女性语言文体特征 - female language(英文) .doc女性语言文体特征 - female language(英文) .doc

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1CONTENTS摘要ⅢABSTRACTⅣ1INTRODUCTION12THECHARACTERISTICSOFFEMALELANGUAGE221PRONUNCIATIONANDINTONATION222VOCABULARY423GRAMMAR624CONVERSATIONTOPICS83THEINTERPRETATIONOFTHEFEMALELANGUAGECHARACTERISTICS1031PHYSIOLOGICALANDPSYCHOLOGICALFACTORS1032CULTURALFACTORS1133SOCIALFACTORS1234EDUCATIONALFACTORS124THEDEVELOPMENTSANDCHANGESOFFEMALELANGUAGE1541DEGRADATIONOFSEXUALDISCRIMINATIONINLANGUAGE1542SOCIALEFFECTOFFEMALELANGUAGE1643CHANGESINWOMENSSTYLEOFSPEECH195THEREASONSFORTHECHANGESINFEMALELANGUAGE246CONCLUSION272BIBLIOGRAPHY28ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS31INTRODUCTIONTHEEXISTENCEANDDEVELOPMENTOFLANGUAGEAREINTENDEDTOMEETTHENEEDSOFCOMMUNICATIONINSOCIETYPEOPLEINDIFFERENTSOCIALGROUPSHAVETHEIROWNSPECIALLANGUAGESINTHEENGLISHSPEAKINGCOUNTRIES,WECANDISCOVERTHATFEMALELANGUAGEALWAYSSHOWSSOMEINTERESTINGANDEXTERNALFEATURESOFTHELANGUAGECONSCIOUSLYORUNCONSCIOUSLYINTHECOURSEOFLANGUAGECOMMUNICATIONWITHTHERISEOFFEMINISMANDTHECONTINUOUSIMPROVEMENTOFFEMALESOCIALSTATUS,AGREATOFCHANGESHAVETAKENPLACEINFEMALELANGUAGETHESECHANGESARECLOSELYLINKEDWITHTHEDEVELOPMENTOFSOCIETYSOTHERESEARCHOFFEMALELANGUAGEISASUBJECTVERYWORTHYTOBESTUDIEDTHISPAPERATTEMPTSTODISCUSSTHECHARACTERISTICSANDSOMENEWCHANGESOFFEMALELANGUAGEANDANALYZESTHEREASONOFTHISPHENOMENONFROMTHESOCIAL,CULTURALANDEDUCATIONAL,ETCASPECTS42THECHARACTERISTICSOFFEMALELANGUAGEFEMALELANGUAGEHASITSOWNFEATURESTHEFOLLOWINGPARTWILLFOCUSONPRONUNCIATION,INTONATION,VOCABULARY,GRAMMARANDTOPICSTOMAKEABRIEFANALYSIS21PRONUNCIATIONANDINTONATION211PRONUNCIATIONPHONOLOGICALDIFFERENCESBETWEENMENANDWOMENHAVEBEENNOTICEDINVARIETIESOFLANGUAGESWOMEN’SPRONUNCIATIONSOUNDSMOREACCURATETHANMEN’SINENGLISHSPEAKINGCOUNTRIES,WOMEN’SPRONUNCIATIONISCLOSERTOSTANDARDENGLISHPRONUNCIATIONTHANMENSWHENWEREAD“ING”,GENERALLYWOMENCANPRONOUNCETHEACCURATEBACKNASALCONSONANT/IΗ/BUTACONSIDERABLENUMBEROFMENBECOMEMOREACCUSTOMEDTOPRONOUNCEFRONTNASALCONSONANT/IN/INAUSTRALIA,THEENGLISHWITHAUSTRALIANACCENTEDISNOTUSUALLYCONSIDEREDSTANDARDENGLISHAFTERINVESTIGATION,RESEARCHERSCOMETOTHECONCLUSIONTHATWOMENAREFARLESSOFTENTHANMENWHENTHEYSPEAKTHENONSTANDARDENGLISHTHEREASONISTHATMOREWOMENPAYATTENTIONTOTHEACCURACYOFPRONUNCIATIONTHANMEN,WHICHISANIMPORTANTMARKOFTHEIRIDENTITYANDCULTUREFORWOMENINTHENORTHEASTASIANLANGUAGE,YUKAGHIR,WOMEN5HAVE/TS/AND/DZ/WHEREMENHAVE/TJ/AND/DJ/INBENGALIMENOFTENSUBSTITUTE/L/FOR/N/BUTWOMENDONOTDOTHISLIKEWISE,INASIBERIANLANGUAGE,CHUKCHI,MEN,BUTNOTWOMEN,OFTENDROP/N/AND/T/WHENTHEYOCCURBETWEENVOWELS,EGFEMALENITVAQENATANDMALENITVAQEAT212INTONATIONGENERALLYSPEAKING,WOMEN’SINTONATIONISHIGHERTHANMEN’S,WHICHISCAUSEDBYPHYSIOLOGICALFACTORSINFACTWOMEN’SVOCALCORDSARELONGERTHANMEN,SOTHEIRPRONUNCIATIONFREQUENCYISHIGHERHOWEVER,PEOPLEOFTENCONSIDERTHEHIGHPITCHISCONNECTEDWITHWOMENSCOWARDICEANDUNSTEADYEMOTIONTHERANGEOFINTONATIONVARIETYISLARGE,WHICHISANOTHERDISTINCTIVEFEATUREWOMENAREGOODATUSINGTHEVARIOUSINTONATIONSTOEXPRESSTHEIRFEELINGSLAKOFFSAYSTHATWOMENMAYANSWERAQUESTIONWITHASTATEMENTTHATEMPLOYSTHERISINGINTONATIONPATTERNUSUALLYASSOCIATEDWITHAQUESTIONRATHERTHANTHEFALLINGINTONATIONASSOCIATEDWITHMAKINGAFIRMSTATEMENTANDWOMENAREUSUALLYINCLINEDTOBETACTFULANDGENTLEANDOFTENUSELOWRISINGINTONATIONATTHEENDOFSENTENCES,WHICHSEEMSTOSHOWTHATTHEYLACKOFCONFIDENCEANDSEEKTHEOPINIONSOFTHEOTHERSINCONTRAST,MENUSUALLYLIKEUSINGHIGHFALLINGINTONATIONATTHEENDOFTHESENTENCES,SOTHEIRINTONATIONSOUNDSRESOLUTEANDAFFIRMATIVEFOREXAMPLE,WHENSPEAKINGTHEFOLLOWINGSENTENCE,MENANDWOMENMAYUSEDIFFERENTINTONATIONSIWISHYOU’DTRYIT6MEN﹨WOMEN/MENUSUALLYSPEAKENDINGWITHAHIGHFALLINGINTONATIONANDTHEIRTONESARESTRONGLYFIRMHOWEVER,WOMENWILLUSETHELOWRISINGINTONATIONTOENDTHEIRSPEECHANDTHEIRTONEISMOREMODERATETHANMEN’SBESIDES,WOMENUSEDTOANSWERQUESTIONSWITHRISINGINTONATIONTOEXPRESSTHATTHEIRVIEWSISNOTAVERDICTANDTHEYAREWILLINGTOLISTENTOOTHERSVIEWSSUCHASHUSBAND“WHENWILLDINNERBEREADY”WIFE“OHAROUNDSIXO’CLOCK”THEWIFEISTHEONLYONETOKNOWTHEANSWERBUTSHEUSEDANINTONATIONWITHCONSULTINGMEANINGWILLTHATDO”OFCOURSE,WECANNOTGETRIDOFHERUNCERTAINPOSSIBILITY22VOCABULARYSPECIALFEMININEVOCABULARYINENGLISHTHATMANMAYNOT,DARENOTANDWILLNOTUSEWOMENLIKETALKINGABOUTTHINGSEXAGGERATEDLY,SOTHEYLIKEUSINGTHEEXAGGERATEDADJECTIVESANDADVERBSANDOTHERWORDSTOEMPHASIZETHEPOINT221EXTRAVAGANTADJECTIVESWOMENINUNITEDSTATESANDBRITAINLIKEUSINGSOMEEXAGGERATEDADJECTIVESFREQUENTLY,LIKE“ADORABLE,DIVINE,GORGEOUS,CHARMING,AND7LOVELY”ANDSOONBUTMENSELDOMUSETHESEWORDS“WHATADIVINEIDEA”IT’SMANIFESTLYOUTOFAFEMALE’SMOUTHBUTMENWILLSAY“WHATATERRIFICIDEA”222INTENSIFIEDADVERBSSUCHAS“SO,MUCH,QUITE,TERRIBLY”,ETCWOMENUSETHESEWORDSMOREFREQUENTLYTHANMENFOREXAMPLE,WOMENWOULDSAY,“ITWASSOINTERESTING”,“ITWASTERRIBLYCOLD”BUTMENOFTENUSE“VERY,REALLY”TOINTENSIFYTHEIRTONES223ACCURATECOLOURWORDSWOMENAREGOODATPORTRAYINGCOLORACCURATELYINCOMPARISONWITHTHEMENFURTHERMORE,THEYCANUSESOMEUNUSUALCOLORVOCABULARYSUCHAS“MAUVE,MAGENTA,BEIGE,ANDLAVENDER”ANDSOONWHENFACINGALIGHTPURPLESKIRT,WOMANCANNOTHELPSPEAKING,“IT’SABEAUTIFULLAVENDERSKIRT”224INTERJECTIONINTERJECTIONSUSEDBYWOMENAREMORECAUTIOUSANDIMPLICITTHANMENWHENUSINGCURSINGWORDS,WOMENAREUSUALLYMORECAUTIOUSANDIMPLICITSOMEFILTHYWORDSORPHRASESSUCHAS“GODDAMNIT”,“DAMN”,“FUCKYOU”,“FUCKYOUCHARLEY”,“SHIT”ETCOFTENAPPEARINMEN’SSPEECHINCONTRAST,WOMENOFTENUSE“OH,DEAR”,“OH,GOD”,“GODBLESSME”,“MYGOD”,“GREATGOD”,“GOD”ETCTOEXPRESSTHEIRANGER
编号:201311211149068859    类型:共享资源    大小:88.50KB    格式:DOC    上传时间:2013-11-21
  
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