语言文化论文-刍议英语委婉语的起源及其社会交际功能.doc语言文化论文-刍议英语委婉语的起源及其社会交际功能.doc

收藏 分享

资源预览需要最新版本的Flash Player支持。
您尚未安装或版本过低,建议您

语言文化论文刍议英语委婉语的起源及其社会交际功能ABSTRACTEUPHEMISM,ASACOMMONLINGUISTICPHENOMENONINWORLDCULTURE,ISWIDELYUSEDINEVERYSOCIALCLASSANDFIELDENGLISHEUPHEMISM,ASONEOFMANYEUPHEMISMSEXISTINGINTHEWORLD,HASITSOWNDEEPORIGIN,WHICHINCLUDEBOTHTHERELIGIOUSORIGINANDTHEHISTORICAL,LITERARYORIGINTHISTHESISWILLTRYTODISCUSSTHEORIGINOFENGLISHEUPHEMISMFROMEVERYASPECTOFRELIGION,RACE,POLITICS,LITERARY,ANDHISTORYLANGUAGEREFLECTSLIFE,ANDISALWAYSCLOSELYRELATEDTOTHESOCIETYDURINGTHECOMMUNICATION,DUETOSOMECERTAINRESTRICTIONOFBEHAVIORANDMORALITY,PEOPLETENDTOUSEEUPHEMISMUSEDASAKINDOFLUBRICATION,MAKINGTHEHARSH,INDELICATEWORDSSOUNDTACTFULANDPLEASANTENGLISHEUPHEMISMPLAYSAVERYIMPORTANTROLEINPEOPLE’SSOCIALCOMMUNICATIONTHISPAPERWILLALSOEXPOUNDTHESOCIALCOMMUNICATIVEFUNCTIONOFENGLISHEUPHEMISMFROMTHETHREEASPECTSEVASIVEFUNCTION,POLITEFUNCTION,ANDCOSMETICFUNCTIONHAVINGAGOODUNDERSTANDINGOFTHEORIGINANDSOCIALFUNCTIONOFENGLISHEUPHEMISMANDTHEENGLISHLANGUAGECULTURECANAVOIDMANYCONFLICTSINTHEPROCESSOFSOCIALCOMMUNICATIONKEYWORDSORIGIN;COMMUNICATIVEFUNCTION;EVASION;COSMETICFUNCTION;POLITENESS【摘要】委婉语是世界文化中普遍存在的语言现象,它广泛应用于社会各阶层和领域。英语委婉语作为众多委婉语中的一种,具有其产生的深厚渊源,其中包宗教与政治的,也包括文学与历史的。本文试图从宗教、种族、政治、文学、历史等方面入手来探讨英语委婉语的产生渊源。语言反映生活,并且总是和社会紧密联系在一起,在语言交谈中,由于一定的行为规范和道德准则的制约,人们通常使用委婉语这一“润滑剂”,使刺耳,不文雅的话变得委婉愉悦。它在人们的社会交际过程中发挥着重要作用。本文从其避讳功能、礼貌功能以及掩饰功能三方面阐释了英语委婉语的社会交际功能。通过充分理解英语委婉语的起源及其社会交际功能,进一步理解英语语言文化,以避免社会交际中的各种冲突。【关键词】起源;交际功能;避讳;礼貌;掩饰1INTRODUCTIONEUPHEMISMISACULTURALPHENOMENONASWELLASALINGUISTICCONCEPTEVERYLANGUAGEHASITSOWNEUPHEMISM,SODOESENGLISHITISDEEPLYROOTEDINSOCIALLIFEANDHASAGREATINFLUENCEONSOCIALCOMMUNICATIONASANINDISPENSABLEANDNATURALPARTOFENGLISHLANGUAGE,ENGLISHEUPHEMISMHASATTRACTEDPEOPLE’SATTENTIONFORALONGTIMESINCEEUPHEMISMWASCOINED,ITHASPLAYEDAVERYIMPORTANTROLEINPEOPLE’SCOMMUNICATIONTHECOMMUNICATIONWITHOUTEUPHEMISMISUNIMAGINABLEEUPHEMISMISUSEDLIKELUBRICATION,WHICHMAKESTHECOMMUNICATIONGOONSMOOTHLYTHISTHESISWILLHAVEANOVERVIEWOFTHEORIGINOFENGLISHEUPHEMISM,ANDSTATEITSSOCIALCOMMUNICATIVEFUNCTIONENGLISHEUPHEMISMASALINGUISTICCONCEPT,ITHASCLOSERELATIONSHIPSWITHTHEWESTERNCULTURE,ANDITTRULYREFLECTSTHELIFEANDVALUESOFENGLISHPEOPLEANDTHEIRHISTORYEUPHEMISMISAPARTICULARLYGOODMEDIUMFORACCESSTOTHEFORCEOFLANGUAGETHATHASPROVIDEDANEFFECTIVEAPPROACHTOUNDERSTANDINGTHEHUMANMINDTHESTUDYOFENGLISHEUPHEMISMCANHELPUSUNDERSTANDTHEWESTERNCULTUREANDPROMOTETHEINTERNATIONALDEVELOPMENTBECAUSEEUPHEMISMISWIDELYUSEDININTERNATIONALNEGOTIATIONSSOTHEREISAGREATNEEDFORUSTOSTUDYENGLISHEUPHEMISM,INCLUDINGITSORIGIN,ITSSOCIALFUNCTION,ETC2THEDEFINITIONSOFENGLISHEUPHEMISMEUPHEMISMISAUNIVERSALLINGUISTICPHENOMENONNEARLYINEVERYLANGUAGE,THEREARESOMEDISGUSTINGWORDS,WHICHMAKEPEOPLEFEELEMBARRASSEDINTHEPROCESSOFCOMMUNICATION,THEUNSUITABLEORTOODIRECTWORDSWILLMAKEPEOPLEFEELUNCOMFORTABLE,EVENANGRYTHENTHEREISAGREATNEEDFORUSTOUSEATACTFULWAYTOEXPRESSEMOTION,EXCHANGEIDEASTHATISTOSAY,TOUSEAPLEASANT,MILDORINDIRECTWORDSORPHRASESTAKETHEPLACEOFTABOOEDWORDSITISKNOWNTHATEUPHEMISMISAFORMOFLANGUAGEINTENTIONALLYCREATEDINSOCIALRELATIONTOACHIEVEIDEALCOMMUNICATIONWITHOUTTHEMANYLANGUAGEWOULDSEEMTOBEVULGARANDRUDE,VOIDOFPOLITENESSANDVIVIDNESSTOSOMEEXTENTASACOMMONCOMMUNICATIONINTHEPROCESSOFPEOPLEUSINGLANGUAGE,EUPHEMISMISANIMPORTANTWAYFORPEOPLETOCOORDINATETHESOCIALRELATIONSHIPSLIKEAKINDOFLUBRICATION,EUPHEMISMENABLESPEOPLETOEXPRESSWHATCANNOTBEUTTEREDDIRECTLYANDENSURESCOMMUNICATIONTOBECARRIEDSMOOTHLYITISALANGUAGESTRATEGYINCIVILIZEDSOCIETYFORAVOIDINGTABOOITISUNIMAGINABLEIFTHECOMMUNICATIONISWITHOUTEUPHEMISMTHEWORD“EUPHEMISM”WASDERIVEDFROMTHEGREEKWORD“EUPHEMISMOS”,WHICHMEANS“FAIRSPEECH”THEPREFIX“EU”MEANS“GOOD,SOUNDWELL”AND“PHEME”MEANS“SAYING”OR“SPEECH”ANDTHUSTHELITERALMEANINGOF“EUPHEMISM”IS“TOSPEAKWITHGOODWORDSORINAPLEASANTMANNER”THATISTOSAY,EUPHEMISMISUSEDASANALTERNATIVETOUNPLEASANTEXPRESSION,INORDERTOAVOIDPOSSIBLELOSEOFFACE,EITHERONE’SOWNFACEORTHROUGHGOINGOFFENSE,THATOFTHEAUDIENCE,ORSOMEOFTHIRDOFPARTYTHISUNPLEASANTEXPRESSIONMAYBETABOOED,FEARSOME,ORFORSOMEOTHERREASONSTHATSPEAKERSCAN’TORINTENDNOTTOUSESOMECERTAINEXPRESSIONDIRECTLYONSOMEOCCASION“INWEBSTER’SENCYCLOPEDICUNABRIDGEDDICTIONARYOFTHEENGLISHLANGUAGEIS‘THESUBSTITUTIONOFAMILD,INDIRECT,ORVAGUEEXPRESSIONFORONETHOUGHTSUBSTITUTED’RAWSONBLUNT,ABRITISHWRITER,DEFINEDEUPHEMISMAS‘AGOODFAVORABLEINTERPRETATIONOFABADWORD’”1“ENCYCLOPEDIABRITANNICA1994ALSODEFINESEUPHEMISMAS‘AFIGUREOFSPEECHINWHICHSOMETHINGOFANUNPLEASANT,DISTRESSINGORINDELICATENATUREISDESCRIBEDINLESSOFFENSIVETERMS’”2FROMTHEABOVEMENTIONED,WECOULDCLEARLYSEETHATEUPHEMISMISCHARACTERIZEDBYAVOIDANCELANGUAGEANDEVASIVEEXPRESSIONTHESPEAKERSUSEWORDSOREXPRESSIONSASAPROTECTIVESHIELDAGAINSTTHEANGERORDISAPPROVALOFNATURALORSUPERNATURALTHINGSITISONEFORMOFLANGUAGEANDALINGUISTICPHENOMENON3THEORIGINSOFENGLISHEUPHEMISM31THERELIGIOUSORIGINOFENGLISHEUPHEMISMTHEEARLIESTENGLISHEUPHEMISMSCOMEFROM“TABOO”THEWORD“TABOO”COMESFROMTOGAN,AKINDOFPOLYNESIANITINDICATESEVASIVELANGUAGEORACTION3THEEMERGENCEOFENGLISHEUPHEMISMISTOMEETTHENEEDOFAVOIDINGTABOOSINPRIMITIVESOCIETY,PEOPLECAN’TEXPLAINSUCHTHINGSASAILMENTANDSOMESUPERNATURALPHENOMENA“PEOPLEHAVECONFUSIONBETWEENTHENAMEOFTHETHINGSANDTHINGSTHEMSELVESTHENAMEISVIEWEDASANEXTENSIONOFTHINGSJUSTASTHEIDIOMSAYS‘SPEAKOFDEVILANDHEAPPEARS’NATURALLYTHEWORDSORPHRASESRELATEDTOSUCHTHINGSBECOMETABOOS”4INTHEANCIENTTIMES,PEOPLEHADBLINDFAITHINGHOSTSANDGODSTHEYRESPECTEDTHEYWHISPEREDANDEVENFEAREDTHEMSOTHEYDIDNOTDARETOADDRESSTHEIRNAMESDIRECTLYTHEYTHINKITPROFANETONAMEGODTHEREFORETHENAMESOFGODSBECOMETHEEARLIESTTABOOSTOSPEAKNAMEOFGODSWASTOEVOKETHEDIVINITYWHOSEPOWERTHENHADTOBECONFRONTEDSUCHDANGEROUSPRACTICESWERERESERVEDFORPRIESTSSKILLEDINNEGOTIATINGWITHTHESUPERNATURALSOTHEUSUALWAYTOAVOIDISTOEMPLOYEUPHEMISMSTHEREFORE,FORTHERELIGIOUSNEED,ALOTOFEUPHEMISMSABOUTRELIGIONEMERGEDFOREXAMPLE,INORDERNOTTODESECRATEGOD,PEOPLEINENGLISHSPEAKINGCOUNTRYALWAYSUSESOMEOTHERNAMEFORGODINSTEADOFCALLINGDIRECTLY,SUCHAS“ADONAI,THEALMIGHTY,CAESAR’SCRUTH,THECREATER,DOD,GAD,LAND,LAWKS,LAWD”5THEOPPOSITESIDEOFGODISDEVIL,WHICHISMORETERRIBLEFORPEOPLEWHENPEOPLEREFERTOTHEM,THEYTENDTOUSESUCHEUPHEMISMSTOREPLACED,THEBIGD,THEEVILONE,THEBLACKONE,THEGOODMAN,JESSE,OLDBOY,OURFATHER,LORDOFLORDS,KINGOFKINGS,THELIGHTOFTHEWORLD,ETC6FROMTHEABOVEMENTIONED,WECANFINDTHATRELIGIONBRINGSMANYEUPHEMISTICTERMSINTHERELIGIOUSMATTER,ESPECIALLYTHENAMINGANDADDRESSINGOFGODTOTHELANGUAGE32THERACIALANDNATIONALORIGINSOFENGLISHEUPHEMISMITISKNOWNTOALL,THEPHENOMENONOFRACIALDISCRIMINATIONISDEEPLYROOTEDINAMERICAINWHICH“EQUALOPPORTUNITY”ISFLATTEREDBYAMERICANWHITEPEOPLEASANEQUALRIGHTENJOYEDBYEVERYONEDUETOTHEPRESSUREOFSOCIALPUBLICOPINION,ALTHOUGHSOMEWHITESDISCRIMINATETHEBLACKFROMTHEIRHEART,THEYWILLNOTEXPOSETHISKINDOFPREJUDICEINPUBLICMEANWHILE,FEWPEOPLEDARETOHUMILIATEANDPERSECUTEBLACKSPUBLICLYFORNOREASONATALLINOTHERWORDS,THEWAYOFDISCRIMINATIONBECOMESTACTFULTHEREAREMANYEUPHEMISMSEMERGINGFORTHISREASONINTHE1930S,‘NIGGER’ISSTILLANEUTRALNOUNINENGLAND,ANDHASNOMEANINGOFHUMILIATINGBLACKSBUTSINCETHISWORDHASTHEOBVIOUSMEANINGOFDISCRIMINATINGTHEBLACKS,MOSTOFPEOPLEINENGLANDANDAMERICANSUSESOMEOTHEREUPHEMISTICWORDS,SUCHAS“COLOREDBLACK”INSTEADWHENTALKINGABOUTSOMEOTHERRACES,ITDOESNOTOFTENUSETHEDIRECTWORDSTHATARERELATEDTOCOLORPEOPLEOFTENUSESOMEEUPHEMISTICEXPRESSION,SUCHASTHEGEOGRAPHICNAME33HISTORICAL,LITERARYANDPOLITICALORIGINSOFENGLISHEUPHEMISMFROMTHETIMETHENORMANSCONQUEREDENGLANDIN1066,ENGLISHHASEMERGEDMANYEUPHEMISMSATTHATTIME,THEMAINREASONTOUSEEUPHEMISMISTHATTHELANGUAGEUSEDBYTHECONQUEREDISOFTENDISPARAGED,ANDISTHOUGHTASGROSSLANGUAGETHEUPPERCLASSSURELYDOESN’TWANTTOLOWERTHEIRSTATUSTOUSESUCHWORDSINORDERTOAVOIDUSINGSUCHGROSSWORDS,THEYTENDTOUSE“THEELEGANTWORDS”,WHICHORIGINATEDFROMLATINANDTHESEWORDSWEREMIXEDINTOENGLISHGRADUALLYTHEREAREALSOMANYEUPHEMISMSINLITERARYWORKSFOREXAMPLE,INHAMLET,SHAKESPEAREUSETHEEXPRESSION“THEUNDISCOVEREDCOUNTRYFROMWHOSEBOURNNOTRAVELERRETURNS”从来不曾有一个旅人回来过的神秘之国TOEXPRESSHISGREATSYMPATHYFORHAMLET7THEFAMOUSAMERICANWRITERMARKTWAINUSE“RELEASE”TOEXPRESS“DIE”INHISWORKTHEADVENTUREOFTOMSAWYERBESIDES,POLITICSISAFERTILEAREAFORTHEAPPEARANCEANDGROWTHOFENGLISHEUPHEMISM,WHICHISCOSMETICINEXPRESSIONBUTDECEPTIVEINNATUREEUPHEMISMSOFTHISKINDAREALWAYSCONSCIOUSLYANDDELIBERATELYTHECOSMETICEUPHEMISMCANBEEASILYFOUNDINAMERICANENGLISHGOVERNMENT’SDISCUSSIONOFTHEVIETNAMWARWASSATURATEDWITHEUPHEMISMSVILLAGESBURNEDANDINHABITANTSIMPRISONEDWERE‘PACIFICATIONS”;THEWARITSELFWASNOTAWARBUTA“CONFLICT”,THE“BOMBING”BECOMES“LOGISTICALSTRIKE”OR“CLOSEAIRSUPPORT”,AND“KILLING”BECOMES“WASTINGTHEENEMY”THESEEUPHEMISMSAREUSEDTODECEIVEANDTOHIDETHEDIRTYBUSINESSOFWAR8THEUSEOFSUCHPOLITICALEUPHEMISMSHELPSGOVERNMENTTOBEAUTIFYTHEACTIONANDPREVENTPEOPLEFROMTAKINGANYANTIGOVERNMENTACTIONSOINORDERTOSATISFYTHEPOLITICALNEEDS,MANYEUPHEMISMSCOMETOEXIST4THESOCIALCOMMUNICATIVEFUNCTIONOFENGLISHEUPHEMISMFROMTHEPERSPECTIVEOFLANGUAGECOMMUNICATION,EUPHEMISMFUNCTIONSTOAVOIDTABOOS,TOSHOWPOLITENESSANDCONCEALFEELINGSTHANKSTOEUPHEMISM,ITISEASYFORPEOPLETOACCEPTTHETHINGSTHATARELIKELYTOMAKEOTHERSFEELEMBARRASSEDORUNHAPPYITISPEOPLE’SGENERALCHARACTERTOEXPRESSTHEIRIDEASASMILDLYANDTACTFULLYASPOSSIBLEEUPHEMISMHELPSPEOPLETOREACHTHISGOALFROMTHEMOMENTEUPHEMISMCAMEINTOEXISTENCE,ITHASPLAYEDAVERYIMPORTANTROLEINOURDAILYCOMMUNICATION,ANDHELPESTABLISHAGOODRELATIONSHIPBETWEENHUMANBEINGSANDEVENSTRENGTHENTHESOCIALSTABILITYEUPHEMISMAREMOTIVATEDBYTHEDESIRENOTTOBEOFFENSIVEPEOPLEUSETHEMTOSHOWTHEIRPOLITENESS,TOAVOIDBEINGOFFENSIVEANDTOMEETTHEPSYCHOLOGICALANDBENEFICIALNEEDSOFBOTHSPEAKERSANDHEARERSINCOMMUNICATIONBUTSOMETIMESTHEYAREUSEDTOCONCEALORCOVERSOMETHINGACCORDINGLY,EUPHEMISMSERVESTHREEBASICCOMMUNICATIVEFUNCTIONSEVASIVEFUNCTION,POLITEFUNCTIONANDCOSMETICFUNCTION41THEEVASIVEFUNCTIONOFENGLISHEUPHEMISMTHEEVASIVEFUNCTIONOFEUPHEMISMISTOEVADEUSINGTABOOS,ENABLINGTHESPEAKERTOTALKABOUTTABOOEDTHINGSFREELYTHESETABOOEDTHINGSAREBELIEVEDTOBEDANGEROUSTOCERTAININDIVIDUALS,ORTOTHESOCIETYASAWHOLE,ORTOBEDISGUSTINGANDUNPLEASANT,ANDCAUSEFEARSUCHTABOOEDTHINGSINCLUDEDISEASE,DISABILITIES,DEATH,SEX,BODYEXCRETIONANDBODYELIMINATIONPROCESS,ETCPEOPLECANUSEEUPHEMISMSTOTALKABOUTWHATCANNOTBETALKEDDIRECTLY411INTERMSOFDISEASEANDDISABILITIESPEOPLEYEARNFORHEALTH,ANDFEARFORSPECIFICDISEASEANDEVERYSORTOFDISABILITYSOPEOPLEALWAYSUSETACTFULWAYTOEXPRESSTHEMFOREXAMPLE,SEXUALORVENEREALDISEA
编号:201312161521465943    类型:共享资源    大小:29.35KB    格式:DOC    上传时间:2013-12-16
  
2
关 键 词:
行业资料 商业贸易 精品文档 语言文化
  人人文库网所有资源均是用户自行上传分享,仅供网友学习交流,未经上传用户书面授权,请勿作他用。
关于本文
本文标题:语言文化论文-刍议英语委婉语的起源及其社会交际功能.doc
链接地址:http://www.renrendoc.com/p-225943.html

当前资源信息

4.0
 
(2人评价)
浏览:14次
docin上传于2013-12-16

官方联系方式

客服手机:17625900360   
2:不支持迅雷下载,请使用浏览器下载   
3:不支持QQ浏览器下载,请用其他浏览器   
4:下载后的文档和图纸-无水印   
5:文档经过压缩,下载后原文更清晰   

精品推荐

相关阅读

人人文库
关于我们 - 网站声明 - 网站地图 - 资源地图 - 友情链接 - 网站客服客服 - 联系我们

网站客服QQ:2846424093    人人文库上传用户QQ群:460291265   

[email protected] 2016-2018  renrendoc.com 网站版权所有   南天在线技术支持

经营许可证编号:苏ICP备12009002号-5