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2005年4月英语二专家预测试卷(一)ⅠVOCABULARYANDSTRUCTURE10POINTS,1POINTFOREACHITEM从下列各句四个选项中选出一个最佳答案。1NOTUNTILQUITERECENTLYTHATLANGUAGEWASCLOSELYRELATEDTOCULTUREAIREALIZEDBIDIDREALIZECHADIREALIZEDDDIDIREALIZE【】2HEHASBEENWIDELYEXPOSEDTHEPUBLICONTELEVISIONAONBINCFORDTO【】3THEQUALITYOFLIFE,ESPECIALLYASBYTHEINDIVIDUAL,VARIESWITHCULTURESASEENBSEEINGCTOSEEDTOBESEEN【】4INTHEUNITEDSTATES,EGGSARESOLDTHEDOZENAFORBWITHCBYDIN【】5ITISJUSTASFOOLISHTOSAYTHATONESHOULDNEVERDRINKORANGEJUICEANDMILKTOGETHERITISTOSAYTHATONESHOULDNEVERDRINKWATERANDBEERTOGETHERAWHENBASCWHILEDSINCE【】6WHENYOUHEARTHETAPE,ITWILLPROFOUNDQUESTIONSABOUTWHATISHAPPENINGINOURWORLDWITHJUVENILEANDOURSOCIETYACAUSEBRAISECDRAWDMAKE【】7WAITTILLYOUGETYOURINTOTHEWORK,YOUWILLFINDITVERYINTERESTINGATEETHBFACECMOUTHDEAR【】8THEREAREALWAYSTHOSEWHOWOULDSUBSTITUTEFANTASYLIVESTHEREWARDSOFREALACTIVITYAONBINCASDFOR【】9BUTTHATSHESAWITWITHHEROWNEYES,SHEITACOULDNOTBELIEVEBCOULDNOTHAVEBELIEVEDCDIDNOTBELIEVEDBELIEVE【】10AFTERMANYDAYSOFRELAXATION,HELOOKSASFRESHASAWATERBDESKCPAINTDTREE【】ⅡCLOZETEST(10POINTS,1POINTFOREACHITEM)下列短文中有十个空白,每个空白有四个选项。根据上下文要求选出最佳答案。INTHEENGLISHEDUCATIONALSYSTEM,STUDENTS11THREEVERYIMPORTANTEXAMINATIONSTHEFIRSTISTHEELEVENPLUS,WHICHISTAKENATTHEAGEOFELEVENORALITTLEPASTATONETIMETHEABILITYORAPTITUDE12ONTHEELEVENPLUSWOULDHAVEDETERMINEDIFACHILDSTAYEDINSCHOOLNOW,HOWEVER,ALLCHILDRENCONTINUEIN“COMPREHENSIVE”SCHOOLS,ANDTHEELEVENPLUSDETERMINESWHICHCOURSESOFSTUDYTHECHILDWILLFOLLOWATTHE13OFFIFTEENORSIXTEEN,THESTUDENTSARETESTEDFORTHEORDINARYLEVELOFTHEGENERALCERTIFICATEOFEDUCATIONTHISEXAMINATION14AWIDERANGEOFSUBJECTS;ONCESTUDENTSHAVEPASSEDTHISEXAM,THEYAREALLOWEDTOSPECIALIZE,15TWOTHIRDSORMOREOFTHEIRCOURSESWILLBE16PHYSICS,CHEMISTRY,CLASSICALLANGUAGES,ORWHATEVERTHEYWISHTOSTUDY17GREATERLENGTHTHEFINALEXAMINATION,ATEIGHTEEN,COVERSONLYTHECONTENTOFTHESPECIALSUBJECTSEVENATTHEUNIVERSITIES,STUDENTSSTUDYONLYINTHEIR18AREA,ANDVERYFEWSTUDENTSEVERVENTUREOUTSIDETHATSUBJECTAGAIN;19AREALSENSE,THEENGLISHBOYORGIRLISASPECIALISTFROMTHEAGEOFFIFTEENTHISISSUPPOSEDTOBEA20DESCRIPTIONABOUTENGLISHEDUCATIONALSYSTEM11AWRITEBTAKECMAKEDMEAN12ASHOWNBSHOWINGCSHOWDTOSHOW13ATIMEBDAYCDATEDAGE14ARELATINGBCOVERINGCCOVERSDRELATES15ASINCEBSOASCSOTHATDBECAUSE16AINBATCWITHDFOR17AINBATCOVERDON18ACONCENTRATINGBCONCENTRATEDCCONCENTRATIONDBEINGCONCENTRATED19AFORBINCTODAFTER20ADETAILINGBDETAILEDCBEINGDETAILEDDDETAILSⅢREADINGCOMPREHENSION(30POINTS,2POINTSFOREACHITEM)从下列每篇短文的问题后所给的四个选择项中选出一个最佳答案。PASSAGEONEQUESTIONS21TO25AREBASEDONTHEFOLLOWINGPASSAGESPACEISADANGEROUSPLACE,NOTONLYBECAUSEOFMETEORS流星BUTALSOBECAUSEOFRAYSFROMTHESUNANDOTHERSTARSTHEATMOSPHEREAGAINACTSASOURPROTECTIVEBLANKETONEARTHLIGHTGETSTHROUGH,ANDTHISISESSENTIALFORPLANTSTOMAKETHEFOODWHICHWEEATHEAT,TOO,MAKESOURENVIRONMENTENDURABLEVARIOUSKINDSOFRAYSCOMETHROUGHTHEAIRFROMOUTERSPACE,BUTENORMOUSQUANTITIESOFRADIATIONFROMTHESUNARESCREENEDOFFASSOONASMENLEAVETHEATMOSPHERETHEYAREEXPOSEDTOTHISRADIATIONBUTTHEIRSPACESUITSORTHEWALLSOFTHEIRSPACECRAFT,IFTHEYAREINSIDE,DOPREVENTALOTOFRADIATIONDAMAGERADIATIONISTHEGREATESTKNOWNDANGERTOEXPLORERSINSPACETHEUNITOFRADIATIONISCALLED“REM”SCIENTISTSHAVEREASONTOTHINKTHATAMANCANPUTUPWITHFARMORERADIATIONTHAN01REMWITHOUTBEINGDAMAGED;THEFIGUREOF60REMSHASBEENAGREEDONTHETROUBLEISTHATITISEXTREMELYDIFFICULTTOBESUREABOUTRADIATIONDAMAGEAPERSONMAYFEELPERFECTLYWELL,BUTTHECELLSOFHISORHERSEXORGANSMAYBEDAMAGED,ANDTHISWILLNOTBEDISCOVEREDUNTILTHEBIRTHOFDEFORMED畸形的CHILDRENOREVENGRANDCHILDRENMISSIONSOFTHEAPOLLOFLIGHTSHAVEHADTOCROSSBELTSOFHIGHAMOUNTOFREMSSOFAR,NODANGEROUSAMOUNTSOFRADIATIONHAVEBEENREPORTED,BUTTHEAPOLLOMISSIONSHAVEBEENQUITESHORTWESIMPLYDONOTKNOWYETHOWMENAREGOINGTOGETONWHENTHEYSPENDWEEKSANDMONTHSOUTSIDETHEPROTECTIONOFTHEATMOSPHERE,WORKINGINASPACELABORATORYDRUGSMIGHTHELPTODECREASETHEDAMAGEDONEBYRADIATION,BUTNOREALLYEFFECTIVEONESHAVEBEENFOUNDSOFAR21ACCORDINGTOTHEFIRSTPARAGRAPH,THEATMOSPHEREISESSENTIALTOMANINTHATAITPROTECTSHIMAGAINSTTHEHARMFULRAYSFROMSPACEBITPROVIDESSUFFICIENTLIGHTFORPLANTGROWTHCITSUPPLIESTHEHEATNECESSARYFORHUMANSURVIVALDITSCREENSOFFTHEFALLINGMETEORS【】22WEKNOWFROMTHEPASSAGETHATAEXPOSURETOEVENTINYAMOUNTSOFRADIATIONISFATALBTHEEFFECTOFEXPOSURETORADIATIONISSLOWINCOMINGCRADIATIONISAVOIDABLEINSPACEEXPLORATIONDASTRONAUTSINSPACESUITSNEEDNTWORRYABOUTRADIATIONDAMAGE【】23THEHARMRADIATIONHASDONETOTHEAPOLLOCREWMEMBERSAISINSIGNIFICANTBSEEMSOVERESTIMATEDCISENORMOUSDREMAINSUNKNOWN【】24ITCANBEINFERREDFROMTHEPASSAGETHATATHEAPOLLOMISSIONWASVERYSUCCESSFULBPROTECTIONFROMSPACERADIATIONISNOEASYJOBCASTRONAUTSWILLHAVEDEFORMEDCHILDRENORGRANDCHILDRENDRADIATIONISNOTATHREATTOWELLPROTECTEDSPACEEXPLORERS【】25THEBESTTITLEFORTHISPASSAGEWOULDBEATHEATMOSPHEREANDOURENVIRONMENTBRESEARCHONRADIATIONCEFFECTSOFSPACERADIATIONDIMPORTANCEOFPROTECTIONAGAINSTRADIATION【】PASSAGETWOQUESTIONS26TO30AREBASEDONTHEFOLLOWINGPASSAGEFORSOMETIMEPASTITHASBEENWIDELYACCEPTEDTHATBABIESANDOTHERCREATURESLEARNTODOTHINGSBECAUSECERTAINACTSLEADTO“REWARDS”;ANDTHEREISNOREASONTODOUBTTHATTHISISTRUEBUTITUSEDALSOTOBEWIDELYBELIEVEDTHATEFFECTIVEREWARDS,ATLEASTINTHEEARLYSTAGES,HADTOBEDIRECTLYRELATEDTOSUCHBASICPHYSIOLOGICAL生理的“DRIVES”ASTHIRSTORHUNGERINOTHERWORDS,ABABYWOULDLEARNIFHEGOTFOODORDRINKORSOMESORTOFPHYSICALCOMFORT,NOTOTHERWISEITISNOWCLEARTHATTHISISNOTSOBABIESWILLLEARNTOBEHAVEINWAYSTHATPRODUCERESULTSINTHEWORLDWITHNOREWARDEXCEPTTHESUCCESSFULOUTCOMEPAPOUSEKBEGANHISSTUDIESBYUSINGMILKINTHENORMALWAYTO“REWARD”THEBABIESANDSOTEACHTHEMTOCARRYOUTSOMESIMPLEMOVEMENTS,SUCHASTURNINGTHEHEADTOONESIDEORTHEOTHERTHENHENOTICEDTHATABABYWHOHADHADENOUGHTODRINKWOULDREFUSETHEMILKBUTWOULDSTILLGOONMAKINGTHELEARNEDRESPONSEWITHCLEARSIGNSOFPLEASURESOHEBEGANTOSTUDYTHECHILDRENSRESPONSESINSITUATIONSWHERENOMILKWASPROVIDEDHEQUICKLYFOUNDTHATCHILDRENASYOUNGASFOURMONTHSWOULDLEARNTOTURNTHEIRHEADSTORIGHTORLEFTIFTHEMOVEMENT“SWITCHEDON”ADISPLAYOFLIGHTSANDINDEEDTHATTHEYWERECAPABLEOFLEARNINGQUITECOMPLEXTURNSTOBRINGABOUTTHISRESULT,FORINSTANCE,TWOLEFTORTWORIGHT,OREVENTOMAKEASMANYASTHREETURNSTOONESIDEPAPOUSEKSLIGHTDISPLAYWASPLACEDDIRECTLYINFRONTOFTHEBABIESANDHEMADETHEINTERESTINGOBSERVATIONTHATSOMETIMESTHEYWOULDNOTTURNBACKTOWATCHTHELIGHTSCLOSELYALTHOUGHTHEYWOULD“SMILEANDBUBBLE”WHENTHEDISPLAYCAMEONPAPOUSEKCONCLUDEDTHATITWASNOTPRIMARILYTHESIGHTOFTHELIGHTSWHICHPLEASEDTHEM,ITWASTHESUCCESSTHEYWEREACHIEVINGINSOLVINGTHEPROBLEM,INMASTERINGTHESKILL,ANDTHATTHEREEXISTSAFUNDAMENTALHUMANURGETOMAKESENSEOFTHEWORLDANDBRINGITUNDERINTENTIONALCONTROL26ACCORDINGTOTHEAUTHOR,BABIESLEARNTODOTHINGSWHICHAAREDIRECTLYRELATEDTOPLEASUREBWILLMEETTHEIRPHYSICALNEEDSCWILLBRINGTHEMAFEELINGOFSUCCESSDWILLSATISFYTHEIRCURIOSITY【】27PAPOUSEKNOTICEDINHISSTUDIETHATABABYAWOULDMAKELEARNEDRESPONSESWHENITSAWTHEMILKBWOULDCARRYOUTLEARNEDMOVEMENTSWHENITHADENOUGHTODRINKCWOULDCONTINUETHESIMPLEMOVEMENTSWITHOUTBEINGGIVENMILKDWOULDTURNITSHEADTORIGHTORLEFTWHENITHADENOUGHTODRINK【】28INPAPOUSEKSEXPERIMENTBABIESMAKELEARNEDMOVEMENTSOFTHEHEADINORDERTOAHAVETHELIGHTSTURNEDONBPLEASETHEIRPARENTSCBEREWARDEDWITHMILKDBEPRAISED【】29THEBABIESWOULD“SMILEANDBUBBLE”ATTHELIGHTSBECAUSEATHELIGHTSWEREDIRECTLYRELATEDTOSOMEBASIC“DRIVES”BTHESIGHTOFTHELIGHTSWASINTERESTINGCTHEYNEEDNOTTURNBACKTOWATCHTHELIGHTSDTHEYSUCCEEDEDIN“SWITCHINGON”THELIGHTS【】30ACCORDINGTOPAPOUSEK,THEPLEASUREBABIESGETINACHIEVINGSOMETHINGISAREFLECTIONOFAABASICHUMANDESIRETOUNDERSTANDANDCONTROLTHEWORLDBTHESATISFACTIONOFCERTAINPHYSIOLOGICALNEEDSCTHEIRSTRONGDESIRETOSOLVECOMPLEXPROBLEMSDAFUNDAMENTALHUMANURGETODISPLAYTHEIRLEARNEDSKILLS【】PASSAGETHREEQUESTIONS31TO35AREBASEDONTHEFOLLOWINGPASSAGEPSYCHOLOGISTSTAKEOPPOSINGVIEWSOFHOWEXTERNALREWARDS,FROMWARMPRAISETOCOLDCASH,AFFECTMOTIVATIONANDCREATIVITYBEHAVIORISTS,WHOSTUDYTHERELATIONBETWEENACTIONSANDTHEIRCONSEQUENCES,ARGUETHATREWARDSCANIMPROVEPERFORMANCEATWORKANDSCHOOLCOGNITIVE认知学派的RESEARCHERS,WHOSTUDYVARIOUSASPECTSOFMENTALLIFE,MAINTAINTHATREWARDSOFTENDESTROYCREATIVITYBYENCOURAGINGDEPENDENCEONAPPROVALANDGIFTSFROMOTHERSTHELATTERVIEWHASGAINEDMANYSUPPORTERS,ESPECIALLYAMONGEDUCATORSBUTTHECAREFULUSEOFSMALLMONETARY金钱的REWARDSSPARKSCREATIVITYINGRADESCHOOLCHILDREN,SUGGESTINGTHATPROPERLYPRESENTEDINDUCEMENTS刺激INDEEDAIDINVENTIVENESS,ACCORDINGTOASTUDYINTHEJUNEJOURNALOFPERSONALITYANDSOCIALPSYCHOLOGY“IFKIDSKNOWTHEYREWORKINGFORAREWARDANDCANFOCUSONARELATIVELYCHALLENGINGTASK,THEYSHOWTHEMOSTCREATIVITY,”SAYSROBERTEISENBERGEROFTHEUNIVERSITYOFDELAWAREINNEWARD“BUTITSEASYTOKILLCREATIVITYBYGIVINGREWARDSFORPOORPERFORMANCEORCREATINGTOOMUCHANTICIPATIONFORREWARDS”ATEACHERWHOCONTINUALLYDRAWSATTENTIONTOREWARDSORWHOHANDSOUTHIGHGRADESFORORDINARYACHIEVEMENTENDSUPWITHUNINSPIREDSTUDENTS,EISENBERGERHOLDSASANEXAMPLEOFTHELATTERPOINT,HENOTESGROWINGEFFORTSATMAJORUNIVERSITIESTOTIGHTENGRADINGSTANDARDSANDRESTOREFAILINGGRADESINEARLIERGRADES,THEUSEOFSOCALLEDTOKENECONOMIES,INWHICHSTUDENTSHANDLECHALLENGINGPROBLEMSANDRECEIVEBASEDPOINTSTOWARDVALUEDREWARDS,SHOWSPROMISEINRAISINGEFFORTANDCREATIVITY,THEDELAWAREPSYCHOLOGISTCLAIMS31PSYCHOLOGISTSAREDIVIDEDWITHREGARDTOTHEIRATTITUDESTOWARDATHECHOICEBETWEENSPIRITUALENCOURAGEMENTANDMONETARYREWARDSBTHEAMOUNTOFMONETARYREWARDSFORSTUDENTCREATIVITYCTHESTUDYOFRELATIONSHIPBETWEENACTIONSANDTHEIRCONSEQUENCESDTHEEFFECTSOFEXTERNALREWARDSONSTUDENTSPERFORMANCE【】32WHATISTHERESPONSEOFMANYEDUCATORSTOEXTERNALREWARDSFORTHEIRSTUDENTSATHEYHAVENODOUBTSABOUTTHEMBTHEYHAVEDOUBTSABOUTTHEMCTHEYAPPROVEOFTHEMDTHEYAVOIDTALKINGABOUTTHEM【】33WHICHOFTHEFOLLOWINGCANBESTRAISESTUDENTSCREATIVITYACCORDINGTOROBERTEISENBERGERAASSIGNINGTHEMTASKSTHEYHAVENOTDEALTWITHBEFOREBASSIGNINGTHEMTASKSWHICHREQUIREINVENTIVENESSCGIVINGTHEMREWARDSTHEYREALLYDESERVEDGIVINGTHEMREWARDSTHEYANTICIPATE【】34ITCANBEINFERREDFROMTHEPASSAGETHATMAJORUNIVERSITIESARETRYINGTOTIGHTENTHEIRGRADINGSTANDARDSBECAUSETHEYBELIEVEAREWARDINGPOORPERFORMANCEMAYKILLTHECREATIVITYOFSTUDENTSBPUNISHMENTISMOREEFFECTIVETHANREWARDINGCFAILINGUNINSPIREDSTUDENTSHELPSIMPROVETHEIROVERALLACADEMICSTANDARDSDDISCOURAGINGTHESTUDENTSANTICIPATIONFOREASYREWARDSISAMATTEROFURGENCY【】35THEPHRASE“TOKENECONOMIES”LINE1,PARA5PROBABLYREFERSTOAWAYSTODEVELOPECONOMYBSYSTEMSOFREWARDINGSTUDENTSCAPPROACHESTOSOLVINGPROBLEMSDMETHODSOFIMPROVINGPERFORMANCE【】PARTTWOⅣWORDSPELLING10POINTS,1POINTFORTWOITEMS将下列汉语单词译成英语。作为提示,每个单词的词类、首字母及字母数目均已给出。36投票;选举VV37年轻的AY38结合;合成NS39护照NP40鼓励;促进VF41杰出人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