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2005年4月英语二专家预测试卷(一)Ⅰ.VocabularyandStructure10points,1pointforeachitem从下列各句四个选项中选出一个最佳答案。1.Notuntilquiterecentlythatlanguagewascloselyrelatedtoculture.A.IrealizedB.IdidrealizeC.hadIrealizedD.didIrealize【】2.Hehasbeenwidelyexposedthepublicontelevision.A.onB.inC.forD.to【】3.Thequalityoflife,especiallyasbytheindividual,varieswithcultures.A.seenB.seeingC.toseeD.tobeseen【】4.IntheUnitedStates,eggsaresoldthedozen.A.forB.withC.byD.in【】5.Itisjustasfoolishtosaythatoneshouldneverdrinkorangejuiceandmilktogetheritistosaythatoneshouldneverdrinkwaterandbeertogether.A.whenB.asC.whileD.since【】6.Whenyouhearthetape,itwillprofoundquestionsaboutwhatishappeninginourworldwithjuvenileandoursociety.A.causeB.raiseC.drawD.make【】7.Waittillyougetyourintothework,youwillfinditveryinteresting.A.teethB.faceC.mouthD.ear【】8.Therearealwaysthosewhowouldsubstitutefantasylivestherewardsofrealactivity.A.onB.inC.asD.for【】9.Butthatshesawitwithherowneyes,sheit.A.couldnotbelieveB.couldnothavebelievedC.didnotbelieveD.believe【】10.Aftermanydaysofrelaxation,helooksasfreshas.A.waterB.deskC.paintD.tree【】Ⅱ.ClozeTest(10points,1pointforeachitem)下列短文中有十个空白,每个空白有四个选项。根据上下文要求选出最佳答案。IntheEnglisheducationalsystem,students11threeveryimportantexaminations.Thefirstistheelevenplus,whichistakenattheageofelevenoralittlepast.Atonetimetheabilityoraptitude12ontheelevenpluswouldhavedeterminedifachildstayedinschool.Now,however,allchildrencontinueincomprehensiveschools,andtheelevenplusdetermineswhichcoursesofstudythechildwillfollow.Atthe13offifteenorsixteen,thestudentsaretestedfortheOrdinaryLeveloftheGeneralCertificateofEducation.Thisexamination14awiderangeofsubjectsoncestudentshavepassedthisexam,theyareallowedtospecialize,15twothirdsormoreoftheircourseswillbe16physics,chemistry,classicallanguages,orwhatevertheywishtostudy17greaterlength.Thefinalexamination,ateighteen,coversonlythecontentofthespecialsubjects.Evenattheuniversities,studentsstudyonlyintheir18area,andveryfewstudentseverventureoutsidethatsubjectagain19arealsense,theEnglishboyorgirlisaspecialistfromtheageoffifteen.Thisissupposedtobea20descriptionaboutEnglisheducationalsystem.11.A.writeB.takeC.makeD.mean12.A.shownB.showingC.showD.toshow13.A.timeB.dayC.dateD.age14.A.relatingB.coveringC.coversD.relates15.A.sinceB.soasC.sothatD.because16.A.inB.atC.withD.for17.A.inB.atC.overD.on18.A.concentratingB.concentratedC.concentrationD.beingconcentrated19.A.forB.inC.toD.after20.A.detailingB.detailedC.beingdetailedD.detailsⅢ.ReadingComprehension(30points,2pointsforeachitem)从下列每篇短文的问题后所给的四个选择项中选出一个最佳答案。PassageOneQuestions21to25arebasedonthefollowingpassage.Spaceisadangerousplace,notonlybecauseofmeteors流星butalsobecauseofraysfromthesunandotherstars.Theatmosphereagainactsasourprotectiveblanketonearth.Lightgetsthrough,andthisisessentialforplantstomakethefoodwhichweeat.Heat,too,makesourenvironmentendurable.Variouskindsofrayscomethroughtheairfromouterspace,butenormousquantitiesofradiationfromthesunarescreenedoff.Assoonasmenleavetheatmospheretheyareexposedtothisradiationbuttheirspacesuitsorthewallsoftheirspacecraft,iftheyareinside,dopreventalotofradiationdamage.Radiationisthegreatestknowndangertoexplorersinspace.Theunitofradiationiscalledrem.Scientistshavereasontothinkthatamancanputupwithfarmoreradiationthan0.1remwithoutbeingdamagedthefigureof60remshasbeenagreedon.Thetroubleisthatitisextremelydifficulttobesureaboutradiationdamageapersonmayfeelperfectlywell,butthecellsofhisorhersexorgansmaybedamaged,andthiswillnotbediscovereduntilthebirthofdeformed畸形的childrenorevengrandchildren.MissionsoftheApolloflightshavehadtocrossbeltsofhighamountofrems.Sofar,nodangerousamountsofradiationhavebeenreported,buttheApollomissionshavebeenquiteshort.Wesimplydonotknowyethowmenaregoingtogetonwhentheyspendweeksandmonthsoutsidetheprotectionoftheatmosphere,workinginaspacelaboratory.Drugsmighthelptodecreasethedamagedonebyradiation,butnoreallyeffectiveoneshavebeenfoundsofar.21.Accordingtothefirstparagraph,theatmosphereisessentialtomaninthat.A.itprotectshimagainsttheharmfulraysfromspaceB.itprovidessufficientlightforplantgrowthC.itsuppliestheheatnecessaryforhumansurvivalD.itscreensoffthefallingmeteors【】22.Weknowfromthepassagethat.A.exposuretoeventinyamountsofradiationisfatalB.theeffectofexposuretoradiationisslowincomingC.radiationisavoidableinspaceexplorationD.astronautsinspacesuitsneedntworryaboutradiationdamage【】23.TheharmradiationhasdonetotheApollocrewmembers.A.isinsignificantB.seemsoverestimatedC.isenormousD.remainsunknown【】24.Itcanbeinferredfromthepassagethat.A.theApollomissionwasverysuccessfulB.protectionfromspaceradiationisnoeasyjobC.astronautswillhavedeformedchildrenorgrandchildrenD.radiationisnotathreattowellprotectedspaceexplorers【】25.Thebesttitleforthispassagewouldbe.A.TheAtmosphereandOurEnvironmentB.ResearchonRadiationC.EffectsofSpaceRadiationD.ImportanceofProtectionAgainstRadiation【】PassageTwoQuestions26to30arebasedonthefollowingpassage.Forsometimepastithasbeenwidelyacceptedthatbabiesandothercreatureslearntodothingsbecausecertainactsleadtorewardsandthereisnoreasontodoubtthatthisistrue.Butitusedalsotobewidelybelievedthateffectiverewards,atleastintheearlystages,hadtobedirectlyrelatedtosuchbasicphysiological生理的drivesasthirstorhunger.Inotherwords,ababywouldlearnifhegotfoodordrinkorsomesortofphysicalcomfort,nototherwise.Itisnowclearthatthisisnotso.Babieswilllearntobehaveinwaysthatproduceresultsintheworldwithnorewardexceptthesuccessfuloutcome.Papousekbeganhisstudiesbyusingmilkinthenormalwaytorewardthebabiesandsoteachthemtocarryoutsomesimplemovements,suchasturningtheheadtoonesideortheother.Thenhenoticedthatababywhohadhadenoughtodrinkwouldrefusethemilkbutwouldstillgoonmakingthelearnedresponsewithclearsignsofpleasure.Sohebegantostudythechildrensresponsesinsituationswherenomilkwasprovided.Hequicklyfoundthatchildrenasyoungasfourmonthswouldlearntoturntheirheadstorightorleftifthemovementswitchedonadisplayoflightsandindeedthattheywerecapableoflearningquitecomplexturnstobringaboutthisresult,forinstance,twoleftortworight,oreventomakeasmanyasthreeturnstooneside.Papousekslightdisplaywasplaceddirectlyinfrontofthebabiesandhemadetheinterestingobservationthatsometimestheywouldnotturnbacktowatchthelightscloselyalthoughtheywouldsmileandbubblewhenthedisplaycameon.Papousekconcludedthatitwasnotprimarilythesightofthelightswhichpleasedthem,itwasthesuccesstheywereachievinginsolvingtheproblem,inmasteringtheskill,andthatthereexistsafundamentalhumanurgetomakesenseoftheworldandbringitunderintentionalcontrol.26.Accordingtotheauthor,babieslearntodothingswhich.A.aredirectlyrelatedtopleasureB.willmeettheirphysicalneedsC.willbringthemafeelingofsuccessD.willsatisfytheircuriosity【】27.Papouseknoticedinhisstudiethatababy.A.wouldmakelearnedresponseswhenitsawthemilkB.wouldcarryoutlearnedmovementswhenithadenoughtodrinkC.wouldcontinuethesimplemovementswithoutbeinggivenmilkD.wouldturnitsheadtorightorleftwhenithadenoughtodrink【】28.InPapouseksexperimentbabiesmakelearnedmovementsoftheheadinorderto.A.havethelightsturnedonB.pleasetheirparentsC.berewardedwithmilkD.bepraised【】29.Thebabieswouldsmileandbubbleatthelightsbecause.A.thelightsweredirectlyrelatedtosomebasicdrivesB.thesightofthelightswasinterestingC.theyneednotturnbacktowatchthelightsD.theysucceededinswitchingonthelights【】30.AccordingtoPapousek,thepleasurebabiesgetinachievingsomethingisareflectionof.A.abasichumandesiretounderstandandcontroltheworldB.thesatisfactionofcertainphysiologicalneedsC.theirstrongdesiretosolvecomplexproblemsD.afundamentalhumanurgetodisplaytheirlearnedskills【】PassageThreeQuestions31to35arebasedonthefollowingpassage.Psychologiststakeopposingviewsofhowexternalrewards,fromwarmpraisetocoldcash,affectmotivationandcreativity.Behaviorists,whostudytherelationbetweenactionsandtheirconsequences,arguethatrewardscanimproveperformanceatworkandschool.Cognitive认知学派的researchers,whostudyvariousaspectsofmentallife,maintainthatrewardsoftendestroycreativitybyencouragingdependenceonapprovalandgiftsfromothers.Thelatterviewhasgainedmanysupporters,especiallyamongeducators.Butthecarefuluseofsmallmonetary金钱的rewardssparkscreativityingradeschoolchildren,suggestingthatproperlypresentedinducements刺激indeedaidinventiveness,accordingtoastudyintheJuneJournalofPersonalityandSocialPsychology.Ifkidsknowtheyreworkingforarewardandcanfocusonarelativelychallengingtask,theyshowthemostcreativity,saysRobertEisenbergeroftheUniversityofDelawareinNeward.Butitseasytokillcreativitybygivingrewardsforpoorperformanceorcreatingtoomuchanticipationforrewards.Ateacherwhocontinuallydrawsattentiontorewardsorwhohandsouthighgradesforordinaryachievementendsupwithuninspiredstudents,Eisenbergerholds.Asanexampleofthelatterpoint,henotesgrowingeffortsatmajoruniversitiestotightengradingstandardsandrestorefailinggrades.Inearliergrades,theuseofsocalledtokeneconomies,inwhichstudentshandlechallengingproblemsandreceivebasedpointstowardvaluedrewards,showspromiseinraisingeffortandcreativity,theDelawarepsychologistclaims.31.Psychologistsaredividedwithregardtotheirattitudestoward.A.thechoicebetweenspiritualencouragementandmonetaryrewardsB.theamountofmonetaryrewardsforstudentcreativityC.thestudyofrelationshipbetweenactionsandtheirconsequencesD.theeffectsofexternalrewardsonstudentsperformance【】32.WhatistheresponseofmanyeducatorstoexternalrewardsfortheirstudentsA.Theyhavenodoubtsaboutthem.B.Theyhavedoubtsaboutthem.C.Theyapproveofthem.D.Theyavoidtalkingaboutthem.【】33.WhichofthefollowingcanbestraisestudentscreativityaccordingtoRobertEisenbergerA.Assigningthemtaskstheyhavenotdealtwithbefore.B.Assigningthemtaskswhichrequireinventiveness.C.Givingthemrewardstheyreallydeserve.D.Givingthemrewardstheyanticipate.【】34.Itcanbeinferredfromthepassagethatmajoruniversitiesaretryingtotightentheirgradingstandardsbecausetheybelieve.A.rewardingpoorperformancemaykillthecreativityofstudentsB.punishmentismoreeffectivethanrewardingC.failinguninspiredstudentshelpsimprovetheiroverallacademicstandardsD.discouragingthestudentsanticipationforeasyrewardsisamatterofurgency【】35.ThephrasetokeneconomiesLine1,Para.5probablyrefersto.A.waystodevelopeconomyB.systemsofrewardingstudentsC.approachestosolvingproblemsD.methodsofimprovingperformance【】PARTTWOⅣ.WordSpelling10points,1pointfortwoitems将下列汉语单词译成英语。作为提示,每个单词的词类、首字母及字母数目均已给出。36.投票选举v.v37.年轻的a.y38.结合合成n.s39.护照n.p40.鼓励促进v.f41.杰出人物n.e42.侍者服务员n.a43.分界线边界n.b44.面对遭遇v.c45.效率n.e46.使用雇佣n.e47.保证担保v.e48.惯例的常规的a.c49.鼓励使人产生灵感v.i50.经济节约n.e51.过高估计v.o52.种族的a.r53.分开分隔n.s54.幼儿园n.k55.立法v.lⅤ.WordForm(10points,1pointforeachitem)将括号中的各词变为适当的形式填入空白。56.Theysaidhewascapableofholdingpublicoffice,sotheydecidedtodeprivehimofhispost.57.Edisonfailedthousandsoftimesbeforehesucceededinproducingthefirstelectricitylamp.58.Theymistakeintheirappreciationofthecountryseconomicconditions.59.Awrittenscheduleisnecessaryforabeginfreshmanashehashadlittleexperienceandhasnotfoundagoodtimecontrolhabit.60.Oncewastingtimebecomesyourhabit,youwillcontinuewastemoretime.61.Itgoeswithoutsaythathealthymenarehappierthansickmen.62.Thecandidatesforpresidencycampaignedbysendingoutletterstovotersandspeakatpublicmeetings.63.TheIvyLeagueisagroupofeightoldandcompeteuniversitiesofthenortheasternUnitedStates.64.Theburdenofrunningthefactoryistooheavyforhisfailhealth.65.Ifyoulookuptonight,youwillseethatthestarsshinebrightlyinthecloudsky.Ⅵ.TranslationfromChineseintoEnglish(15points,3pointsforeachitem)将下列各句译成英语。66.我们在乡下度过了愉快的周末。至于交通工具,我们没遇到困难。67.我们要相信群众,依靠群众,尊重群众的首创精神。68.科学家们将不得不提出增加世界粮食供应的新方法。69.如果我们早点动身,现在就不会在雨中行走了。70.只是最近我才意识到语言与文化密切相关。Ⅶ.TranslationfromEnglishintoChinese(15points)将下列短文译成汉语。QuantityisequallyimportantataChinesetable.Chinesetendtoorderandintheirownhomes,preparemuch,muchmorefoodthanthenumberofpeopleattendingcanreasonablybeexpectedtoeat.Whenthereisalotoffoodleftoverattheendofthemeal,thehostcanbeassuredthatshehadorderedasufficientquantity.Ofcourse,overtheyears,thispracticehasresultedinanincalculableamountofwastedfoodthough,thankfully,thetrendinrecentyearsseemstobetowardtakingfoodhome.Butthepersistenceofthisemphasisonquantitytellsthecontinuedimportanceofconsiderationsofface.专家预测试卷(一)参考答案Ⅰ.VocabularyandStructure10points,1pointforeachitem1D2D3A4C5B6B7A8D9B10CⅡ.ClozeTest(10points,1pointforeachitem)11B12A13D14C15C16A17B18B19B20BⅢ.ReadingComprehension(30points,2pointsforeachitem)21A22B23D24B25C26C27C28A29D30A31D32B33C34A35BⅣ.WordSpelling10points,1pointfortwoitems36.vote37.youthful38.synthesis39.passport40.foster41.elitist42.attendant43.boundary44.confront45.efficiency46.employment47.ensure48.conventional49.inspire50.economy51.overestimate52.racial53.separation54.kindergarten55.legislateⅤ.WordForm(10points,1pointforeachitem)56.incapable57.electric58.aremistaken59.beginning60.wasting61.saying62.speaking63.competitive64.failing65.cloudlessⅥ.TranslationfromChineseintoEnglish(15points,3pointsforeachitem)66.Wehadadelightfulweekendinthecountry.Asforthetransport,wehadnodifficulty.67.Weshouldtrustthemasses,relyonthemassesandrespecttheirinitiative.68.Scientistswillhavetocomeupwithnewmethodsofincreasingtheworldsfoodsupply.69.Ifwehadsetoutearlier,wewouldntbewalkingintherainnow.70.NotuntilquiterecentlydidIrealizethatlanguagewasclosedrelatedtoculture.Ⅶ.TranslationfromEnglishintoChinese(15points)中国人的餐桌上数量是同样重要的。中国人要点(在家时则是准备)比来人预计能吃的量多得多的饭菜。在吃到最后有很多饭菜剩下来,主人才能肯定点够了。当然,在过去的很多年中,这种做法导致了难以计算的食品浪费(然而,所幸的是,最近几年的趋势朝着吃不了兜着走发展),但是,这种强调数量表明了考虑面子的持久的重要性
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