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外文翻译--美国政府在计算机技术发展中的作用及其启示.doc

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外文翻译--美国政府在计算机技术发展中的作用及其启示.doc

天津科技大学外文翻译1AmericanGovernmentsincomputertechnologydevelopmentfunctionandenlightenmentThecomputerindustryisanincomeisrich,moreovercompeteshighlyindustry,butAmericanGovernmentfundsthecomputerindustrytechnologyvigorouslythedevelopment,andhasobtainedthetangibleeffect.ThisarticleintroducedandhasanalyzedAmericanGovernmentwithemphasisthefunctionwhichdisplaysincomputerindustrytechnologicaldevelopmenteachstage,howsupportstheindustrytechnologicaldevelopmenttoOurcountryGovernmenttohavetheimportantmodel.USscomputerindustryoccupiedthedominantpositionintheworld,thegovernmentplayedthevitalrole.AmericanGovernmentthereasonthatcanproducethetangibleresultstothecomputerindustrysupport,thekeyisthegovernmentfunctionisclearabout,needstoadjustthesupportdirectionunceasinglyaccordingtotheindustrialdevelopment,theimprovementsubsidizationsystemandthemanagement.SummarizesUSFederalstatetosupportthecomputertechnologyresearchdevelopmenttheexperience,supportstheindustrytechnologicaldevelopmenttoOurcountryGovernmenttohavetheimportantmodelfunction.First,AmericanGovernmentendedafterthecomputertechnologydevelopmentsupportSecondWorldWar,thefederalstatealwaysisthecomputertechnologypowerfulsupporter.Didnotappraiseaccordingto1995thecomputation,19761995year,thefederalstateincreasedtothecomputerscienceresearchandthetechnicaldevelopmentsupportfrom180,000,000USdollarsto960,000,000USdollars,grew5times.Amongthem,thebasicresearchinvestmentincreasesfrom65,000,000USdollarsto265,000,000USdollarsTheappliedresearchinvestmentincreasesfrom116,000,000USdollarsto700,000,000USdollars.Inthefederalstatesubsidization3545goestoapproximatelytheuniversity,other5565goestothegovernmentlaboratoryandtheindustrialfieldThegovernmentbasicresearchfund70goestotheuniversity.Thefederalstatealsogivesthesubsidizationtootherwiththecomputertechnologycorrelationresearch.Thefederalstatetodidnotincreasewiththecomputerresearchrelatedothertechnologiesandtheelectronicengineeringresearchaspectinvestmentfrom1972to1,000,000,000USdollarsto19951,700,000,000USdollars,accountsfortheproportionwhichthefederationalwaysinvestedby5toincreaseto7.Thefederalstateembarksthedecisionsubsidizationdirectionfromitsfunction,thegovernmentfundmainlygoestofollowingseveralaspects.1keysupportlongtermbasicresearchUSGovernmenthasplayedthevital天津科技大学外文翻译2roleinthelongtermbasicresearchandthegeneralcharacterapplicationtechnologyresearchdevelopmentaspect.Thelongtermbasicresearchmaincharacteristic,oneisitsbenefitisoftenunableintheshorttermtoappear,theriskisbig.Speciallyintheindustrialdevelopmentinitialperiod,theenterprisedoesnothavethestrengthtocarryonsuchresearchworkTwoisitsapplicationdomainquiteisoftenwidespread,acompanyisunabletousecompletely,moreoveralsoisincapablepreventsthecompetitortouseitsresearchresults.Therefore,theindustrialfieldisshorttothelongtermbasicresearchcarriesontheinvestment.USsFederalstatehasalreadyobtainedthetangibleeffecttothecomputertechnologylongtermbasicresearchsubsidizationproject.Like,thegovernmentsubsidizationcomputerartificialintelligenceengineeringresearchstartsinthe70searlytimes,onlythendevelopeduntil1997cansucceedtherecognitionlongenduringpronunciationpersonalcomputing.Withthissimilaris,thenationaldefensefundstartsfromthe60stosubsidizeavailableinthethreedimensionalimagefoundationalsystemresearch,onlythenformstheconsumptionproductuntilthe90s.Althoughthisachievementalreadystartsinthehighperformanceinstrumenttoapply,buttherecentyearsonlythenarewidespreadapplyinthemedicalservice,theentertainmentandthenationaldefenseindustry.2subsidizedtheinfrastructurefederalstatewhichthecomputerstudiedinthecomputerinfrastructureconstructionaspecttoplaythekeyrole,hasprovidedthecontinuouslytalentedpersonfortheAmericandevelopmentcomputerindustry.1.raisedthemassivehumanresourcesfederalstatessubsidizationplanfortheindustrialdevelopmenttoraisealargequantitiesofelectronicengineeringandthecomputersciencegraduatestudentandtheoutstandingresearcher,providedthecontinuouslyfollowingtalentedpersonforthecomputerandtheelectronicengineeringdevelopment.Thenationalsciencefunddataindicatedthat,19851996year,obtainsthefederationfundsubsidizationthecomputerandtheelectronicengineeringspecializedgraduatestudentproportionfrom14increasesto20.Thefederalstatemainlyadoptstheteachingassistantscholarshiptograduatestudentssubsidizationtheform,theteachingassistantscholarshipoccupiesalwaysfundsthevolumeabove75.1985to1995,thenationalbestcomputerwasin,likeMIT,CarnegieThemellon,theGalliverNepalAsiaUniversitygramforcebranchschoolandsoonthecomputerandintheelectronicengineeringspecializedgraduatestudentapproximatelyhad56toobtainfederalstatessubsidization,inwhichonehalfissuddenlytheteachingassistantscholarship.In1997,theStanfordUniversityelectronicsindustryandthecomputerspecialized27graduatestudentobtainedthefederalstatesubsidization,5060sdoctorobtainsthesubsidization.Atthesametime,the天津科技大学外文翻译3governmentsubsidizationsomelargescaleresearchprojecthasalsotrainedonegroupofleadersinascholarlyfield.2.hasprovidedthegoodequipmentandthefacilityforthecollegeeducationandtheresearchprovideswiththemaintenanceresearchhardwareequipmentneedsthehighfundinvestment,thecommonuniversityisverydifficulttocollectthisfund.Thefederalstateadoptsmanykindsofformstosupporttheuniversitytopurchasethecomputerequipment,mainlyhastwoformsOnekindisprovidesthecomputerequipmentfortheuniversityteachingAnotherkindisprovidestheexcellentequipmentthroughthesubsidizationspecificresearchprojectfortheuniversity.thefederalstateinthesupportuniversityresearchinstrumentaspectmaincontribution,oneissupportstheestablishmentuniversitydataprocessingcenter,thesubsidizationuniversitycomputerdoestheresearchwork.ThenationalsciencefundhereafterreferredtoasNSFtostartin1956toprovidetheordinaryteachingandtheresearchfortheuniversityusesthecomputerthesubsidizationplan.Thisplanprovideseveryyearthesubsidizationamountgrowthisveryquick,19581970year,hasaltogethersubsidized66,00tenthousandUSdollars.The60s,theDepartmentofDefensehighlevelprojectplacehereafterreferredtoasDARPAtosubsidizetheminorityseveralfoundationgooduniversitycomputeriswithemphasisforexampleMIT,Carnegiemellonuniversity,theStanfordUniversitycarriesoutthespecialprojectresearch,thesubsidizationprojectmajorityoffundsusesfortopurchasetheequipment.Accordingtotheestimate,the60s,inentireUSAUniversityahalfcalculatingdeviceisapproximatelyprovidesbythegovernmentapparatussubsidization.19811995year,thefederalstatesubsidized65,1985yearwhichthecomputerbranchdepartmentresearchinstrumentpurchasedtoreachashighas83.Intheelectronicengineeringaspect,federalstatesequipmentsubsidizationalsomaintainsatthehighlevel,in1982for75,1995yearwas60.NSFstartedtwosetsspeciallytoprovidetheequipmentforthecomputerbranchdepartmenttheplanComputerresearchinstrumentplanandamorewidespreadcooperationexperimentalstudyplan.3Twoisdevelopsthehighperformancecalculatingdeviceandtheconstructionnetworkfacility.The80sintermediatestages,thegovernmenthasfundedIBM701contourperformancecomputerdevelopment,composedhascarriedoneachkindofresearchusefortheresearcherthelargescalecomputersystem.In1985,NSFstartedanestablishmentsupercomputercenterplan,thesubsidizationhasestablished5nationwidescalecomputercenter,couldnotconducthighlevel,theoperationcomplexresearchfortheseontheordinarycomputerhasprovidedthecondition.Afterwards,thesecentersbecamethehighperformancecomputertheearlytestfacility,butalsoplayedthevitalrole天津科技大学外文翻译4tosomecomputerbranchdepartmentsteaching.Atthesametime,thisplanalsoleadsthestate,thepersonaldepartmentinvestmentestablishesthesupercomputercenterinotheruniversities.alongwiththenetworkingdevelopment,thegovernmentenlargestothenetworkfacilitysubsidizationdynamics.In1973,NSFtookstepsascientificnetworkplan,provided600,000USdollarstoestablishthecomputernetworkeveryyearto750,000USdollarsforuniversitysresearchers.3supportdevelopedandpromotesthefederalstateeffectivelytofundthelargescaleapplicationsystemresearchdevelopmentalitemusingthehightechnologyandnewtechnologylargescaleapplicationsystemresearch.DARPAhassupportedinturntransformationnetworkARPANETsresearchprojectwhichbetweenthecomputerjoinsmutually.Thisresearchpromotedrelatedtoenterthenetagreement,totransformandtheroutearrangementinturnandsoonresearch.Simultaneouslyalsoadvancedtothelargescalenetworkmanagementpatterndevelopmentresearch,like,domainnamesystemanddevelopmentemailandsoon.TheDARPAresearchresultshaddemonstratedlargescaletransformsthenetworkinturnthevalue,promotedothernetworkdevelopment.TheNSFnetworkestablishmenthasformedthenetworkfoundation.Thegovernmentthroughthesubsidizationlargescalehightechnologyandnewtechnologyapplicationsystemdevelopment,gathersthelaboratorytheacademiccirclesandtheindustrialfieldresearcherwhichestablishestogetherusesincommon,theexchangethought,thuscreatesonetohaveabilityfinallytoimpelthetechnologicaldevelopmenttheresearchstrength.Like,50sSAGEprojectsorganizedtocomefromMIT,IBMandotherresearchlabresearcher,intheentireprojectprocessappearedmanyinnovationthought,atpresentalreadyobtainedthewidespreadapprovalinthecomputerprofessiontheideaallwasatthattimeraises.Inmanycomputerprofessionpioneercharacterhasalsoobtainedtheexperiencefromin5060agecontrolcomputersystemSAGEproject,afterwardsthesepeopleinwererepresentingthecomputerandinthecommunicationenterpriseemergingcompanyandthelaboratorywork.TheSAGEinfluenceappearedonlythengraduallyinafterwardsseveraldozensyears.thestructurelargescaleapplicationsystempracticeindicatedthat,someresearchnotcausessometechnicalnecessarilydirectlytheinnovation,butiscausesthedevelopmentandthetechnicalpromotion.Wastothetechnologywhichalreadystudiedcarriesontheanalysisandthereasonablecombinationusingthedevelopment,formedthenewapplicationsystem.Like,establishesthelargescaleapplicationsystemtheresearchprojectisappliestheelectroniccommunicationsystemprincipleintheARPANETprojectdevelopment,hasformedthenetworkingfoundation.4pairofindustrialtechnologyearlysubsidization20thcentury50s,thefederalstatehas

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