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外文翻译--美国政府在计算机技术发展中的作用及其启示.doc

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外文翻译--美国政府在计算机技术发展中的作用及其启示.doc

天津科技大学外文翻译1AMERICANGOVERNMENTSINCOMPUTERTECHNOLOGYDEVELOPMENTFUNCTIONANDENLIGHTENMENTTHECOMPUTERINDUSTRYISANINCOMEISRICH,MOREOVERCOMPETESHIGHLYINDUSTRY,BUTAMERICANGOVERNMENTFUNDSTHECOMPUTERINDUSTRYTECHNOLOGYVIGOROUSLYTHEDEVELOPMENT,ANDHASOBTAINEDTHETANGIBLEEFFECTTHISARTICLEINTRODUCEDANDHASANALYZEDAMERICANGOVERNMENTWITHEMPHASISTHEFUNCTIONWHICHDISPLAYSINCOMPUTERINDUSTRYTECHNOLOGICALDEVELOPMENTEACHSTAGE,HOWSUPPORTSTHEINDUSTRYTECHNOLOGICALDEVELOPMENTTOOURCOUNTRYGOVERNMENTTOHAVETHEIMPORTANTMODELUSSCOMPUTERINDUSTRYOCCUPIEDTHEDOMINANTPOSITIONINTHEWORLD,THEGOVERNMENTPLAYEDTHEVITALROLEAMERICANGOVERNMENTTHEREASONTHATCANPRODUCETHETANGIBLERESULTSTOTHECOMPUTERINDUSTRYSUPPORT,THEKEYISTHEGOVERNMENTFUNCTIONISCLEARABOUT,NEEDSTOADJUSTTHESUPPORTDIRECTIONUNCEASINGLYACCORDINGTOTHEINDUSTRIALDEVELOPMENT,THEIMPROVEMENTSUBSIDIZATIONSYSTEMANDTHEMANAGEMENTSUMMARIZESUSFEDERALSTATETOSUPPORTTHECOMPUTERTECHNOLOGYRESEARCHDEVELOPMENTTHEEXPERIENCE,SUPPORTSTHEINDUSTRYTECHNOLOGICALDEVELOPMENTTOOURCOUNTRYGOVERNMENTTOHAVETHEIMPORTANTMODELFUNCTIONFIRST,AMERICANGOVERNMENTENDEDAFTERTHECOMPUTERTECHNOLOGYDEVELOPMENTSUPPORTSECONDWORLDWAR,THEFEDERALSTATEALWAYSISTHECOMPUTERTECHNOLOGYPOWERFULSUPPORTERDIDNOTAPPRAISEACCORDINGTO1995THECOMPUTATION,19761995YEAR,THEFEDERALSTATEINCREASEDTOTHECOMPUTERSCIENCERESEARCHANDTHETECHNICALDEVELOPMENTSUPPORTFROM180,000,000USDOLLARSTO960,000,000USDOLLARS,GREW5TIMESAMONGTHEM,THEBASICRESEARCHINVESTMENTINCREASESFROM65,000,000USDOLLARSTO265,000,000USDOLLARS;THEAPPLIEDRESEARCHINVESTMENTINCREASESFROM116,000,000USDOLLARSTO700,000,000USDOLLARSINTHEFEDERALSTATESUBSIDIZATION3545GOESTOAPPROXIMATELYTHEUNIVERSITY,OTHER5565GOESTOTHEGOVERNMENTLABORATORYANDTHEINDUSTRIALFIELD;THEGOVERNMENTBASICRESEARCHFUND70GOESTOTHEUNIVERSITYTHEFEDERALSTATEALSOGIVESTHESUBSIDIZATIONTOOTHERWITHTHECOMPUTERTECHNOLOGYCORRELATIONRESEARCHTHEFEDERALSTATETODIDNOTINCREASEWITHTHECOMPUTERRESEARCHRELATEDOTHERTECHNOLOGIESANDTHEELECTRONICENGINEERINGRESEARCHASPECTINVESTMENTFROM1972TO1,000,000,000USDOLLARSTO19951,700,000,000USDOLLARS,ACCOUNTSFORTHEPROPORTIONWHICHTHEFEDERATIONALWAYSINVESTEDBY5TOINCREASETO7THEFEDERALSTATEEMBARKSTHEDECISIONSUBSIDIZATIONDIRECTIONFROMITSFUNCTION,THEGOVERNMENTFUNDMAINLYGOESTOFOLLOWINGSEVERALASPECTS1KEYSUPPORTLONGTERMBASICRESEARCHUSGOVERNMENTHASPLAYEDTHEVITAL天津科技大学外文翻译2ROLEINTHELONGTERMBASICRESEARCHANDTHEGENERALCHARACTERAPPLICATIONTECHNOLOGYRESEARCHDEVELOPMENTASPECTTHELONGTERMBASICRESEARCHMAINCHARACTERISTIC,ONEISITSBENEFITISOFTENUNABLEINTHESHORTTERMTOAPPEAR,THERISKISBIGSPECIALLYINTHEINDUSTRIALDEVELOPMENTINITIALPERIOD,THEENTERPRISEDOESNOTHAVETHESTRENGTHTOCARRYONSUCHRESEARCHWORK;TWOISITSAPPLICATIONDOMAINQUITEISOFTENWIDESPREAD,ACOMPANYISUNABLETOUSECOMPLETELY,MOREOVERALSOISINCAPABLEPREVENTSTHECOMPETITORTOUSEITSRESEARCHRESULTSTHEREFORE,THEINDUSTRIALFIELDISSHORTTOTHELONGTERMBASICRESEARCHCARRIESONTHEINVESTMENTUSSFEDERALSTATEHASALREADYOBTAINEDTHETANGIBLEEFFECTTOTHECOMPUTERTECHNOLOGYLONGTERMBASICRESEARCHSUBSIDIZATIONPROJECTLIKE,THEGOVERNMENTSUBSIDIZATIONCOMPUTERARTIFICIALINTELLIGENCEENGINEERINGRESEARCHSTARTSINTHE70SEARLYTIMES,ONLYTHENDEVELOPEDUNTIL1997CANSUCCEEDTHERECOGNITIONLONGENDURINGPRONUNCIATIONPERSONALCOMPUTINGWITHTHISSIMILARIS,THENATIONALDEFENSEFUNDSTARTSFROMTHE60STOSUBSIDIZEAVAILABLEINTHETHREEDIMENSIONALIMAGEFOUNDATIONALSYSTEMRESEARCH,ONLYTHENFORMSTHECONSUMPTIONPRODUCTUNTILTHE90SALTHOUGHTHISACHIEVEMENTALREADYSTARTSINTHEHIGHPERFORMANCEINSTRUMENTTOAPPLY,BUTTHERECENTYEARSONLYTHENAREWIDESPREADAPPLYINTHEMEDICALSERVICE,THEENTERTAINMENTANDTHENATIONALDEFENSEINDUSTRY2SUBSIDIZEDTHEINFRASTRUCTUREFEDERALSTATEWHICHTHECOMPUTERSTUDIEDINTHECOMPUTERINFRASTRUCTURECONSTRUCTIONASPECTTOPLAYTHEKEYROLE,HASPROVIDEDTHECONTINUOUSLYTALENTEDPERSONFORTHEAMERICANDEVELOPMENTCOMPUTERINDUSTRY1RAISEDTHEMASSIVEHUMANRESOURCESFEDERALSTATESSUBSIDIZATIONPLANFORTHEINDUSTRIALDEVELOPMENTTORAISEALARGEQUANTITIESOFELECTRONICENGINEERINGANDTHECOMPUTERSCIENCEGRADUATESTUDENTANDTHEOUTSTANDINGRESEARCHER,PROVIDEDTHECONTINUOUSLYFOLLOWINGTALENTEDPERSONFORTHECOMPUTERANDTHEELECTRONICENGINEERINGDEVELOPMENTTHENATIONALSCIENCEFUNDDATAINDICATEDTHAT,19851996YEAR,OBTAINSTHEFEDERATIONFUNDSUBSIDIZATIONTHECOMPUTERANDTHEELECTRONICENGINEERINGSPECIALIZEDGRADUATESTUDENTPROPORTIONFROM14INCREASESTO20THEFEDERALSTATEMAINLYADOPTSTHETEACHINGASSISTANTSCHOLARSHIPTOGRADUATESTUDENTSSUBSIDIZATIONTHEFORM,THETEACHINGASSISTANTSCHOLARSHIPOCCUPIESALWAYSFUNDSTHEVOLUMEABOVE751985TO1995,THENATIONALBESTCOMPUTERWASIN,LIKEMIT,CARNEGIETHEMELLON,THEGALLIVERNEPALASIAUNIVERSITYGRAMFORCEBRANCHSCHOOLANDSOONTHECOMPUTERANDINTHEELECTRONICENGINEERINGSPECIALIZEDGRADUATESTUDENTAPPROXIMATELYHAD56TOOBTAINFEDERALSTATESSUBSIDIZATION,INWHICHONEHALFISSUDDENLYTHETEACHINGASSISTANTSCHOLARSHIPIN1997,THESTANFORDUNIVERSITYELECTRONICSINDUSTRYANDTHECOMPUTERSPECIALIZED27GRADUATESTUDENTOBTAINEDTHEFEDERALSTATESUBSIDIZATION,5060SDOCTOROBTAINSTHESUBSIDIZATIONATTHESAMETIME,THE天津科技大学外文翻译3GOVERNMENTSUBSIDIZATIONSOMELARGESCALERESEARCHPROJECTHASALSOTRAINEDONEGROUPOFLEADERSINASCHOLARLYFIELD2HASPROVIDEDTHEGOODEQUIPMENTANDTHEFACILITYFORTHECOLLEGEEDUCATIONANDTHERESEARCHPROVIDESWITHTHEMAINTENANCERESEARCHHARDWAREEQUIPMENTNEEDSTHEHIGHFUNDINVESTMENT,THECOMMONUNIVERSITYISVERYDIFFICULTTOCOLLECTTHISFUNDTHEFEDERALSTATEADOPTSMANYKINDSOFFORMSTOSUPPORTTHEUNIVERSITYTOPURCHASETHECOMPUTEREQUIPMENT,MAINLYHASTWOFORMSONEKINDISPROVIDESTHECOMPUTEREQUIPMENTFORTHEUNIVERSITYTEACHING;ANOTHERKINDISPROVIDESTHEEXCELLENTEQUIPMENTTHROUGHTHESUBSIDIZATIONSPECIFICRESEARCHPROJECTFORTHEUNIVERSITYTHEFEDERALSTATEINTHESUPPORTUNIVERSITYRESEARCHINSTRUMENTASPECTMAINCONTRIBUTION,ONEISSUPPORTSTHEESTABLISHMENTUNIVERSITYDATAPROCESSINGCENTER,THESUBSIDIZATIONUNIVERSITYCOMPUTERDOESTHERESEARCHWORKTHENATIONALSCIENCEFUNDHEREAFTERREFERREDTOAS“NSF”TOSTARTIN1956TOPROVIDETHEORDINARYTEACHINGANDTHERESEARCHFORTHEUNIVERSITYUSESTHECOMPUTERTHESUBSIDIZATIONPLANTHISPLANPROVIDESEVERYYEARTHESUBSIDIZATIONAMOUNTGROWTHISVERYQUICK,19581970YEAR,HASALTOGETHERSUBSIDIZED66,00TENTHOUSANDUSDOLLARSTHE60S,THEDEPARTMENTOFDEFENSEHIGHLEVELPROJECTPLACEHEREAFTERREFERREDTOAS“DARPA”TOSUBSIDIZETHEMINORITYSEVERALFOUNDATIONGOODUNIVERSITYCOMPUTERISWITHEMPHASISFOREXAMPLEMIT,CARNEGIEMELLONUNIVERSITY,THESTANFORDUNIVERSITYCARRIESOUTTHESPECIALPROJECTRESEARCH,THESUBSIDIZATIONPROJECTMAJORITYOFFUNDSUSESFORTOPURCHASETHEEQUIPMENTACCORDINGTOTHEESTIMATE,THE60S,INENTIREUSAUNIVERSITYAHALFCALCULATINGDEVICEISAPPROXIMATELYPROVIDESBYTHEGOVERNMENTAPPARATUSSUBSIDIZATION19811995YEAR,THEFEDERALSTATESUBSIDIZED65,1985YEARWHICHTHECOMPUTERBRANCHDEPARTMENTRESEARCHINSTRUMENTPURCHASEDTOREACHASHIGHAS83INTHEELECTRONICENGINEERINGASPECT,FEDERALSTATESEQUIPMENTSUBSIDIZATIONALSOMAINTAINSATTHEHIGHLEVEL,IN1982FOR75,1995YEARWAS60NSFSTARTEDTWOSETSSPECIALLYTOPROVIDETHEEQUIPMENTFORTHECOMPUTERBRANCHDEPARTMENTTHEPLANCOMPUTERRESEARCHINSTRUMENTPLANANDAMOREWIDESPREADCOOPERATIONEXPERIMENTALSTUDYPLAN3TWOISDEVELOPSTHEHIGHPERFORMANCECALCULATINGDEVICEANDTHECONSTRUCTIONNETWORKFACILITYTHE80SINTERMEDIATESTAGES,THEGOVERNMENTHASFUNDEDIBM701CONTOURPERFORMANCECOMPUTERDEVELOPMENT,COMPOSEDHASCARRIEDONEACHKINDOFRESEARCHUSEFORTHERESEARCHERTHELARGESCALECOMPUTERSYSTEMIN1985,NSFSTARTEDANESTABLISHMENTSUPERCOMPUTERCENTERPLAN,THESUBSIDIZATIONHASESTABLISHED5NATIONWIDESCALECOMPUTERCENTER,COULDNOTCONDUCTHIGHLEVEL,THEOPERATIONCOMPLEXRESEARCHFORTHESEONTHEORDINARYCOMPUTERHASPROVIDEDTHECONDITIONAFTERWARDS,THESECENTERSBECAMETHEHIGHPERFORMANCECOMPUTERTHEEARLYTESTFACILITY,BUTALSOPLAYEDTHEVITALROLE天津科技大学外文翻译4TOSOMECOMPUTERBRANCHDEPARTMENTSTEACHINGATTHESAMETIME,THISPLANALSOLEADSTHESTATE,THEPERSONALDEPARTMENTINVESTMENTESTABLISHESTHESUPERCOMPUTERCENTERINOTHERUNIVERSITIESALONGWITHTHENETWORKINGDEVELOPMENT,THEGOVERNMENTENLARGESTOTHENETWORKFACILITYSUBSIDIZATIONDYNAMICSIN1973,NSFTOOKSTEPSASCIENTIFICNETWORKPLAN,PROVIDED600,000USDOLLARSTOESTABLISHTHECOMPUTERNETWORKEVERYYEARTO750,000USDOLLARSFORUNIVERSITYSRESEARCHERS3SUPPORTDEVELOPEDANDPROMOTESTHEFEDERALSTATEEFFECTIVELYTOFUNDTHELARGESCALEAPPLICATIONSYSTEMRESEARCHDEVELOPMENTALITEMUSINGTHEHIGHTECHNOLOGYANDNEWTECHNOLOGYLARGESCALEAPPLICATIONSYSTEMRESEARCHDARPAHASSUPPORTEDINTURNTRANSFORMATIONNETWORKARPANETSRESEARCHPROJECTWHICHBETWEENTHECOMPUTERJOINSMUTUALLYTHISRESEARCHPROMOTEDRELATEDTOENTERTHENETAGREEMENT,TOTRANSFORMANDTHEROUTEARRANGEMENTINTURNANDSOONRESEARCHSIMULTANEOUSLYALSOADVANCEDTOTHELARGESCALENETWORKMANAGEMENTPATTERNDEVELOPMENTRESEARCH,LIKE,DOMAINNAMESYSTEMANDDEVELOPMENTEMAILANDSOONTHEDARPARESEARCHRESULTSHADDEMONSTRATEDLARGESCALETRANSFORMSTHENETWORKINTURNTHEVALUE,PROMOTEDOTHERNETWORKDEVELOPMENTTHENSFNETWORKESTABLISHMENTHASFORMEDTHENETWORKFOUNDATIONTHEGOVERNMENTTHROUGHTHESUBSIDIZATIONLARGESCALEHIGHTECHNOLOGYANDNEWTECHNOLOGYAPPLICATIONSYSTEMDEVELOPMENT,GATHERSTHELABORATORYTHEACADEMICCIRCLESANDTHEINDUSTRIALFIELDRESEARCHERWHICHESTABLISHESTOGETHERUSESINCOMMON,THEEXCHANGETHOUGHT,THUSCREATESONETOHAVEABILITYFINALLYTOIMPELTHETECHNOLOGICALDEVELOPMENTTHERESEARCHSTRENGTHLIKE,50SSAGEPROJECTSORGANIZEDTOCOMEFROMMIT,IBMANDOTHERRESEARCHLABRESEARCHER,INTHEENTIREPROJECTPROCESSAPPEAREDMANYINNOVATIONTHOUGHT,ATPRESENTALREADYOBTAINEDTHEWIDESPREADAPPROVALINTHECOMPUTERPROFESSIONTHEIDEAALLWASATTHATTIMERAISESINMANYCOMPUTERPROFESSIONPIONEERCHARACTERHASALSOOBTAINEDTHEEXPERIENCEFROMIN5060AGECONTROLCOMPUTERSYSTEMSAGEPROJECT,AFTERWARDSTHESEPEOPLEINWEREREPRESENTINGTHECOMPUTERANDINTHECOMMUNICATIONENTERPRISEEMERGINGCOMPANYANDTHELABORATORYWORKTHESAGEINFLUENCEAPPEAREDONLYTHENGRADUALLYINAFTERWARDSSEVERALDOZENSYEARSTHESTRUCTURELARGESCALEAPPLICATIONSYSTEMPRACTICEINDICATEDTHAT,SOMERESEARCHNOTCAUSESSOMETECHNICALNECESSARILYDIRECTLYTHEINNOVATION,BUTISCAUSESTHEDEVELOPMENTANDTHETECHNICALPROMOTIONWASTOTHETECHNOLOGYWHICHALREADYSTUDIEDCARRIESONTHEANALYSISANDTHEREASONABLECOMBINATIONUSINGTHEDEVELOPMENT,FORMEDTHENEWAPPLICATIONSYSTEMLIKE,ESTABLISHESTHELARGESCALEAPPLICATIONSYSTEMTHERESEARCHPROJECTISAPPLIESTHEELECTRONICCOMMUNICATIONSYSTEMPRINCIPLEINTHEARPANETPROJECTDEVELOPMENT,HASFORMEDTHENETWORKINGFOUNDATION4PAIROFINDUSTRIALTECHNOLOGYEARLYSUBSIDIZATION20THCENTURY50S,THEFEDERALSTATEHAS

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