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外文翻译--挤压铸造中合金熔体的模具填充能力评价 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--挤压铸造中合金熔体的模具填充能力评价 英文版.pdf

JOURNALOFUNIVERSITYOFSCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGYBEIJIREGVOLUME13,NUMBER1,FEBRUARY2006,PAGE60MATERIALSEVALUATIONOFTHEMOLDFILLINGABILITYOFALLOYMELTINSQUEEZECASTINGHAIYINGZHANG’,SHUMINGXING’,QINGHUAZHANG’’,JIANBOANDWENLID1SEMISOLIDFORMINGRESEARCHCENTER,BEIJINGJIAOTONGUNIVERSITY,BEIJING100044,CHINA2SHIJIAZHUANGLOCOMOTIVEDEPOT,SHIJIAZHUANG050000,CHINA3DEPARTMENTOFMATERIALANDENGINEERING,HEBEIUNIVERSITYOFSCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGY,SHIJIAZHUANG050018,CHINARECEIVED20041213ABSTRACTTHEMOLDFILLINGABILITYOFALLOYMELTINSQUEEZECASTINGPROCESSWASEVALUATEDBYMEANSOFTHEMAXIMUMLENGTHOFARCHIMEDESSPIRALLINEATHEORETICALEVALUATINGMODELTOPREDICTTHEMAXIMUMFILLINGLENGTHWASBUILTBASEDONTHEFLOWINGTHEORYOFTHEINCOMPRESSIBLEVISCOUSFLUIDITWASPROVEDBYEXPERIMENTSANDCALCULATIONSTHATTHEMOLDFILLINGPRESSUREANDVELOCITYAREPROMINENTINFLUENCINGFACTORSONTHEMOLDFILLINGABILITYOFALLOYMELTTHEMOLDFILLINGABILITYINCREASESWITHTHEINCREASEOFTHEMOLDFILLINGPRESSUREANDTHEDECREASEOFTHEPROPERMOLDFILLINGVELOCITYMOREOVER,THEPOURINGTEMPERATURERELATIVELYHASLESSEFFECTONTHEMOLDFILLINGABILITYUNDERTHEEXPERIMENTALCONDITIONSTHEMAXIMUMDEVIATIONOFTHEORETICALCALCULATINGVALUESWITHEXPERIMENTALRESULTSISLESSTHAN15THEMODELCANQUANTITATIVELYESTIMATETHEEFFECTOFEVERYFACTORONTHEMOLDFILLINGABILITYKEYWORDSSQUEEZECASTING;PROCESSPARAMETERS;MOLDFILLINGABILITY;THEORETICALCALCULATION;EXPERIMENTALEVALUATION1INTRODUCTIONTHEMOLDFILLINGABILITYOFALLOYMELTCANDIRECTLYAFFECTTHEINNERQUALITYANDSURFACEROUGHNESSOFTHEPRODUCTS,ANDISREGARDEDASABASICPROBLEMINTHEFIELDOFMATERIALFORMINGPROCESS,ESPECIALLYINTHERESEARCHESOFNEWMATERIALSANDPROCESSESINTHETRADITIONALCASTINGTECHNOLOGY,THEEVALUATIONOFTHEMOLDFILLINGABILITYISCARRIEDONBYMEASURINGTHEMAXIMUMFILLINGLENGTHOFASPIRALLINESPECIMEN;HOWEVER,THISEVALUATIONISLIMITEDFORCASTINGMATERIALS,MOULDMATERIALS,POURINGTECHNOLOGIESANDFORMINGMETHODSHENCEINSPECIALCASTINGPROCESSSUCHASSQUEEZECASTING,SEMISOLIDMETALCASTING,LOSTFOAMCASTINGANDSOON,ITISANEWPROBLEMTOEVALUATETHEMOLDFILLINGABILITYOFALLOYMELTSMXINGINVESTIGATEDTHEMOLDFILLINGABILITYOFSEMISOLIDALLOYINTHEMOLDWITHMANYHOLESOFDIFFERENTDIAMETERSUNDERAPRESSURE,ANDPROPOSEDATHEORETICALFORMULAOFTHEFILLINGLENGTH11RECENTLY,JULIOAGUILAR2DESIGNEDAMEANDERSAMPLEOFAZ91ALLOYWITHALENGTHOF2420MMTOEVALUATETHEFILLINGABILITYOFALLOYSINTHEDIECASTINGPROCESSBECAUSETHEREISNOTANAVAILABLEFORMULATOPREDICTFILLINGLENGTH,THISEVALUATIONMETHODISNOTCONVENIENTINENGINEERINGTJZHANG3INVESTIGATEDTHERELATIONSHIPBETWEENMAGNETICFLUXDENSITYANDINPUTVOLTAGEASWELLASDISTANCE,ANDFOUNDTHATTHEMOLDFILLINGLENGTHOFTHEMELTINCREASESRAPIDLYWITHTHEINCREASEOFTHEAVERAGEMAGNETICFLUXDENSITY,ANDCORRESPONDINGAUTHORHAIYINGZHANG,EMAILYINGYINGZH126COMTHATTHEUPPERSTEELMOLDISSUPERIORTOTHEUPPERGYPSUMMOLDMOREOVER,INRESEARCHINGONHIGHPRESSUREDIECASTING,SKULASEGARAM4,ZLIU5,ANDCLEARYPAUL6STUDIEDTHEMOLDFILLINGABILITYOFALLOYSBYSIMULATIONSENPAN7STUDIEDTHEEFFECTSOFPOURINGTEMPERATURE,COATINGTHICKNESSETCONTHEMOLDFILINGABILITYOFLOSTFOAMA356ALLOY,THECALCULATEDFLOWLENGTHBASEDONAMODIFIEDEPCFLOWSOLIDIFICATIONEQUATIONSHOWEDAGOODAGREEMENTWITHTHEEXPERIMENTALRESULTSTHEEVALUATIONMETHODOFMOLDFILLINGABILITYMAINLYINCLUDESTHREETYPES,EXPERIMENTALEVALUATION,THEORETICALCALCULATION,ANDSIMULATIONTHEEXPERIMENTALEVALUATIONMETHODISABASICONEBECAUSEOFITSINTUITIONALEFFECTS,BUTITISLIMITEDFORTHEEXPERIMENTALCONDITIONSANDISDIFFICULTFORPOPULARUSETHESIMULATIONMETHODISNOTCONVENIENTINENGINEERINGTHOUGHITISMOREEXACTTHANTHEEXPERIMENTALMETHODINGIVENCONDITIONSHOWEVER,THETHEORETICALCALCULATIONMETHODCANBEUSEDCONVENIENTLYTOPREDICTTHEFILLINGABILITYOFVARIOUSALLOYSINVARIOUSPROCESSESWITHOUTANYSPECIALEQUIPMENTSQUEEZECASTINGISANEWFORMINGTECHNOLOGYTHATISEXPECTEDTOBEWIDELYUSEDINTHEFUTUREHOWEVER,THEFILLINGABILITYOFALLOYMELTINTHEPROCESSISNOTCLEARSTUDIESEVALUATINGTHEMOLDFILLINGABILITYOFALLOYMELTINSQUEEZECASTINGAREFEWINTHISARTICLE,EXPERIMENTALEVALUATIONANDTHEORETICALCALCULATIONARECOMBINED,ANDAMATHEMATICALMODELFORCALCULATINGMOLDFILLINGABILITYISOBTAINEDHYZHNGETAL,EVALUATIONOFTHEMOLDFILLINGABILITYOFALLOYMELTINSQUEEZECASTING612EXPERIMENTALEVALUATIONOFTHEMOLDFILLINGABILITYINSQUEEZECASTINGBASEDONSPIRALLINESPECIMENINGRAVITYCASTING,ASPECIALSPIRALLINESPECIMENMOLDISDESIGNEDSHOWNINFIGL,WHICHISUSEDFOREXPERIMENTALEVALUATIONOFTHEMOLDFILLINGABILITYOFALLOYMELTINSQUEEZECASTINGTHEMOLDISMADEOFH13STEELITSCONSTRUCTIONMAINLYINCLUDESTHREEPARTS,THEUPPERMOLD,THELOWERMOLD,ANDTHEPUNCHFITTEDONTHEGLIDEPIECEOFTHEFORMINGDEVICE,THEUPPERMOLDHASANARCHIMEDESSPIRALLINECAVITYWITHATOTALLENGTHOF1350MMTHELOWERMOLDISFITTEDONTHEWORKTABLEOFTHEFORMINGDEVICE;ITSMOLDCAVITYISTHECYLINDRICALPRESSINGCHAMBERINTHESIDEWALLOFTHEPRESSINGCHAMBER,THEREISARUNNERTHATCONNECTSWITHTHEARCHIMEDESSPIRALLINECAVITYTHEPUNCHCONNECTSWITHMOLDFILLINGPISTONOFTHEFORMINGDEVICETHEFORMINGDEVICEISTHEDOUBLEACTIONHYDRAULICPRESSESWHICHHASTHEFUNCTIONSSUCHASMOLDLOCKING,MOLDFILLING,EJECTING,ANDMOLDFILLINGVELOCITYTRANSITINGTHEPROCESSPARAMETERSSUCHASMOLDFILLINGPRESSURE,PRESSINGVELOCITYMOLDFILLINGVELOCITYETCCANBESETANDTHEEXPERIMENTALDATACANBESAVEDAUTOMATICALLYBYACOMPUTERCONTROLLINGSYSTEMTHEFORMINGTYPEISINVERTEDEXTRUSIONINWHICHTHEALLOYMELTINTHECYLINDRICALCHAMBERISPRESSEDINTOTHEARCHIMEDESSPIRALLINECAVITYTHROUGHTHERUNNERINVERTEDTOTHEPUNCHMOVINGDIRECTION3FIG2ARCHIMEDESSPIRALLINESPECIMENAFTERMELTING,ALLOYMELTISPOUREDINTOTHECYLINDRICALCHAMBEROFTHELOWERMOLD,THEUPPERMOLDMOVESDOWNTOOCLOSETOTHELOWERMOLDUNDERAHYDRAULICPRESSTHEN,THEPUNCHDROPSNEARTHEALLOYSURFACEWITHAFASTVELOCITYANDTHENPRESSESTHEALLOYMELTWITHASLOWVELOCITYINTOTHEARCHIMEDESSPIRALLINECAVITYKEEPINGASETTIME,THEUPPERMOLDDETACHESWITHTHELOWERMOLD,ANDTHEARCHIMEDESSPIRALLINESPECIMENISOBTAINEDSHOWNINFIG2FINALLY,THELENGTHSOFTHEARCHIMEDESSPIRALLINESAREMEASURED3MATHEMATICALEVALUATIONOFTHEMOLDFILLINGABILITY31DATAPREPARATIONTHEGEOMETRICALDIMENSIONSOFTHEPRESSINGCHAMBER,THERUNNERANDTHESPIRALLINECAVITYARESHOWNINFIG3FIG1SPIRALLINESPECIMENMOLD1THEPUNCH2THEUPPERMOLD3THELOWERMOLD4THEPRESSINGCHAMBERDIFIG3SCHEMATICDIAGRAMOFTHEMOLD1THEPUNCH2THEPRESSINGCHAMBER3THERUNNER;4THESPIRALLINEDURINGTHEMOLDFILLINGPROCESSINSQUEEZECASTING,THEREEXISTSTWOTYPESOFFORCESONEISTHEDRIVINGPOWERSTHATFORCEALLOYMELTTOFLOWTOTHEARCHIMEDES62JUNIVSCITECHNOLBEIJING,VOH13,NO1,FEB2006SPIRALLINECAVITY;THEOTHERISTHERESISTANTPOWERSWHICHBLOCKOFFFLOWINGANDCAUSETHEPRESSURELOSINGWHENTHEDRIVINGPOWERSARELESSTHANTHERESISTANTPOWERS,ALLOYMELTWILLSTOPFILLING,ANDTHEFILLINGLENGTHREACHESTHEMAXIMUMLENGTHL,,SIMULTANEOUSLYTHEDRIVINGPOWERSMAINLYINCLUDETHEMOLDFILLINGPRESSUREPROVIDEDBYTHEPUNCHANDTHEGRAVITYOFALLOYMELTITISCONSIDEREDTHATTHEGRAVITYISFARLESSTHANMOLDFILLINGPRESSURETHATCANBEIGNOREDTHERESISTANTPOWERSMAINLYINCLUDETHEFRICTIONRESISTANCEANDTHEPARTIALRESISTANCEHENCETHECONDITIONSFORKEEPINGALLOYMELTFILLINGCANBEDESCRIBEDBYTHEFOLLOWINGEQUATIONP2F1WHEREPISTHEMOLDFILLINGPRESSUREANDFISTHETOTALRESISTANCEOFTHEFRICTIONRESISTANCEANDTHEPARTIALRESISTANCEINSQUEEZECASTING,ALLOYMELTCANBEREGARDEDASASTABLE,INCOMPRESSIBLEVISCOUSFLUIDTHATISTOSAY,THEALLOYDENSITYPISACONSTANTINTHEFILLINGPROCESSSUPPOSETHEVISCOSITYCOEFFICIENTOFALLOYMELTVKEEPSACONSTANTINTHEWHOLEMOLDFILLINGPROCESSTHEPRESSUREPROVIDEDBYTHEPUNCHINTHEPRESSINGCHAMBERISNAMEDASMOLDFILLINGPRESSUREPTHEMOVINGVELOCITYOFTHEPUNCHISREGARDEDASTHEAVERAGEFLOWILIGVELOCITYVOFALLOYMELTINTHEPRESSINGCHAMBERNAMEDASMOLDFILLINGVELOCITYBASEDONTHECONTINUOUSEQUATIONOFFLUID,THEAVERAGEVELOCITYOFALLOYMELTINTHERUNNERISVOAV/AOANDTHEAVERAGEVELOCITYOFALLOYMELTINTHESPIRALLINECAVITYISVLAV/AL,WHEREA,AO,ALARETHECROSSSECTIONAREAOFTHEPRESSINGCHAMBER,THERUNNER,ANDTHESPIRALLINECAVITY,RESPECTIVELYSUPPOSETHEWHOLEPRESSINGCHAMBERISPOUREDWITHALLOYMELTATTHEBEGINNING,THEMOVINGHEIGHTOFTHEPUNCHTHEDESCENDHEIGHTOFALLOYMELTINTHEPRESSINGCHAMBERISHANDCONSEQUENTLYTHELENGTHFILLEDSPIRALLINEISLBASEDONTHEMASSCONSERVATIONLAW,THERELATIONSHIPOFHANDLISHZA1LA32FRICTIONRESISTANCE1FRICTIONRESISTANCEGENERATEDFROMTHEALLOYMELTFLOWINTHEPRESSINGCHAMBERWHENTHEREYNOLDSNUMBERISLESSTHAN2300,THEFLOWINGSTATEOFALLOYMELTISREGARDEDASALAMINARFLOW,ANDWHENTHEREYNOLDSNUMBERISMORETHAN4000,THEFLOWINGSTATEISREGARDEDASATURBULENTFLOWOTHERWISE,THEFLOWINGSTATEISATRANSITIONALFLOWSTATEINTERVENINGLAMINARFLOWWITHTURBULENTFLOWTHEREYNOLDSNUMBEROFTHEALLOYMELTFLOWINTHEPRESSINGCHAMBERISREVDLV,WHEREDISTHEDIAMETEROFTHEPRESSINGCHAMBERIFITISALAMINARFLOW,THEFRICTIONRESISTANCECOEFFICIENTIST1641RE8BASEDONTHEMOMENTUMTRANSMITEQUATIONOFTHEINCOMPRESSIBLEVISCOUSFLUID,THEFRICTIONRESISTANCEINTHEPRESSINGCHAMBERISHPV202RED023136HPV23136HPVVFL98T134IFITISATURBULENTFLOW,THECOEFFICIENTOFFRICTIONS,SOTHEFRIC01290129RESISTANCEISCLRE02FVDOUJTIONRESISTANCEISIHPV20632HPV20632HPV2F198D2D,,123B2FRICTIONRESISTANCEGENERATEDFROMTHEFLOWOFALLOYMELTINTHERUNNERSIMILARLY,THEREYNOLDSNUMBEROFTHEALLOYMELTFLOWINTHERUNNERISRE0VODO/VAVDO/AOV,WHILEDOISSHOWNINTHEFIG3THEREYNOLDSNUMBERVARIESWITHTHEDIFFERENCEOFTHEFLOWVELOCITYANDTHERUNNERDIMENSIONSOTHEFLOWINGSTATEISALAMINARFLOWORATURBULENTFLOWUNDERDIFFERENTCONDITIONSIFITISALAMINARFLOW,THECOEFFICIENTOFFRICTIONRESISTANCEIST2641RE064AOV/AVDO,ANDHENCETHEFRICTIONRESISTANCEISHPVO23136HPAV23136HAPVVF29852DO2REODOAO2AODO244IFITISATURBULENTFLOW,THECOEFFICIENTOFFRICTION,THEREFOREI0129RESISTANCEISL2REOO12AVD\THEFRICTIONRESISTANCEISF29852,HPVO2___0632HPAVDO2REO012DOAO206328PA2V012AVDO3FRICTIONRESISTANCEGENERATEDFROMTHEALLOYMELTFLOWINTHEARCHIMEDESSPIRALLINECAVITYHYZHANGETAL,EVALUATIONOFTHEMOLDFILLINGABILITYOFALLOYMELTINSQUEEZECASTING63ACCORDINGTOTHEDIMENSIONOFTHEARCHIMEDESSPIRALLINECAVITY,THEMAXIMUMOFD/D1ISONLY01,DANDD,ARESHOWNINFIG3,SOTHECOEFFICIENTOFPARTIALRESISTANCEISVERYLITTLE,THEALLOYMELTFLOWINTHEARCHIMEDESSPIRALLINECAVITYISREGARDEDASTHEFLOWINTHEDIRECTPIPEANDTHEPARTIALRESISTANCEISIGNOREDTHEREYNOLDSNUMBERISDENOTEDASRELVLDLVAVD/ALVTHECOEFFICIENTOFFRICTIONRESISTANCEFORALAMINARFLOWIST3/REL64A1V/AVD,THEREFORETHEFRICTIONRESISTANCEISLPV12D2RE,DA12ALD3136LPAV3136LAPVVF3985354IFITISATURBULENTFLOW,THECOEFFICIENTOFFRICTIONRESISTANCEIST30129,ANDHENCETHERELOFAVD12FRICTIONRESISTANCEISF39853ILPV120632LPAV2D2RE102DL0632LAPV33PARTIALRESISTANCEWHENALLOYMELTFLOWSFROMTHEPRESSINGCHAMBERTOTHERUNNERANDTHENTOTHESPIRALLINECAVITY,THEPARTIALRESISTANCEISGENERATEDFROMTHEMOMENTUMLOSINGCAUSEDBYCHANGESINFLOWVELOCITYDIRECTIONANDINFLOWSPACEWHENTHEFLOWINGSTATEISATURBULENTFLOW,THERESISTAN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