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外文翻译--研究汽车液压过程散热器的个部件的作用 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--研究汽车液压过程散热器的个部件的作用 英文版.pdf

STUDYONTHEHYDROFORMINGPROCESSFORAUTOMOBILERADIATORSUPPORTMEMBERSMUNYONGLEEA,,SUNGMANSOHNA,CHANGYOUNGKANGB,SANGYONGLEECASUNGWOOHITECHCOLTD,PUSAN619731,SOUTHKOREABPUKYUNGNATIONALUNIVERSITY,PUSANSAN100,SOUTHKOREACKOREAINSTITUTEOFMACHINERYANDMATERIALS,CHANGWON641830,SOUTHKOREAABSTRACTTUBULARHYDROFORMINGWASUSEDTOMANUFACTURERADIATORSUPPORTMEMBERSTHATSUPPORTRADIATORCOMPONENTSSUCHASARADIATORANDACOOLINGFAN,WHICHISPLACEDINFRONTOFCARBODYNEWTOOLDESIGNCONCEPTNAMEDMECHANICALCAMSLIDINGSYSTEMWASINTRODUCEDFORTHEPREFORMINGPROCESSINWHICHASTARTINGTUBEWASSIMULTANEOUSLYPREBENDEDANDNARROWEDTOAPPROXIMATELYFITTHEPARTSHAPESINCEIRREVERSIBLEWRINKLESAPPEARATTHEBENDEDREGIONDURINGPREFORMINGWITHOUTINTERNALPRESSURE,PREFORMINGWASPERFORMEDAFTERINTERNALPRESSUREC24150BARWASADDEDINTOTHETUBEFROMHYDROFORMINGTESTS,ITWASKNOWNTHATRADIATORSUPPORTMEMBERSWEREHYDROFORMEDATTHEINTERNALPRESSURERANGINGFROM420TO780BARHOWEVER,RADIUS20ROFTHECORNERATRECTANGULARSECTIONOFTHEPARTSSHOWEDLARGERTHANDESIGNSPECIFICATION10RINORDERTOINVESTIGATETHESTRAINHARDENINGEFFECTSOFTHEHYDROFORMEDPARTS,TENSILEPROPERTIESOFTHEPARTSHYDROFORMEDAT420BARWERECOMPAREDTOTHOSEOFSTARTINGTUBESTHROUGHTHISINVESTIGATION,ITWASREVEALEDTHATTENSILESTRESSOFHYDROFORMEDPARTSWASINCREASEDBY221,WHEREASELONGATIONOFTHESEPARTSWASREDUCEDBY497CONCERNINGTHEFUNCTIONOFTHISPART,ITISBELIEVEDTHATTHESECTIONALSHAPEANDTHESETENSILEVALUESAREENOUGHTOASSEMBLEANDSUPPORTTHERADIATORMEMBERSHOWEVER,BECAUSETOOLWEARANDDAMAGEOCCURRINGINTHEPREFORMINGOFASTARTINGTUBEEVIDENTLYRESULTINDETERIORATINGDIMENSIONALREPRODUCIBILITY,ITISNECESSARYTOSOLVETHISPROBLEMASSOCIATEDWITHMECHANICALCAMSLIDINGSYSTEMWHENCONSIDERINGMASSPRODUCTIONOFTHISPARTINTHISPAPER,THEHYDROFORMINGPROCESSOFRADIATORSUPPORTMEMBERSINCLUDINGNEWTOOLDESIGNCONCEPTWASDESCRIBEDINDETAILANDTESTRESULTSWEREPROVIDEDTOSHOWHYDROFORMINGPOSSIBILITYFORRADIATORSUPPORTMEMBERSKEYWORDSHYDROFORMING;AUTOMOBILERADIATOR;PREFORMING1INTRODUCTIONRECENTAUTOMOBILETECHNOLOGIESAREFOCUSEDONTHEDEVELOPMENTOFLOWEMISSIONANDHIGHPERFORMANCEVEHICLES,WHICHCOULDBESUCCESSFULLYREALIZEDBYREDUCINGTHEWEIGHTOFVEHICLESWITHOUTANYSACRIFICEOFVEHICLESAFETYACCORDINGLY,DESIGNCRITERIAASSOCIATEDWITHACARBODYANDACHASSISHAVEBEENVARIEDTOPROVIDEMAXIMUMSTIFFNESS,DIMENSIONALSTABILITY,FATIGUELIFEANDCRASHWORTHINESSWITHMINIMUMMASSANDCOSTINORDERTOACHIEVETHESEGOALS,HYDROFORMINGTECHNOLOGIESAREBEINGCURRENTLYUSEDORCONSIDEREDTOMANUFACTURESEVERALAUTOMOTIVEPARTSINCLUDEDINCARBODYSYSTEMS,CHASSISSYSTEMSANDPOWERTRAINSYSTEMS1INPARTICULAR,TUBULARHYDROFORMING,WHICHMAKESONESTEPFORMINGOFCOMPLEXCLOSEDHOLLOWPARTSPOSSIBLE,ISEFFECTIVELYUSEDFORHIGHVOLUMEAPPLICATIONINAUTOMOTIVEINDUSTRYBECAUSEVARIOUSCLOSEDSECTIONSRESULTINGINTHEHIGHESTBENDINGANDTORSIONALSTIFFNESSSECTIONALSHAPECANBEEASILYFORMEDBYUSEOFTHISTECHNOLOGYTHATISTHEREASONWHYAVARIETYOFHIGHVOLUMEAUTOMOTIVEPARTSHAVEBEENHYDROFORMEDINEUROPEANCOUNTRIESANDTHEUSINTHISVIEWPOINT,HYDROFORMINGTECHNOLOGIESWILLBECOMEMOREPOPULARTOMANUFACTUREHIGHLYENGINEEREDPARTSCHARACTERIZEDBYLIGHTWEIGHTANDHIGHQUALITY2,3HOWEVER,CONSIDERINGTHEAPPLICATIONOFHYDROFORMINGTECHNOLOGIESINAUTOMOTIVEPARTS,ITSHOULDBEALSONOTEDTHATTHEREARESEVERALPROBLEMSRELATEDTOTOOLDESIGNANDDEVICESASWELLASTHEESTABLISHMENTOFTHEOPTIMUMPROCESSINGPARAMETERSFURTHERMORE,SINCEAUTOMOTIVEPARTSHAVEVARIOUSDIFFERENTDESIGNSHAPESACCORDINGTOAUTOMOBILEMAKERSJOURNALOFMATERIALSPROCESSINGTECHNOLOGY130–1312002115–120CORRESPONDINGAUTHORANDTYPES,OPTIMUMTOOLDESIGNANDPROCESSPARAMETERSCANNOTBEUNITEDASACOMMONTECHNOLOGICALSTANDARDTHEREFORE,WHENAPARTISPLANNEDTODEVELOPUSINGHYDROFORMING,THETOOLDESIGNANDOPTIMUMPROCESSPARAMETERASWELLASTHEPOSSIBILITYOFHYDROFORMINGSHOULDBEONLYDETERMINEDBYDIRECTHYDROFORMINGTRIALSFORTHEINTENDEDREALPARTSTHISSTUDYWASCARRIEDOUTTOCHECKTHEHYDROFORMINGPOSSIBILITYOFAREALPART,ARADIATORSUPPORTMEMBER,WHICHISUSUALLYMANUFACTUREDBYSTAMPINGOFSHEETMETALSANDWELDINGOFSTAMPEDPARTS2EXPERIMENTALPROCEDUREFORHYDROFORMINGOFRADIATORSUPPORTMEMBERS21EXAMINATIONOFHYDROFORMABILITYFORATUBEMATERIALSINCERADIATORSUPPORTMEMBERSAREASTRUCTURALCOMPONENT,WHICHSUPPORTSBOTHOFARADIATORANDACOOLINGFANLOCATEDINFRONTOFACARBODY,THEREQUIREMENTFORTHISPARTISONLYCONSIDEREDASSTATICSTRENGTHENSURINGSAFESUPPORTTHEREFORE,WHENATUBEISSUBSTITUTEDFORACONVENTIONALWELDEDSTRUCTUREHAVINGCLOSEDSECTION,ITISPOSSIBLETOREDUCETHETHICKNESSOFTHEPARTDUETOHIGHERSTRENGTHINDUCEDBYSTRAINHARDENINGAFTERTUBEFORMINGPROCESSHOWEVER,INTHISSTUDY,TUBETHICKNESSKEPTTHESAMELEVELASTHETHICKNESS1MMOFTHECONVENTIONALMEMBERTOAVOIDTHEPROBLEMRELATEDTOSEALING,WHICHMAYOCCURWHENTHETHICKNESSOFTHEMEMBERISREDUCEDTHETUBEMATERIALUSEDFORTHISSTUDYISAHOTROLLEDPLATEFORAUTOMOBILESTRUCTURESAE1010THISPLATEWASROLLEDALONGLONGITUDINALDIRECTIONANDWELDEDTOMAKETUBESHAPEANDTHENEXTRUDEDTOFITTHEFINALSIZEMECHANICALPROPERTIESAFTEREACHPROCESS,WHICHISPERFORMEDTOOBTAINASTARTINGTUBEFORHYDROFORMING,ARESUMMARIZEDINTABLE1YIELDSTRESSANDELONGATIONOFASRECEIVEDPLATESWERE322KGF/MM2AND428,RESPECTIVELYHOWEVER,AFTERTUBINGANDDRAWING,YIELDSTRESSWASREDUCEDTO292KG/MM2ANDELONGATIONWASINCREASEDTO437,WHICHWASDUETOSUBSEQUENTANNEALINGTREATMENTACCORDINGLY,ITWASCONFIRMEDTHATSTARTINGTUBESHAVEGOODPROPERTIESFORHYDROFORMINGACCORDINGTOMAINDESIGNFACTORSFORHYDROFORMINGOFRADIATORSUPPORTMEMBERSDESCRIBEDINTABLE2,ITWASEXPECTEDTHATTHISPARTCOULDBECOMPLETELYFORMEDATBELOW1000BARWITHOUTFEEDINGINADDITION,COMPARINGFORMINGLIMITDIAGRAMFLDTOTHESTRAINDISTRIBUTIONOFAHYDROFORMEDPARTOBTAINEDBYFEMANALYSISFIG1,ITWASASSUMEDTHATTHEPARTCOULDBESAFELYHYDROFORMEDWITHOUTTABLE1MECHANICALPROPERTIESAFTEREACHPROCESSFORHYDROFORMINGOFRADIATORSUPPORTMEMBERSSAE1010TENSILESTRESSKGF/MM2YIELDSTRESSKGF/MM2ELONGATIONASRECEIVED417322428AFTERTUBING409351402AFTERDRAWING375292437AFTERHYDROFORMING458448220TABLE2HYDROFORMINGDESIGNFACTORSOFRADIATORSUPPORTMEMBERSFACTORSHYDROFORMINGSTAMPINGSPECMMC31603C2THICKNESS10C21390EXPANSIONRATIO7MINIMUMRMM10INTERNALPRESSUREBAR1000FEEDINGMMNOPRESST1000WEIGHTKG17527THENUMBEROFSUBPARTSEA12FIG1RESULTSOFFEMANALYSISFORHYDROFORMINGPROCESSOFARADIATORSUPPORTMEMBERANDDISTRIBUTIONOFSTRAININTHEFLDCOURTESYHYUNDAIMOTORSCOLTDAAFRONTVIEWOFDIESETFORHYDROFORMINGOFRADIATORSUPPORTMEMBERS;BASIDEVIEWOFDIESETFORHYDROFORMINGOFRADIATORSUPPORTMEMBERS116MYLEEETAL/JOURNALOFMATERIALSPROCESSINGTECHNOLOGY130–1312002115–120ANYRISKRESULTEDFROMSEVERELYLOCALIZEDSTRAINHOWEVER,DURINGREALHYDROFORMINGTRIALS,ALOTOFFAILURESOCCURREDONTHEBENDEDREGIONSOFTHEPARTINDICATEDBYFIG1THEREASONFORFREQUENTFAILURESMAYBEASSOCIATEDWITHTHEPRESTRAINSINDUCEDBYTHEPREBENDINGBEFOREFINALHYDROFORMING,WHICHLEADSTOSEVERELOCALTHINNINGDURINGFINALFORMINGFINALLY,ANATTENTIONNEEDSTOBEPAIDREGARDINGTHEHYDROFORMINGADVANTAGEOFTHISPARTASDESCRIBEDINTABLE2,THEWEIGHTANDTHENUMBEROFSUBPARTSISREDUCEDUSINGHYDROFORMINGCOMPAREDTOTHECONVENTIONALPARTS22TOOLSYSTEMFORHYDROFORMINGOFRADIATORSUPPORTMEMBERSUNLIKETHECONVENTIONALHYDROFORMING,INWHICHTHEPREFORMINGISPREVIOUSLYCONDUCTEDBYUSEOFSEPARATETOOLS,THETOOLUSEDFORTHISSTUDYWASSPECIALLYDESIGNEDTODOBOTHTHEPREFORMINGANDTHEHYDROFORMINGWITHASINGLETOOLINPARTICULAR,ITISNOTEDTHATMECHANICALCAMSLIDINGSYSTEMWASUSEDFORTUBENARROWING,INWHICHTHECROSSSECTIONALSHAPEINATUBECHANGESFROMCIRCULARTYPETOELLIPTICALTYPEFIG2ILLUSTRATESTHESCHEMATICTOOLOPERATINGCONCEPTASSHOWNINTHISFIGURE,PREBENDINGISCOMPLETEDBYDIECLOSINGWHILETHESLIDERSASSEMBLEDATTHEBOTTOMDIEARELATERALLYMOVEDTONARROWATUBEACCORDINGLY,THEPREFORMINGFORTHISPARTWASAUTOMATICALLYFINISHEDWHENDIEISCLOSEDAFTERTHEDIEISCOMPLETELYCLOSED,HYDROFORMINGISDONETOEXPANSETHEPREFORMEDTUBEBYFEEDINGTHEFLUIDDURINGHYDROFORMINGPROCESS,THECROSSSECTIONALSHAPEOFTHEPREFORMEDPARTWASFITTOFINALDESIGNSHAPERECTANGULARSHAPEFINALLY,WHENHYDROFORMINGISFINISHEDANDUPPERDIEISLIFTED,BOTHSLIDERSAREAUTOMATICALLYRETURNTOORIGINALPOSITIONBYSPRINGFORCEANDTHENTHEHYDROFORMEDPARTCANBEEASILYEJECTEDWITHOUTANYINTERFERENCEBETWEENAPARTANDDIECAVITYWITHTHISUNIQUETOOL,REALPARTSWEREHYDROFORMEDUSING2500THYDRAULICPRESS,ASSHOWNINFIG3SINCETHEINTERNALPRESSURENEEDEDFORHYDROFORMINGOFTHISPARTWASEVALUATEDASBELOW1000BARTHROUGHPREVIOUSFEMSIMULATION,ITWASASSUMEDTHAT2500TPRESSHASENOUGHCAPACITYFORTHISTEST23HYDROFORMINGOFRADIATORSUPPORTMEMBERSVARIOUSINTERNALPRESSURESFROM420TO780BARWEREUSEDFORHYDROFORMINGTRIALSOFARADIATORSUPPORTMEMBERSINCEALOTOFTUBESWERERUPTUREDATTHEINTERNALPRESSUREOF780BARDURINGHYDROFORMING,INTERNALPRESSUREWASGRADUALLYDIMINISHEDUNTIL420BARBYOBSERVINGTHEEXTERNALAPPEARANCEOFHYDROFORMEDPARTS,ITCOULDBEFOUNDTHATTHEPARTHYDROFORMEDATTHEINTERNALPRESSUREOF420BARSHOWSTHEALMOSTSAMESHAPECOMPAREDTOTHEPARTHYDROFORMEDATTHEHIGHERINTERNALPRESSUREOF780BARTHEREFORE,THEINTERNALPRESSUREOF420BARISTHEOPTIMUMVALUETOBUILDARADIATORSUPPORTMEMBERUSINGHYDROFORMINGWITHOUTTHERISKOFTUBEBURSTFIG4OFCOURSE,SOMECURVEDREGIONSATCORNEROFTHEPARTWERENOTCOMPLETELYSATISFIEDWITHDESIGNFIG2SCHEMATICDIAGRAMSHOWINGBASICTOOLOPERATINGCONCEPTAASUPPERDIEISDESCENDING,ASTARTINGTUBEISBENDEDTOFITINTOTHEDIECAVITYNOTESPECIALLYDESIGNEDCLAMPINGDEVICE,WASUSEDTOAVOIDSEALINGPROBLEMTHATMAYOCCURWHENTHEENDREGIONOFTHETUBEISROTATEDBYTHEBENDINGMOMENT;BASUPPERDIEISDESCENDING,SLIDERSARELATERALLYMOVEDTONARROWATUBELATERALMOTIONOFSLIDERSISACHIEVEDBYTHECONTACTBETWEENTHESIDEFACESOFSLIDERSANDUPPERDIEHAVINGTHEMATEDGRADIENTPROFILEWITHEACHOTHERMECHANICALCAMSLIDINGSYSTEMMYLEEETAL/JOURNALOFMATERIALSPROCESSINGTECHNOLOGY130–1312002115–120117SPECIFICATIONFIG5HOWEVER,SINCETHESEREGIONSDONOTSERIOUSLYINFLUENCEDONTHESUBSEQUENTASSEMBLINGOFTHISPART,ITISBELIEVEDTHATTHEDESIGNSPECIFICATIONMAYBEEASILYCHANGEDTOPERMITTHEDIMENSIONOFTHESEHYDROFORMEDPARTSTHEREISONETHINGTOBENOTED;THEINTERNALPRESSUREOFAROUND150BARWASPREVIOUSLYADDEDJUSTBEFORETHEPREFORMINGBECAUSEIRREVERSIBLEWRINKLESAPPEAREDATTHEBENDEDREGIONWITHOUTTHEINTERNALPRESSUREDURINGTHEPREFORMINGPROCESSFIG5REPRESENTSTHEDETAILEDHISTORYOFTHEINTERNALPRESSUREUSEDFORHYDROFORMINGOFTHESEPARTSACCORDINGLY,THISPROCESSISSOMEWHATDIFFERENTFROMTHECONVENTIONALHYDROFORMINGPROCESSES,INWHICHMECHANICALPREFORMINGSUCHASBENDINGANDNARROWINGISPERFORMEDINSEPARATETOOLSANDFORMINGDEVICESWITHOUTINTERNALPRESSURE4,53HYDROFORMINGTESTRESULTS31SOMEPROBLEMSASSOCIATEDWITHHYDROFORMINGPROCESSESFIG6ASHOWSHYDROFORMEDPARTSHAVINGINCOMPLETEEXTERNALSHAPEATTHEUPPERREGIONOFBOTHENDSINTHEPARTSMOREOVER,ITWASDISCOVEREDTHATMOSTOFTHEFAILURESDURINGHYDROFORMINGOCCURREDATTHESEREGIONSTHEREFORE,ITSEEMSTHAT

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