDETHECUTTINGEDGEFLAKINGORCHIPPING,LEADINGPADWEAR,POORSURFACEFINISH,STRAIGHTNESSANDROUNDNESSALSO,LITERATURESOURCESCITETHATMISALIGNMENTRELATEDPROBLEMSMAYANDMAYNOTBEACCOMPANIEDBYEXCESSIVEVIBRATION7THESECTIONTOFOLLOWPRESENTSTHEEXPERIMENTALSETUPANDTHEPROCEDUREUSEDTOMEASURETHECUTTINGFORCESINDEEPHOLEMACHININGTHISENCOMPASSESTHEELEMENTSOFTHESETUPSUCHASTHEMACHINE,THEWORKPIECEMATERIAL,THECUTTINGTOOLANDTHEDYNAMOMETERTHISSECTIONCOVERSALSOTHEMEASURINGSETUPANDITSCALIBRATIONTHENEXTSECTIONPRESENTSTHEPROPOSEDMETHODOLOGYANDTHESPECIALLYDESIGNEDSETUPFORMISALIGNMENTASSURANCE,WHICHISFOLLOWEDBYTHECALIBRATIONJOURNALOFMATERIALSPROCESSINGTECHNOLOGY124200283–91EMAILADDRESSHAYAJNEHMUTAHEDUJOAALHAMDANOFTHEMISALIGNMENTASSURANCESETUPTHISFOLLOWEDBYTHEPRESENTATIONANDDISCUSSIONOFTHEEXPERIMENTALRESULTSTHELASTSECTIONOUTLINESTHECONCLUSIONSOFTHISSTUDY2CUTTINGFORCESMEASUREMENT21EXPERIMENTALSETUP1MACHINEFIG1SHOWSTHEDRILLINGMACHINEINSTALLATIONUSEDINTHEEXPERIMENTSTHEINSTALLATIONCONSISTSOFADRIVEUNIT,APRESSUREHEAD,ABORINGBARANDTHEDRILLHEADTHESTATIONARYWORKPIECEROTATINGTOOLWORKINGMETHODWASUSEDINTHEEXPERIMENTS2DYNAMOMETERA2COMPONENTPIEZOELECTRICLOADWASHERMODEL9065WASUSEDTOMEASURETHECUTTINGFORCESTHETRANSDUCERINCORPORATESTWODISKS,EACHWITHARINGOFQUARTZCRYSTALSPRECISELYORIENTEDINTHECIRCUMFERENTIALANDAXIALDIRECTIONSTHELOADWASHERWASINTEGRATEDINTOADYNAMOMETERTOBEHELDINTHECHUCKBASEDONTHESTANDARDMOUNTINGASSPECIFIEDBYTHESUPPLIERKISTLER,THELOADWASHERWASPRELOADEDBYTWOFLANGESTO120KNATTHISPRELOAD,THERANGEFORTHEAXIALFORCEMEASUREMENTSWASC020TO20KNANDTHERANGEFORTORQUEWASFROMC0200TO200NMFIG1SHOWSTHESCHEMATICARRANGEMENTOFCUTTINGFORCEMEASUREMENTSETUPTHELOADWASHERWASCONNECTEDTOACHARGEAMPLIFIERKISTLERMODEL5004ANDINTURNTOADUALCHANNELFFTSPECTRUMANALYSERBKANALYSERTYPE2032THESETUPWASCALIBRATEDSTATICALLYANDDYNAMICALLYTHEDYNAMICCALIBRATIONOFTHEDYNAMOMETER–WORKPIECE–MACHINE–TOOLSYSTEMWASCARRIEDOUTTOAVOIDMEASURINGTHEVIBRATIONOFTHETOOLINSTEADOFTHEFORCEFLUCTUATIONSANDDETERMINETHEFREQUENCYBAND,OVERWHICHTHEDYNAMOMETERCOULDBEUSEDFORRELIABLEMEASUREMENTSALSO,THEFREQUENCYRESPONSEWASMEASUREDTODETERMINETHERANGEOFFREQUENCIESOFTHECUTTINGFORCES,WHICHCOULDBEMEASUREDACCURATELYWITHOUTDISTORTIONTHELOADWASHERWITHALLIEDCHARGEPREAMPLIFIERSANDTHEFFTANALYSERWASCALIBRATEDBYFIG1THESCHEMATICARRANGEMENTOFTHECUTTINGFORCESEXPERIMENTALSETUP84AALHAMDAN/JOURNALOFMATERIALSPROCESSINGTECHNOLOGY124200283–91STRIKINGTHEDYNAMOMETERWITHKISTLERHAMMERMODEL912TOEXAMINETHEVALIDITYOFTHEMEASUREMENT,THECOHERENCEFUNCTIONWASCALCULATEDFORTHETHRUSTFORCEANDTHETORQUE22CUTTINGTOOLBTASSYSTEMPARTIONEDBORINGHEADSOF1INDIAMETERSANDVIKDESIGNWEREUSEDADETAILEDDIAGRAMINFIG2SHOWSTHEDRILLDESIGNANDTHEGEOMETRYTHECUTTINGEDGEISDIVIDEDINTOTHREESECTIONSTHEGEOMETRYPARAMETERSOFTHEDRILLSWERECONTROLLEDACCORDINGTHEAMERICANNATIONALSTANDARDB94501975EACHCUTTINGEDGEWASEXAMINEDATMAGNIFICATIONOF20C2FORVISUALDEFECTSSUCHASCHIPORCRACKS23WORKPIECEMATERIALSTAINLESSSTEELAISI303WASUSEDASWORKPIECEMATERIALTHECOMPOSITION,THEELEMENTLIMITSANDTHEDEOXIDISATIONPRACTICEWERECHOSENACCORDINGTOTHEREQUIREMENTSOFANSI/ASMEB9455M1985ANDWEREREQUESTEDFROMTHESTEELDEALER3MISALIGNMENTMEASUREMENTSETUPTHESCHEMATICARRANGEMENTOFTHEEXPERIMENTALSETUPONTHEDEEPHOLEMACHINEISSHOWNINFIG3APHOTOGRAPHOFTHEEXPERIMENTALSETUPISSHOWNINFIG4ALASERBASEDMEASUREMENTSYSTEMWASDEVELOPEDTOMEASURETHEMISALIGNMENTBETWEENTHEAXESOFROTATIONOFSPINDLENOSEANDTHATOFTHESTARTINGBUSHOFTHEDEEPHOLEMACHINEAREFERENCELASERBEAMWASGENERATEDBYALASERTUBE,WHICHWASHELDINTHECHUCKOFTHEMACHINEUSINGASPECIALENCLOSURETHELASERBEAMWASCAPTUREDBYAPHOTOSENSORCAMERAHAVINGAVIDEOCAPTURECARDTHEOUTPUTIMAGESWERESENTTOIMAGEPROCESSINGSOFTWARETOTRACKTHELASERBEAMPOSITIONBYPROCESSINGTHESEIMAGESTHEOUTPUTFROMTHEIMAGEPROCESSINGSOFTWAREPROVIDEDTHEPOSITIONOFTHEFIG2BTASTOOLSOFPARTIONEDCUTTINGEDGESSANDVIKDESIGNAALHAMDAN/JOURNALOFMATERIALSPROCESSINGTECHNOLOGY124200283–9185CENTROIDOFTHELASERBEAMONTHEPHOTOSENSORINACERTAINPOSITIONALONGTHEAXISOFROTATIONOFTHEMACHINETHEMISALIGNMENTSWERECALCULATEDBYCOMPARINGTHEAVERAGECENTROIDOFTHECAPTUREDIMAGESWHENTHEPHOTOSENSORCAMERAANDSTARTINGBUSHAXESCOINCIDEANDWHENTHECAMERAANDNOSESPINDLEAXISCOINCIDETOALIGNTHEMACHINE,THISCENTROIDHADTOBEBROUGHTTOCOINCIDEWITHTHEZEROREFERENCEPOINTTHEZEROREFERENCEPOINTWASESTABLISHEDONTHEAXISOFTHECYLINDRICALCAMERAHOUSINGWITHINAREASONABLETOLERANCE05MMASPECIALACCESSORYWASDESIGNEDTOHOLDTHECAMERAINDIFFERENTPOSITIONSALONGTHEAXISOFROTATIONOFTHEMACHINETOSTUDYTHEEFFECTOFMISALIGNMENT,THESTARTINGBUSHWASINTENTIONALLYMISALIGNEDBYMOVINGTHEPRESSUREHEADOVERTHECARRIAGEUSINGTHELEADSCREWOFTHECROSSSLIDEFIG5SHOWSAPHOTOGRAPHOFTHEPRINCIPALELEMENTSOFTHEMISALIGNMENTMEASUREMENTSETUPASFOLLOWS1LASERLTT4HADJUSTABLEALIGNMENTTOOL,EMERGINGTECHNOLOGIES,LASERAIMTOOLDIVISION,LITTLEROCK,AR,FIG3THESCHEMATICARRANGEMENTOFMISALIGNMENTEXPERIMENTALSETUPFIG4APHOTOGRAPHOFTHEEXPERIMENTALSETUPFORMISALIGNMENTMEASUREMENTFIG5PHOTOGRAPHOFTHEPRINCIPALELEMENTSOFMISALIGNMENTSETUP86AALHAMDAN/JOURNALOFMATERIALSPROCESSINGTECHNOLOGY124200283–91

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