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外文翻译--镗杆伺服系统上线校正的加工误差 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--镗杆伺服系统上线校正的加工误差 英文版.pdf

ANOVERHUNGBORINGBARSERVOSYSTEMFORONLINECORRECTIONOFMACHININGERRORSWMCHIUA,,FWLAMA,DGAOBADEPARTMENTOFMANUFACTURINGENGINEERING,THEHONGKONGPOLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY,HUNGHOM,KOWLOON,HONGKONGBDEPARTMENTOFMECHANICALENGINEERING,HARBININSTITUTEOFTECHNOLOGY,HARBIN,PRCHINARECEIVED17JUNE2001ABSTRACTINTHISPAPER,ANEWLYDESIGNEDOVERHUNGBORINGBARSERVOSYSTEMEQUIPPEDWITHANONLINECOMPENSATIONFUNCTIONFORMACHININGERRORSISPRESENTEDTHEOVERHUNGBORINGBARTHATHASBEENDEVELOPEDISMADEWITHAPAIROFCONCENTRICBARSWITHANOUTERDIAMETEROF14MMANDANOVERHUNGRATIOOF81APIEZOELECTRICPZTACTUATORWASINCORPORATEDINTHEBORINGBARSERVOSYSTEMTOACHIEVEONLINECOMPENSATIONACONTROLTECHNIQUE,‘‘FORECASTINGCOMPENSATORYCONTROL’’FCCWASIMPLEMENTEDINTHEBORINGBARSERVOSYSTEMTOPERFORMANONLINEPREDICTIONOFTHEMACHININGERRORSENCOUNTEREDANOFFLINESIMULATIONWASPERFORMEDTOTESTTHEADEQUACYOFTHEPARAMETERSBEINGUSEDINTHEFCCMODELSADOPTEDRESULTSOFTHECUTTINGTESTSWITHTHEBORINGBARSERVOSYSTEMSHOWTHATTOTHEEXTENTLIMITEDBYTHEINSTRUMENTCAPABILITY,ABORINGBARSERVOSYSTEMUSINGANFCCMETHODOLOGYCANBEAVERYCOSTEFFECTIVETOOLFORONLINECOMPENSATIONOFMACHININGERRORSINTHEPRECISIONBORINGOFHOLESWITHHIGHASPECTRATIOSKEYWORDSREALTIMEERRORCOMPENSATION;PRECISIONBORING;FORECASTINGCOMPENSATORYCONTROL1INTRODUCTIONTHEGENERALLEVELOFWORKACCURACYANDSURFACEFINISHREQUIREDOFMACHINEDPARTSISBECOMINGINCREASINGLYMORESTRINGENTINMODERNINDUSTRYTHEREARETWOGENERALAPPROACHES,COMMONLYKNOWNAS‘‘ERRORAVOIDANCE’’AND‘‘ERRORCOMPENSATION’’METHODS,AVAILABLEFORREDUCINGTHEERRORSTHATADVERSELYAFFECTTHEFORMACCURACYOFAMACHINEDPARTUNDOUBTEDLY,THEREALTIMEERRORCOMPENSATIONMETHODISPROBABLYTHEMOSTDIRECTANDCOSTEFFECTIVEWAYTODEALWITHEXTERNALDISTURBANCESOFUNPREDICTABLENATURESUCHASNONUNIFORMDEPTHSOFCUT,SPINDLEMOTIONERRORS,DYNAMICVIBRATIONS,ETCOVERTHEYEARS,REALTIMEERRORCOMPENSATIONMETHODOLOGYHASFOUNDMANYFRUITFULAPPLICATIONSININDUSTRYDUETOITSREADINESSTOHANDLESITUATIONSINVOLVINGDISTURBANCESOFDYNAMICANDNONREPETITIVENATUREALTHOUGHACONSIDERABLEVOLUMEOFRESEARCHWORKHASBEENREPORTEDINTHEAREAOFONLINEACTIVEERRORCOMPENSATIONFORMACHININGOPERATIONSINTHELASTTWODECADES1–3,THEREWEREONLYAFEWATTEMPTSTHATWEREFOCUSEDONTHEOVERHUNGBORINGOFDEEPHOLESBEINGTHEWEAKESTLINKINTHEFORCELOOPWITHINTHEMACHINE–TOOLSTRUCTURE,ABORINGBARPLAYSADOMINANTROLEINDETERMININGTHEOVERALLFORMACCURACYANDCUTTINGPRODUCTIVITYWITHINTHEWHOLEMACHINE–TOOLSYSTEMUNLIKEOTHERREMOVALPROCESSES,THEIMPLEMENTATIONOFACTIVEERRORCOMPENSATIONFOROVERHUNGBORINGPOSESSOMEREALCHALLENGESINMODERNDAYMACHINECONTROLTECHNOLOGYBECAUSESMALLSENSORSTHATCANBEATTACHEDTOSMALLSIZEDBORINGBARSFORMONITORINGFORMERRORSINSMALLHOLESAREEXTREMELYRAREANOTHERMAJORDIFFICULTYCOMESFROMTHEINACCESSIBILITYOFTHECUTTINGPOINTTHATPREVENTSSENSORSFROMBEINGMOUNTEDCLOSETOTHEPOINTOFCUTTINGFORREALTIMEMEASUREMENTFURTHER,ACTUATORSTHATAREUSEABLETOEFFECTTHENECESSARYCOMPENSATORYACTIONAREMOSTLYTOOLARGETOFITINSIDESMALLOVERHUNGBORINGBARSHENCE,CONVENTIONALSENSORSANDACTIVEACTUATORS,WHICHARESUCCESSFULFORREALTIMEMEASUREMENTANDCOMPENSATIONINMUCHEXTERNALMACHINING,AREOFLITTLEUSEWHENINTERNALSURFACESAREENCOUNTEREDSEVERALBORINGBARDESIGNSFORONLINEACTIVEERRORCOMPENSATIONHAVEBEENREPORTED4–6INTHESESYSTEMSREPORTED,THEACTUATORSFORCOMPENSATIONAREINSTALLEDINSIDETHEBORINGBARANDCLOSETOTHECUTTINGTOOLALTHOUGHTHEMACHININGERRORSCANBECONTROLLEDBYSENSORSANDACTUATORSINCLOSEPROXIMITYTOTHECUTTINGZONE,THEBORINGBARSDESIGNEDINSUCHAWAYARELARGEINDIMENSIONSSOASTOACCOMMODATETHESEFITTEDDEVICES,HENCERENDERINGTHEMSELVESUNSUITABLEFORUSEINSMALLERHOLESJOURNALOFMATERIALSPROCESSINGTECHNOLOGY1222002286–292CORRESPONDINGAUTHORTEL85227666590;FAX85223625267EMAILADDRESSMFWMCHIUINETPOLYUEDUHKWMCHIUINTHISPAPER,ABORINGBARSERVOSYSTEMOF14MMDIAMETERAND81OVERHUNGRATIOWHICHINCORPORATESAPIEZOELECTRICPZTACTUATORFORONLINEERRORCORRECTIONISPRESENTEDTHEBORINGBARCONSISTSOFTWOCONCENTRICBARS,ONEOFWHICHISUSEDFORERRORDETECTIONANDTHEOTHERFORERRORCOMPENSATIONANANALYTICALANDEXPERIMENTALSTUDYHASBEENCONDUCTEDTOSHOWHOWTHISBORINGBARSERVOSYSTEMCANBEUSEDTOCOMPENSATEFORTHEINSTANTANEOUSMACHININGERRORSDURINGTHEBORINGPROCESS2BORINGBARSERVOSYSTEM21OPERATINGPRINCIPLEASCHEMATICDIAGRAMOFTHEBORINGSERVOSYSTEMISSHOWNINFIG1THEDUALCONCENTRICBORINGBARADOPTSALEVERSTRUCTUREWITHAPZTACTUATORANDABORINGCUTTERINSTALLEDATTHEOPPOSITEENDSOFTHEBARBYAPPLYINGASUITABLEVOLTAGETOTHEPZTAMPLIFIER,THEACTUATORSTACKWILLCONTRACTTHECONTRACTIONOFTHEACTUATORSTACKCANBETRANSFERREDINTOAMICROFEEDINGMOTIONOFTHEBORINGCUTTERBYROTATINGTHECONTROLOUTERBARAROUNDTHEFLEXURALPIVOTTHEMEASURINGINNERBARISOFACANTILEVERSTRUCTUREWITHSTRAINGAGESATTACHEDFORMEASURINGTHEFORCEINDUCEDDEFLECTIONSINTHEBARTHEAMOUNTOFMICROFEEDINGOFTHEBORINGCUTTERISCALCULATEDACCORDINGTOTHEMEASUREDSTRAINSIGNALSINTHEMEASURINGBARASARESULT,THEBORINGBARSODESIGNEDCANBEMADEWITHAMUCHSMALLEROUTERDIAMETEREVENTHOUGHTHEPZTACTUATORANDSTRAINGAGESHAVEBEENINCORPORATEDTHESEQUENCEOFSTEPSINOPERATINGTHEBORINGBARSERVOSYSTEMISOUTLINEDASFOLLOWS1THEINSTANTANEOUSDEFLECTIONOFTHEBORINGTOOLACTEDBYTHECUTTINGFORCEISMEASUREDBYTHESTRAINGAGESATTACHEDTOTHEMEASURINGBAR2THEVOLTAGESIGNALFROMTHESTRAINGAGESISDIGITIZEDBYANA/DCONVERTERFORDATALOGGING3THESAMPLEDERRORDATAISPROCESSEDINTHECONTROLCOMPUTER4ANOUTPUTCONTROLCOMMANDISTRANSFORMEDBYAD/ACONVERTERINTOANANALOGSIGNALWHICHISUSEDTODRIVETHEPIEZOACTUATORTHROUGHITSPOWERAMPLIFIER5THEDEFLECTIONOFTHEBORINGTOOLISSUPPRESSEDTHROUGHTHECORRECTIVEACTIONOFTHEPZTACTUATOR,HENCEMAINTAININGACONSTANTNOMINALCUTTERPOSITIONANDNEUTRALIZINGTHEDETRIMENTALEFFECTSOFCUTTINGFORCESONTHEFORMACCURACYASSHOWNINFIG2,BEFORETHECUTTINGFORCEFCISAPPLIEDIEFC0,BOTHTHECONTROLANDMEASURINGBARSREMAINSTRAIGHTFIG2AASTHECUTTINGFORCEFCACTSONTHEBORINGBAR,THEBORINGBARASAWHOLEISDEFLECTEDDOWNWARDSFIG2BRESULTINGINANINCREASEOFSTRAININTHEMEASURINGBARANDGENERATINGAPROPORTIONALANALOGSIGNALFROMTHESTRAINGAGESTHISANALOGSIGNALISSAMPLEDBYTHECONTROLCOMPUTERTHROUGHTHEA/DCONVERTERANDUSEDTOGENERATEACONTROLLINGACTIONTHEPZTACTUATORTHENEXPANDSBYINCREASINGTHEAPPLIEDVOLTAGETOTHEPOWERAMPLIFIERTHROUGHTHED/AINTERFACEASARESULT,THECONTROLBARROTATESAROUNDTHEFLEXURALHINGEINACLOCKWISEDIRECTIONSUPPRESSINGTHEDOWNWARDDEFLECTIONOFTHECUTTERUNTILTHEMEASURINGBARBECOMESSTRAIGHTAGAINASCANBESEENINFIG2C,THERESTORATIONOFTHECUTTERTOITSEQUILIBRIUMPOSITIONISACHIEVEDWITHGREATERDEFORMATIONINTHECONTROLBARONTHEOTHERHAND,IFTHEEXTERNALFORCEISMOMENTARILYREDUCED,THEDEFLECTIONOFTHEBORINGBARBECOMESLESSASTHEFORCEWITHINTHESYSTEMISLOWERANOPPOSITECONTROLACTIONWILLBEISSUEDTOTHEPZTACTUATORINORDERTOOFFSETTHECHANGEINTHISWAY,NOMATTERHOWTHECUTTINGFORCEVARIESINTHECOURSEOFCUTTING,THEBORINGTOOLWILLTENDTORETURNTOTHEPRESETPOSITION,THUSFORCINGTHEBORINGTOOLTOUNDERGOCUTTINGATEFFECTIVELYZERODEFLECTIONTHEREFORE,THEFORCEINDUCEDEFFECTSONTHEMACHINEDSURFACEWOULDTHENBECANCELLEDOUTANDTHEOVERALLFORMACCURACYSHOULDBEIMPROVED22MODELINGOFTHEBORINGBARSERVOSYSTEMFORTHEANALYSISOFTHEDYNAMICBEHAVIOROFTHEBORINGBARSERVOSYSTEM,THEEQUATIONOFMOTIONISFORMULATEDASSHOWNINFIG3FORTHISPURPOSE,ELEMENTSOFTHEBORINGBARSERVOSYSTEMAREMODELEDBYASINGLEDEGREEOFFREEDOMSYSTEMFIG1ASCHEMATICDIAGRAMOFTHEBORINGBARSERVOSYSTEMFIG2THEINTERACTIONOFDEFLECTIONANDCORRECTIONINACOMPENSATIONCYCLEWMCHIUETAL/JOURNALOFMATERIALSPROCESSINGTECHNOLOGY1222002286–292287WITHLUMPEDMASSES,STIFFNESSANDVISCOUSDAMPINGCOEFFICIENTSVARIABLEYSTANDSFORTHERADIALDEFLECTIONOFTHECUTTER;YFORTHEANGULARROTATIONABOUTPOINTOOFTHECONTROLBAR;JFORTHEANGULARROTATIONABOUTBASEPOINTO0OFTHEMEASURINGBAR;IYSTANDSFORTHEMOMENTOFINERTIAOFTHECONTROLBARABOUTPOINTO;IJFORTHATOFTHEMEASURINGBARABOUTPOINTO0;CY,KYARETHEDAMPINGCOEFFICIENTANDSTIFFNESS,RESPECTIVELY,OFTHECONTROLBAR;CJ,KJARETHEDAMPINGCOEFFICIENTANDSTIFFNESS,RESPECTIVELY,FORTHEMEASURINGBAR;FCANDFPREPRESENTSTHERADIALCUTTINGFORCEANDTHECOMPRESSIVEFORCE,RESPECTIVELY,OFTHEPZTACTUATORFORSMALLDEPARTURESFROMEQUILIBRIUM,ANGLESJANDYCANBEASSUMEDTOBESMALLSOTHATTHEEQUATIONOFMOTIONCANBESIMPLIFIEDTOMC127YC_YKYFCL1L2FP1WHEREMIYIJL21MPL22;CCYCJL21CPL22;KKYKJL21KPL22TWOEQUATIONSGOVERNINGTHEDESIGNOFTHEBORINGBARSYSTEMCANBEOBTAINEDFROMEQ1INEQ2,THEMAXIMUMUNCONSTRAINEDRADIALTOOLTRAVEL,YMAX,ISEXPRESSEDINTERMSOFDMAX,THEMAXIMUMUNCONSTRAINEDEXPANSIONFORTHEPZTACTUATORSIMILARLY,THEUNDAMPEDNATURALFREQUENCYOFTHEBORINGSYSTEM,ON,ISSHOWNINEQ3YMAXL1L2KPKYKJL21KPDMAX2ONffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiKYKJL21KPIYIJL21MPS323FORECASTINGCOMPENSATORYCONTROLFCCMODELTOCARRYOUTONLINECONTROL,ITISIMPORTANTTOSELECTASUITABLECONTROLSCHEMETHATISCOMPUTATIONALLYSIMPLE,YETSOPHISTICATEDENOUGHTOTRACKANYRAPIDLYCHANGINGCOMPONENTSOFTHECONTROLLEDVARIABLEATIMESERIESAPPROACHBASEDONFCCMETHODOLOGYWHICHHASBEENSUCCESSFULLYIMPLEMENTEDINMANYMACHINECONTROLPROBLEMS7HASBEENADOPTEDINTHISWORKTHESTREAMOFTOOLDEFLECTIONSFROMTHEBORINGBARSERVOSYSTEMOCCURRINGWITHINAGIVENSEQUENCEOFTIMEMAYBETREATEDASATIMESERIESTHATCANBEMODELEDBYANAUTOREGRESSIVEANDMOVINGAVERAGEARMASERIESTHEADVANTAGEOFTHETIMESERIESAPPROACHISITSVERSATILITYINPREDICTINGFUTUREVALUESOFTHEOUTPUTVARIABLEWITHOUTGOINGTHROUGHTHEPROCESSOFESTABLISHINGTHECAUSEANDEFFECTRELATIONSHIPSAMONGVARIOUSINPUTPARAMETERSANDTHEIROUTPUTSMOREIMPORTANTLY,ITISPOSSIBLETOACCOUNTFORTHERANDOMPARTOFTHECONTROLLEDVARIABLESASWELLASTHEIRDETERMINISTICPARTDUETOTHEMERITSOFBEINGLESSDEMANDINGINTERMSOFTHECOMPUTINGPOWERREQUIREDFORIMPLEMENTATION,ANAUTOREGRESSIVEARMODEL,ASIMPLIFIEDVERSIONOFANARMAMODEL,HASBEENSELECTEDTOMODELTHEDEFLECTIONERRORSYTF1YTC01F2YTC02C1C1C1FPYTC0PD4WHEREYTSTANDSFORTHETOOLDEFLECTIONERROROBSERVEDATDIFFERENTTIMEINSTANCEST,FJTHEARPARAMETERSANDDASERIESOFWHITENOISEREPRESENTINGTHERANDOMDISTURBANCESTHEPARAMETERSOFTHEARMODELOFORDER‘P’CANBEDETERMINEDRECURSIVELYONLINEATEACHSAMPLINGTIME,THEPARAMETERSOFTHEARMODELWILLBEUPDATEDASTHELATESTYTBECOMESAVAILABLETHISWILLALLOWTHEARMODELTOADAPTITSELFINTRACKINGTHEPROCESSVARIABILITYONEOFTHEMOSTIMPORTANTFEATURESOFTHEFCCTECHNIQUELIESINITSFORECASTINGCAPABILITYBASEDONTHEPASTANDCURRENTMEASUREMENTS,THECONTROLLEDVARIABLEFORTHENEXTSAMPLINGINTERVALCANBEPREDICTEDBYUSINGTHECONSTRUCTEDARMODELANDCOMPENSATEDBEFORETHECUTTERACTUALLYCUTSTHEWORKTHISFORECASTINGCAPABILITYTENDSTOOVERCOMETHETIMELAGPROBLEMBETWEENTHEMOMENTOFERRORMEASUREMENTANDTHATOFTAKINGCORRECTIVEACTIONITALLOWSEXTRATIMEFORACONTROLLERTOGENERATEACONTROLCOMMANDANDTHEEFFECTERTORESPONDTOTHATCOMMANDFROMEQ4,A‘QSTEPAHEAD’FORECASTINGMODELINYTQISEXPRESSEDASYTQXQC01I1FIYTQC0IXPIQFIYTQC0I5T

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