[中考英语]初三英语语法练习[整理]-人教版.doc.doc[中考英语]初三英语语法练习[整理]-人教版.doc.doc

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语法(一)名词一.基础知识梳理1.可数名词与不可数名词。可数名词分为单数和复数形式,单数名词可用A/AN表示数量或类别。名词复数分为规则变化和不规则变化。规则变化①一般在名词词尾加S如CAKE-CAKES②以S,CH,SH,X等结尾的名词在词尾加ES如BOX-BOXES③以辅音字母+Y结尾的名词变Y为I再加ES如CITY-CITIES④以F或FE结尾的名词变F,FE为V再加ES如LEAF-LEAVES⑤以O结尾的名词,有些加ES如POTATO-POTATOES;有些加S如RADIO-RADIOS不规则变化①只有复数形式,如CLOTHES②单复数同形,如SHEEP③形式上的复数,实际上是单数,如PHYSICS④形式上的单数,实际上是复数,如PEOPLE⑤特殊变化MAN-MEN,WOMAN-WOMEN,FOOT-FEET,CHILD-CHILDREN,TOOTH-TEETH不可数名词一般没有单数形式,在句中全部看作单数形式,也不能与AAN或数词连用,表示数量得用“数词+量数+OF+名词”如APIECEOFMUSIC。2.名词所有格有生命的东西的名词所有格构成①单数名词后加’S。如THEBOY’SBIKE②不以S结尾的复数名词在词后加’S。如PEOPLE’SSON③以S结尾的复数名词在词尾加’。如THETWINS’MOTHER④为两个人或物共有的人或东西,只在后一个名词加’S。如MARYANDTOM’STEACHER;如不是两人共有的,分别在两个名词后加’S如LILY’SANDLUCY’SBEDS;表示无生命的东西的名词所有格常用介词OF+名词。如THEDOOROFTHEHOUSE二.中考考题解析例1.I’MAFRAIDTHATNOFORYOUINMYCAR,BECAUSETHEREAREALREADYFIVEPEOPLEALANDBGROUDCROOMDFLOOR2003年山西省中考题解析本题考查名词同义词辨析。题干中提到车子里没有地方,这里的地方应该是指空间,且不可数名词。正确答案是C。例2.TED,TAKESOMETOSCHOOLIT’SSOHOTANDYOUMAYFEELTHIRSTYABREADBBANANASCORANGESDJUICE解析本题考查名词的意义,通过句意判断要买的是饮料,正确答案是D。例3.ARETHEREANYONTHEFARM-YES,THEREARESOMEAHORSEBDUCKCCHICKENDSHEEP2004年沈阳市中考题解析本题考查名词的复数,SHEEP单数复数同形,正确答案是D。例4.THISISBEDROOMTHETWINSISTERSLIKEITVERYMUCHAANNEANDJANEBANNE’SANDJANE’SCANNE’SANDJANEDANNEANDJANE’S(2004年河北省中考题)解析本题考查名词的所有格,BEDROOM是单数,题中用IT代替它,说明此卧室为两个人共有,正确答案是D。三.专项练习自测1USEYOUR,ANDYOU’LLFINDAGOODWAYAHEADBMINDCHEARTDEYE2THEREARETWENTYEIGHTDAYSINAWEEKBMONTHCYEARDFEBRUARY3WECANSEESOMEINTHEPICTUREASHIPBSHEEPCSHOPDCUP4YESTERDAYAFTERNOONISAWAINTHERESTAURANTAGERMANYBAMERICANCENGLISHDGERMAN5THEHOSPITALISNOTFARFROMHEREIT’SONLYFIVEWALKAMINUTEBMINUTESCMINUTE’SDMINUTES’6MARYISANAMERICANGIRLIGOTTOKNOWHERTHROUGHANENGLISHNEWSPAPERWEAREACLASSMATESBSISTERSCWRITERSDPENFRIENDS7NATIONALDAYISCOMINGWEWILLHAVEAHOLIDAYASEVENDAYBSEVENDAY’SCSEVENDAYDSEVENDAYS8OH,THEREISN’TENOUGHFORUSONTHEBUSITDOESN’TMATTERLET’SWAITFORTHENEXTAROOMBPLACECGROUNDDFLOOR9PLEASEGIVEMEAWHENYOUARRIVEINLONDON,YANGHUAOKI’LLTELLYOUEVERYTHINGWHENIGETTHEREANEWSPAPERBRINGCTVSETDTICKET10THEREISLITTLEINTHEFRIDGE,LET’SGOANDBUYSOMECOKE,JUICEANDTEAAFRUITBDRINKCMEATDWINE11WHO’STHATWOMANTHAT’SAUNTAJIMANDKATEBJIM’SANDKATECJIMANDKATE’SDJIM’SANDKATE’S12WHERE’SYOURFATHERATAMRCHEN’SBTHEMRCHEN’SCCHENSDTHECHENS13WHERE’STHECHURCHIT’SFROMOURSCHOOLATWOHOUR’SDRIVEBTWOHOURDRIVECTWOHOURSDRIVEDTWOHOURS’DRIVE14WHAT’SONTHETABLETHERE’SALOTOFONITAORANGESBAPPLESCFOODDPEARS15WOULDYOUHAVESOMEHEREYOUAREAEGGSANDMILKBEGGANDMILKCEGGSANDMILKSDEGGANDMILKS代词一.基础知识梳理1.人称代词的主格与宾格主格用做句子的主语。宾格放在动词或介词后面做句子的宾语或表语。如IGIVEHIMABOOK人称代词IT可用来表示距离,季节,时间,天气,温度等,也可用来表示不知性别、不明身份的人,有时也可指婴儿。如IT’S2KILOMETRESFROMMYHOMETOTHEPARK2.形容词性与名词性物主代词形容词性物主代词不能单独使用,只能作定语。名词性物主代词可作主语,表语或宾语,不能作定语,其后不可接名词。名词性物主代词=形容词性物主代词+名词如-ISTHATHISRULER-YESIT’SHIS3.反身代词反身代词在句中可以作宾语,表语或同位语。常见的搭配有BYONESELF,ENJOYONESELF,HELPONESELF,TEACHONESELF等。4.指示代词指示代词有THIS,THAT,THESE,THOSE等。打电话时常用THAT问对方是“谁”,用THIS介绍自己。5.疑问代词疑问代词有WHO,WHOM,WHOSE,WHAT和WHICH,一般放在句首,构成特殊疑问句。6.不定代词不定代词主要有SOME,ANY,NO,BOTH,ALL,EACH,EVERY,OTHERS,ANOTHER,NEITHER,MANY,MUCH,FEW,AFEW,LITTLE,ALITTLE等。①SOME,ANYSOME一般用于肯定句,ANY用于疑问句,否定句及条件句中。但SOME还可用在表示请求、邀请、建议等疑问句或说话人希望得到对方肯定回答的疑问句中。②MANY,MUCH,FEW,AFEW,LITTLE,ALITTLE,MANY,MUCH主要用于否定句和疑问句中,在肯定句中多用ALOTOF等。MANY修饰可数名词的复数,反义词是FEW。MUCH修饰不可数名词,反义词是LITTLE。FEW,AFEW用来修饰或指代可数名词,LITTLE,ALITTLE用来修饰或指代不可数名词。FEW,LITTLE表示否定,AFEW,ALITTLE表示肯定。③THEOTHER,ANOTHERTHEOTHER指两个中另一个,ANOTHER指三个或三个以上的“又一”“再一”。④BOTH,NEITHER,EITHER,ALL,NONEBOTH“两者都”,谓语动词用复数形式。NEITHER“两者都不”,谓语动词用单数形式。EITHER“两者任何一个”,谓语动词用单数形式,作定语时只能修饰单数名词。ALL“全部”,表肯定。NONE“全部不”,表示全体否定。⑤EACH,EVERYEACH指两者或两者以上,侧重个别情况。EVERY指三者或三者以上,侧重全体而不在个别。二.中考考题解析例1.-THISMACHINEISVERYEASYTOUSE-CANLEARNTOUSEITINAVERYSHORTTIMEASOMEBODYBANYBODYCNOBODYDFEWPEOPLE2003年南昌市中考题解析本题考查不定代词的词义的用法。根据语境我们得知机器很容易使用,所以“任何人”在短期内都可以学会。正确答案是B。例2.-ISTHISYOURSWEATERJOY-NO,IT’SNOTSWEATERISYELLOWAMY,MYBMY,MINECMINE,MINEDMINE,MY2004年哈尔滨市中考题解析本题考查物主代词的用法。形容词性物主代词后要接名词,名词性的物主代词不能接名词。正确答案是B。例3.-DOYOUKNOWTHEWOMANINTHEREDDRESS-CERTAINLYSHE’SMRSXUSHETEACHESCHEMISTRYAOURBUSCWEDOURS2004吉林省中考题解析本题考查人称代词的用法。放在动词之后,应用人称代词宾格。正确答案为B。例4.JOANANDRICKYARETOOBUSYTOHELPUSLET’SDOITAHERSELFBHIMSELFCTHEMSELVESDOURSELVES2004年山西省中考题解析本题考查反身代词的用法。题干的意思是“JOHNANDRICKY太忙了,帮不了我们,只有我们自己去做”。正确答案是D。三.专项练习自测1MRWANGHASTHREEDAUGHTERSOFTHEMARECOLLEGESTUDENTSAEACHBEVERYCBOTHDALL2IWANTTOBORROWSOMEMONEYFROMKATE,BUTSHEHASN’TASOMEBANYCMONEYDONE3IFYOUDON’TWORKHARD,YOUMAYFALLBEHINDSTUDENTSATHEOTHERBOTHERCOTHERSDTHEOTHERS4WEWORKEDOUTTHEMATHSPROBLEMS,DIDN’TAOURSELVES;USBOURSELVES;WECOURSELVES;OURDOURSELVES;OURS5YOURHANDWRITINGISBETTERTHANAIBMECMINEDMY6I’MOLDENOUGHTOWASHCLOTHESBYMYSELFYOUCANJUSTWASHAMY;YOURBYOUR;MYCMY;YOURSDMINE;YOURS7TWOLANGUAGESARETHEMOSTWIDELYUSEDONEISCHINESE,ISENGLISHAANOTHERONEBANOTHERCTHEOTHERDTHEOTHERS8WEWANTTOGOTOSEETHEANIMALSBUTOFUSKNOWSHOWTOGETTOTHEZOOAALLBNONECNOONEDNOBODY9WECOULDN’TEATINTHERESTAURANTBECAUSEOFUSHADMONEYAANY;NOBALL;NOCNONE;ANYDNOONE;ANY10ISREADYFORTHEPARTYNOTYETWESTILLNEEDTOBUYSOMEFRUITANDDRINKANOTHINGBSOMETHINGCEVERYTHINGDANYTHING11THATRIVERISVERYDANGEROUSSOPEOPLESWIMTHEREAAFEWBALITTLECFEWDLITTLE12THOSECOATSINTHISSHOPAREMOREEXPENSIVETHANATHOSEINTHATSHOPBTHOSECOATSCINTHESHOPDANYOTHERSTUDENTS13WUFENGISTALLERTHANINHISCLASSAANYBANYOTHERCANYOTHERSTUDENTDANYOTHERSTUDENTS14SORRY,ICAN’TANSWERYOURQUESTIONS,BECAUSEIKNOWABOUTTHESUBJECTAFEWBLITTLECAFEWDALITTLE15IHOPETHEREAREENOUGHGLASSESFOREACHPERSONTOHAVEAITBTHOSECTHEMDONE16NICETOSEEYOU,MRSLIUAME,TOOB,THESAMETOYOUCTHANKYOUDI,TOO17IFOUNDIMPOSSIBLEFORTOSOLVETHEPROBLEMAIT;HEBIT;HIMCTHAT;HIMDTHAT;HE18HELLO,WHOISSPEAKINGISJOYSPEAKINGATHIS;THATBIT;ITCTHAT;THISDTHAT;SHE19ISTHATMANYOURTEACHERYES,TEACHESMATHSTHISTERMAHE;USBHE;OURCSHE;USDSHE;OUR20IDON’TLIKEOFTHESKIRTSPLEASESHOWMEATHIRDONEAANYBONECEITHERDBOTH数词一.基础知识梳理1.基数词表示数目的多少用英语表达数字时,十位与个位之间有连字符,百位与千位之间有AND。表示概数时用固定短语,如HUNDREDSOF,THOUSANDSOF,MILLIONSOF2.序数词表示数目的顺序序数词前常加THE,与不定冠词A连用表示“又一,再一”。3.分数的表达方式分子用基数词,分母用序数词,分子大于1时,分母加S,如2/3TWOTHIRDS二.中考考题解析例1.THISBRIDGEISABOUTLONGAFIVEHUNDREDMETREBFIVEHUNDREDSMETRESCFIVEHUNDREDMETRESDFIVEHUNDREDSMETRE2004年西宁市中考题解析本题考查数词的基本用法。当HUNDRED前有具体数词修饰时不能用复数,因此,排除B和D。另外METRE是可数名词,故正确答案是C。例2.WHAT’SONEFOURTHANDAHALF,DOYOUKNOWYES,IT’SATWOSIXTHSBTHREEFOURTHSCONETHREEDTHREESIXTHS(2004年杭州市中考题)解析本题考查分数的表达,根据句意1/41/23/4,正确答案是B。例3.THEREAREPEOPLEINMYFAMILYWELIVEONTHEFLOORINABUILDINGAFIVE;SIXBFIFTH;SIXTHCFIFTH;SIXDFIVE;SIXTH(2004年长沙市中考题)解析本题考查基数词与序数词的区别。家里有5个人用基数词,住在第六层用序数词。正确答案是D。三.专项练习自测1DECEMBERISMONTHOFTHEYEARATWELVEBTWELFTHCTHETWELVEDTHETWELFTH2FOREIGNERSCOMETOCHINAEVERYYEARATHOUSANDSBTHREETHOUSANDSCTHOUSANDSOFDTHOUSANDOF3WEDNESDAYISTHEDAYOFTHEWEEKATHIRDBFOURTHCFIFTHDSIXTH4MRLIWILLBEBACKINAONEORTWODAYSBONEDAYORTWOCAORTWODAYSDADAYORTWO5THEREAREUSUALLYDAYSINFEBRUARYA27B28C30D316WHAT’STHEENGLISHFOR“605”IT’SASIXTOFIVEBSIXPASTFIVECFIVETOSIXDSIXFIVE7EIGHTBILLIONONEHUNDREDANDTHIRTYTWOTHOUSANDANDEIGHTSEVENISA8,000,132,000B8,132,000,000C8,000,132,087D8,000,132,1878THEOLYMPICGAMESAREHELDONCEAEVERYFOURYEARSBEVERYFOURYEARCEVERYFOURYEARDEACHFOURTHYEAR9HOLIDAYISCOMINGWHATAREYOUGOINGTODOI’VENOIDEAASEVENDAYSBSEVENDAYS’CSEVENDAYDSEVENDAYS10THEDATE“JULY21ST,2004”READSAJULYTWENTYONE,TWOTHOUSANDANDFOURBJULYTWENTYFIRST,TWOTHOUSANDANDFOURCJULYTHETWENTYFIRST,TWOTHOUSANDANDFOURDJULYTHETWENTYONE,TWOZEROZEROFOUR介词一.基础知识梳理介词是英语中最活跃的词类之一,常与动词构成短语动词与名词构成介词短语。下面归纳几种常用的介词1.IN,AT,ON,TOIN,AT,ON可以表示时间,IN表示一段时间。AT多用于钟点时刻前。ON主要在星期几,具体某一天或某一天的早、午、晚或节日前。IN,AT,ON还可以表示地点。IN表示国家城市等大地方,AT表示某一点或用于小地点前。IN表示“在里面”,ON表示“在上”。IN,TO,ON可表示方位,IN表示在某一地区之间的方位(属于该范围),ON表示与某一地区的比邻关系,TO表示在某一地区之外的某方位(不属于该范围)。2.BETWEEN,AMONGBETWEEN常指“在(两者)之间”,AMONG“在(三者或三者以上的人或物之间)。3.ABOVE,OVER,ON,BELOW,UNDERABOVE和OVER都表示“在上方”。ABOVE指在上方的任意一点,表示在某物上的高低位置,不接触,反义词为BELOW。OVER一般指垂直方向,反义词UNDER。ON“在上面”且互相接触。4.BY,IN,WITHIN用来表示“用语言,声音等”,也可表示“用工具,材料等”。BY后一般跟动名词或抽象化的可数名词(其前不用冠词)“用手段或方式”。WITH表示借助于某一具体的工具,材料或人体器官。5.IN,AFTERIN,AFTER都可用来表示“在以后”。IN表示从现在算到若干时间以后,IN只可接时间段,IN一段时间,常用于将来时。AFTER表从过去算起到若干时间以后,后可接时间段或时间点,AFTER时间点也可用于将来时。6.ACROSS,THROUGH,PASTACROSS表示“从表面穿过”或沿某一条线的方向而进行的动作,表示游渡乘船过海时用ACROSS。THROUGH表示“从中间穿过”。PAST表示“从旁边经过”。初中常见有介词固定搭配的词组AGREEWITH,ATFIRST,ATNIGHT,ATONCE,ATTHEAGEOF,ATTHEBEGINNING/END/HEADOF,ATTHEMOMENT,ATTIMES,ATTHESAMETIME,BEFAMOUSFOR,BEFULLOF,BEGOODAT,BEINTERESTEDIN,BEMADEOF/IN,BEPLEASEDWITH,BEPROUDOF,BEUSEDFOR,BYPLANE/SEA,BYTHEWAY,CATCHUPWITH,COMEIN/ON,COMEOVER,COMEOUT,COMEUPWITH,DOWELLIN,DROPOFF,FALLBEHIND,FALLOFF,FINDOUT,FIRSTOFALL,FOREXAMPLE,FROMTO,GETONWELLWITH,GETON,GIVEUP,HARDIN,HEAROF,HELPYOURSELFTO,HELPWITH,HOLDON,HOURAFTERHOUR,INAHURRY,INENGLISH,INFACT,INFRONT,INFRONTOF,INTHEAIR,INTHEEND,INTHEFUTURE,INTHISWAY,INTIME,INSTEADOF,KINDSOF,LATERON,LAUGHAT,LEARNFROM,LEAVEBEHIND,LISTENTO,LIVEON,LOOKAFTER,LOOKAT,LOOKFOR,LOOKLIKE,LOOKOUT,LOOKUP,MAKEROOMFOR,MULTIPLYBY,NEXTTO,NOTATALL,ONDISPLAY,ONEARTH,ONFOOT,NOONE’SWAYTO,NOSHOW,ONTHELEFT/RIGHT,ONTHEOTHERHAND,ONTIME,ONWATCH,OUTOF,PAYFOR,PLAYAJOKEON,POINTAT,POINTTO,PUTON,PUTUP,PUTOFF,REGARDAS,RINGUP,RUNOUT,SAYGOODBYETO,SPEAKHIGHLYOF,STANDINLINE,STEPINTO,STOPFROM,TAKECAREOF,TALKABOUT,TALKWITH,THEDAYAFTERTOMORROW,THEDAYBEFOREYESTERDAY,TOONE’SSURPRISE,TRYON,TRYOUT,TURNDOWN/OFF/ON,UPANDDOWN,WAITFOR,WAKEUP,WHATABOUT,WORKOUT二.中考考题解析例1.DON’TTELLANYBODYABOUTIT,KEEPITYOUANDMEAWITHBINCBETWEENDAMONG(2004年山西省中考题)解析本题考查介词的用法。BETWEEN指两者之间,AMONG指三者或三者以上的人或物之间,正确答案是C。例2.MYGRANDFATHEROFTENREADSNEWSPAPERSBREAKFASTAONBINCATDOF2004年昆明市中考题解析本题考查介词ON,IN,AT在表达时间时的区别。在表示时间的一点、一时刻时通常用介词AT;IN指某个较长的时间内;在具体时日和一个特定的时间前用ON,因此正确答案是C。例3.XINJIANGISONEOFTHELARGESTPROVINCESINCHINAIT’STHENORTHWESTOFCHINAAATBINCTODFROM解析本题考查介词IN,TO表示方位的区别。IN表示某一地区的范围内,TO表示某一地区之外,在范围外,正确答案是B。例4.THEENGINEERWILLRETURNFROMMACAOAFEWDAYSASINCEBINCONDAFTER2003年昆明市中考题解析本题考查IN,AFTER表示时间的区别。IN后跟一段时间,用于将来时;AFTER后跟一个时间点。正确答案时B。三.专项练习自测1HISFATHERWASLATETHEMEETINGYESTERDAYAATBFORCTODIN2THEHELPOFTVWECANKNOWMOREABOUTMANYOTHERCOUNTRIESAUNDERBONCWITHDABOUT3THETEACHERCAMEINTOTHECLASSROOMABOOKINHERHANDAFORBHADCOFDWITH4THESEBEAUTIFULFLOWERSAREMADESILKAABOUTBBYCOFDWITH5THEMENREDSPORTSSHIRTSARETHEPLAYERSOFGUO’ANTEAMAATBINCFROMDWITH6HELIKESTHEBOOKALOTHESPENDTWENTYEIGHTYUANITAONBINCBYDAT7HANMEIISBETTERTHANMEDANCINGAATBINCOFDFOR8IOFTENHAVESOMEVEGETABLESLUNCHATSCHOOLAINBFORCOFDTO9WHICHEVENTSWASHETHISSPORTSMEETINGAATBOFCONDIN10THAT’SVERYKINDYOUIKNOWIT’SVERYDIFFICULTYOUAFOR;FORBOF;OFCFOR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