Passive detection of copy-paste forgery between JPEG imagesPassive detection of copy-paste forgery between JPEG images

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J.CENT.SOUTHUNIV.20121928392851DOIL0.1007/SL177L一012一L3505PASSIVEDETECTIONOFCOPYPASTEFORGERYBETWEENJPEGIMAGESLIXIANGHUA香7匕ZTTAOYUQIAN0前,LIAOMIAO,F.Y_SHIH,YQ,SHI垒SPRINGER1.SCHOOLOFCIVILENGINECRING,CENTRALSOUTHUNIVERSITY,CHANGSHA410083,CHINA;2.SCHOOLOFGEOSCIENCCSANDLNFOPHYSICS,CENTRALSOUTHUNIVERSITY,CHANGSHA410083,CHINA;3.COMPUTINGSCIENCES,NEWJERSEYINSTITUTEOFTECHNOLOGY,NEWARKNJ07102,USA;4.ELECTRICALANDCOMPUTERENGINEERING,NEWJERSEYINSTITUTEOFTECHNOLOGY,NEWARKNJ07102,USA◎CENTRALSOUTHUNIVERSITYPRESSANDSPRINGERVERLAGBERLINHEIDELBERG2012ABSTRACTABLINDDIGITA1JMAGEFORENSICMETHODF0RDETECTINGCOPYPASTEFORGERYBETWEENJPEGIMAGESWASPROPOSED.I、VOCOPYPASTETAMPERINGSCENARIOSWEREINTRODUCEDATFIRSTTHETAMPEREDIMAGEWASSAVEDINANUNCOMPRESSEDFORMATORINAJPEGCOMPRESSEDFORMAT.THENTHEPROPOSEDDETECTIONMETHODWASANALYZEDANDSIMULATEDFORAL1THECASESOFTHETWOTAMPERINGSCENARIOS.THETAMPEREDREGIONISDETECTEDBYCOMPUTINGTHEAVERAGEDSHILLOFABSOLUTEDIFIERENCEASADIMAGESBETWEENTHEEXAMINEDIMAGEANDARESAVEDJPEGCOMPRESSEDIMAGEATDIFFERENTQUALITYFACTORS.THEEXPERIMENTALRESULTSSHOWTHEADVANTAGESOFTHEPROPOSEDMETHODCAPABILITYOFDETECTINGSINAI1AND/ORMULTIPLETAMPEREDREGIONS.SIMPLECOMPUTATION.ANDHENCEFASTSPEEDINPROCESSING.KEYWORDSIMAGEFORENSIC;JPEGCOMPRESSION;COPYPASTEFORGERY;PASSIVEDETECTION;TAMPEREDIMAGE;COMPRESSEDIMAGE1INTRODUCTIONTHEAUTHENTICITYOFDIGITALIMAGESPLAYSANIMPORTANTROLEINMANYFIELDSSUCHASFORENSICINVESTIGATION,CRIMINALINVESTIGATION,SURVEILLANCESYSTEMS,INTELLIGENCESERVICES,DISASTERFORECAST,ANDJOURNALISM1.THEARTOFMAKINGANIMAGEFAKERYHASALONGHISTORY.INTHERAPIDLYDEVELOPINGDIGITALAGE,THEIMAGECANBETAMPEREDEASILYWITHOUTLEAVINGPERCEPTIBLETRACES.UNDOUBTEDLY,THISBRINGSDIFFICULTYFORPEOPLETOPROVETHETRUSTWORTHINESSOFDIGITALIMAGES.THEREFORE,THEIMAGEFORENSICSTECHNOLOGIESAREBECOMINGINCREASINGLYIMPORTANT23.RECENTLY,MANYPASSIVEIMAGEFORENSICAUTHENTICITYTECHNIQUESHAVEBEENDEVELOPEDWHICHCANBEGROUPEDINTOTHEFOLLOWINGFIVECATEGORIES【41PIXELBASEDTECHNIQUES,2FORMAT.BASEDTECHNIQUES,3CAMERABASEDTECHNIQUES,4PHYSICALLYBASEDTECBNIQUES,AND5GEOMETRICBASEDTECHNIQUES.THESETECHNIQUESAREUSEDTOIDENTIFYTHEIMAGESOURCESANDEXPOSEFORGERIESTHROUGHDETECTINGSOMEINTRINSICIMAGEREGULARITIESORSOMECOMMONTAMPERINGANOMALIESF5.JPEGISACOMMONLYUSEDCOMPRESSIONSTANDARDFORPHOTOGRAPHICIMAGES.THEDEGREEOFCOMPRESSIONCANBEADJUSTED,ALLOWINGASELECTABLETRADEOFFBETWEENSTORAGESIZEANDIMAGEQUALITY.JPEGISALSOTHEMOSTCOMMONIMAGEFORMAT,USEDBYDIGITALCAMERASANDOTHERPHOTOGRAPHICIMAGECAPTUREDEVICES.JPEGCOMPRESSIONISBASEDONBLOCKSPLITTINGANDDISCRETECOSINETRANSFORILLDCT,SOITINTRODUCESBLOCKINGARTIFACT.INFACTTHEBLOCKINGARTIFACTCANBEREGARDEDASASPECIAIHIDDENWATERMARKINJPEGIMAGES.ANDTAMPERINGCANBEFOUNDBYDETECTINGTHEINTEGRITYANDCONSISTENCEOFTHESPECIALWATERMARK.INREF.6,THEBLOCKINGARTIFACTGRIDBAGEXTRACTIONMETHODWASPROPOSEDTODETECTTHEDOCTOREDJPEGIMAGESBYCHECKINGTHEMISMATCHEDBLOCKARTIFACTCAUSEDBYCOPYPASTEDJPEGIMAGES.INRE7,LU0ETALPRESENTEDTHEBLOCKINGARTIFACTCHARACTERISTICSMATRIXBACM,WHICHEXHIBITSREGULARSYMMEICA1SHAPEFORORIGINALJPEGIMAGES,ANDAPPLIEDITTOEXPOSEDIGITALFORGERIESBYDETECTINGTHESYMMETRICALCHANGEOFBACM.THEMETHODISONLYEFHCIENTFORTHECROPPEDANDRECOMPRESSEDIMAGES.BASEDONBACM,BARNIETAL『81PROPOSEDTWOALGORITHMSOFDETECTINGTHECOPYPASTETAMPERINGBYDOUBLEJPEGDETECTIONANDIMAGESEGMENTATION.BUTBOTHOFTHEALGORITHINSARETIMECONSUMING,ANDTHESEGMENTATIONCOULDBEVERYDJFFICULTFORSOMETAMPEREDIMAGESIFTHETAMPEREDREGIONSCANNOTBESEGMENTEDSUCCESSFULLV.11OMEASURETHEINCONSISTENCIESOFBLOCKINGARTIFACT,YEETA1F91PRESENTEDAFASTQUANTIZATIONTABLEESTIMATIONALGORITHMBASEDONTHEHISTOGRAMPOWERSPECTRUMOFDCTCOEFFICIENTS.BUTSUSPICIOUSAREAMUSTBEFIRSTLYSELECTEDFOREVALUATION,WHICHISACTUALLYDIFFICULT.INREFF101,ASTATISTICA1MODELBASEDONTHEGENERALIZEDBENFORD’SLAWFOUNDATIONITEMPROJECT61172184SUPPOLLEDBYTHENATIONALNATURALSCIENCEFOUNDATIONOFCHINA;PROJECT200902482SUPPOSEDBYCHINAPOSTDOCTORALSCIENCEFOUNDATIONSPECIALLYFUNDEDPROJECT;PROJECT12JJ6062SUPPORTEDBYTHENATURALSCIENCEFOUNDATIONOFHUNANPROVINCE,CHINARECEIVEDDATE20120202;ACCEPTEDDATE20120502CORRESPONDINGAUTHORZHAOYUQIAN,ASSOCIATEPROFESSOR,PHD;TEL十8689929876;EMAILZHAOCSUHOTMAILCOM2840一兰三二三FORGERYDETECTIONMETHODISPROPOSED.FORTHEPROBABILITYDISTRIBUTIONSOFTHEFIRSTDIGITSOFTHEQUANTIZEDJPEGCOEFFICIENTSISUSEDTODETECTTHEJPEGCOMPRESSIONANDIMAGEFORENSICS.LINETAL『1L1DEVELOPEDAMETHODFORDETECTINGCHETAMPEREDJPEGIMAGESBYEXAMININGTHEDOUBLEQUANTIZATIONEFFECTHIDDENAMONGTHEDCTCOEFFICIENTS,ANDCOMPUTINGTHEBLOCKPOSTERIORPROBABILITYMAPBPPMBYBAYESIANAPPROACH.COPYMOVEFORGERYDETECTIONMETHODSWEREPROPOSEDINREFS.12一L6】,BUTTHEYAREONLYEFFECTIVEWHENAPARTOFTHEIMAGEISCOPIEDANDPASTEDINTOANOTHERPARTOFTHESAMEIMAGE.LUOETAL17INTRODUCEDTHEJPEGQUANTIZATION,ROUNDING,ANDTRUNCATIONERRORSTOIDENTIF3,WHETHERABITMAPIMAGEHASPREVIOUSLYBEENJPEGCOMPRESSED.TOESTIMATETHEQUANTIZATIONSTEPSOFAJPEGIMAGE,ANDTODETECTTHEQUANTIZATIONTABLEOFAJPEGIMAGE.WANGETAL18】PROPOSEDATAMPEREDREGIONLOCALIZATIONMETHODBYEMPLOYINGPRINCIPALCOMPONENTANALYSISPCAONJPEGCOMPRESSIONNOISE,INWHICHTHEEXTRACTEDHIGHFREQUENCYQUANTIZATIONNOISEREGIONINTHEDIFFERENCEIMAGEBETWEENTHEORIGINA1IMAGEANDJPEGCOMPRESSEDIMAGEISCONSIDEREDASTHETAMPEREDREGION.FORDIGITALFORENSICS,FARIDETALHAVECONDUCTEDSOMEPIONEERINGWORKSANDHAVEDEVELOPEDSOMEEFFECTIVEMETHODSF192L】.INREF.『2O1,JPEGGHOSTWASPROPOSEDTODETECTIMAGETAMPERING.THISISACOMPUTATIONALLYSIMPLETECHNIQUEFORDETECTINGTAMPEREDREGIONWHENAJPEGCOMPRESSEDIMAGEWITHQUALITYFACTORQIISINSERTEDINTOANUNCOMPRESSEDIMAGE,ANDTHENTHETAMPEREDIMAGEISSAVEDATAJPEGCOMPRESSEDIMAGEWITHAQUALITYFACTORQ2ANDQ2Q1.INSPIREDBYRE£201,WEPROPOSEINTHISWORKABLINDDIGITALIMAGEFORENSICSMETHODFORDETECTINGCOPYPASTEFORGERYBETWEENJPEGIMAGESITWORKSFORTWOTAMPERINGSCENARIOS.FIRST,TAMPERINGISCONDUCTEDBETWEENJPEGIMAGES,ANDTHECOMPOSITEIMAGEISSAVEDINANUNCOMPRESSEDFORMAT,SUCHASBMPORTIFORPNGSECOND,TAMPERINGISDONEBETWEENJPEGIMAGES.ANDTHECOMPOSITEIMAGEISSAVEDINTHEJPEGFORMAT.THEREGIONSTHATAREOBVIOUSLYBRIGHTERORDARKERTHANTHERESTINTHEIMAGEOFAVERAGEDSUMOFABSOLUTEDIFFERENCEASADAREIDENTIFIEDASTHETAMPEREDREGIONS.ALTHOUGHTHEJPEGQUALITYFACTORISRELEVANTINOURPROPOSEDMETHOD,THEESTIMATIONOFTHEPRIMARYQUANTIZATIONMATRIX10,2224ISNOTREQUIRED.2METHODOLOGYINTHISSECTION,WEFIRSTINTRODUCETWOCOPYPASTEIMAGETAMPERINGSCENARIOSANDBRIEFLYREVIEWJPEGCOMPRESSIONANDDECOMPRESSION.THENWEANALYZETWOTAMPERINGSCENARIOSBYSIMULATIONANDDETECTTHETAMPEREDIMAGESBYEXAMPLES.FINALLY,THECOPYPASTE2.1TAMPERINGSCENARIOSCOPY。PASTEPROCESSINGISARUDIMENTARYANDOFTENPRIMARYMETHODFORDIGITALIMAGETAMPERING.ASJPEGISAWIDELYUSEDIMAGEFORMATINOURDAILYLIFE.WEDISCUSSCOPY。PASTETAMPERINGBETWEENJPEGIMAGESWHICHHAVEDIFFERENTJPEGQUALITYFACTORS.THATIS,AREGIONCANBESELECTEDCOMINGFROMANJPEGCOMPRESSEDIMAGEWITHAQUALITYFACTOROFQ1A.ITISTHENDECOMPRESSEDAND1NSERTEDINTOANOTHERIMAGEWITHTHEJPEGQUALITYFACTOROFQ1B.THECOMPOSITEIMAGEISTHENSAVEDASEITHERANUNCOMPRESSEDFORMATSCENARIOI、ORAJPEGCOMPRESSEDFORMATWITHAQUALITYFACTOROFQ。SCENARIOII.IFITISNOTSPECIFIED,INTHERESTOFTHEPAPER,WEDENOTEJPEGQUALITYFACTORBYCAPITALLETTERQ,ANDQUANTIZATIONSTEPBYLOWERCASELETTERQ.NOTETHATTHEIOCATIONSOFCOPYANDPASTECANBEARBITRARYANDTHEABOVECOPY’PASTEPROCESSINGCANALSOBECONDUCTEDONTHESAMEIMAGE.2.2BRIEFREVIEWABOUTJPEGCOMPRESSIONANDDECOMPRESSIONPRIORTOPRESENTINGOURMETHOD,WEBRIEFLYREVIEWTHESTANDARDJEPGCOMPRESSIONINTHEFOLLOWINGFOURSTEPS.1ARGBCOLORIMAGEISFIRSTLYCONVERTEDTOYCBCRFORMAT,CONTAININGONELUMINANCECOMPONENTYANDTWOCHROMINANCECOMPONENTSCBANDCR1.2THEIMAGEISTHENSPLITINTONONOVERLAPPINGBLOCKSOF8X8PIXELS.INEACHBLOCK,THEYCB,ANDCRCOMPONENTSUNDERGOADCTTRANSFORMAFTERALLTHESEPIXELSVALUESBEINGCONVERTEDFROMUNSIGNEDTOSIGNEDINTEGERSE.G.,FROM0,255TO一128,127.F3EACHDCTCOEFFICIENTCISDIVIDEDBYAQUANTIZATIONSTEPQANDTHENROUNDEDTOITSNEARESTINTEGER.41THEQUANTIZEDDCTCOEFFICIENTSFORALL8X8BLOCKSAREENTROPYENCODED,USING,SAY,HUFFMANCODE.INSTEP3,ALARGERQUANTIZATIONSTEPGWILLYIELDASEVERERCOMPRESSIONRATE,WHICHMEANSLOWERQUALITYOFJPEGIMAGE,ANDVICEVERSA.BECAUSEHUMANVISUALSYSTEMISMUCHMORESENSITIVETOSMAL1VARIATIONSOVERLOWFREQUENCYCOMPONENTSTHANTOTHATOVERHIGHFREQUENCYCOMPONENTS,THEMAGNITUDESOFTHEHI曲FREQUENCYCOMPONENTSARESTOREDWITHALOWERACCURACY也ANTHATOFTHELOWFREQUENCYCOMPONENTS.THEDECODINGOFAJPEGIMAGEINVOLVESSTRAIGHTFORWARDLYTHEINVERSESTEPSOFJPEGCOMPRESSIONENTROPYDECODING,INVERSEDCTFIDCTANDINVERSEJPEGQUANTIZATION.INOURMETHOD,TODETECTTHECOPYPASTEANDTHETAMPEREDREGION.WEFIRSTRESAVEDTHETO.BEDETECTEDJ.CENT.SOUTHUNIV.2012L928392851IMAGEINJPEGFORMATWITHDIFFERENTJPEGQUALITYFACTORS,ANDTHENCOMPUTETHEASADIMAGESBETWEENTHETO_BEDETECTEDIMAGEANDEACHRESAVEDJPEGCOMPRESSEDIMAGE.FINALLY,WEJUDGEWHETHERTHEIMAGEHASBEENTAMPEREDAND,IFSO,DETERMINETHETAMPEREDREGIONBYOBSERVINGTHEGENERATEDASADIMAGES.IFANYREGIONINTHEASADIMAGESTURNSOUTTOBEBRIGHTERORDARKERTHANTHERESTREGIONSOFTHESAMEASADIMAGE,THEREGMNCORRESPONDINGTOTHEIMAGEUNDEREXAMINATIONISCONSIDEREDTOBETAMPERED.NOTETHATINTHEFIRSTSTEPOFOURMETHOD,AFTERBEINGRESAVEDINJPEGFORMAT,THETO_BEDETECTEDIMAGEUNDERGOESANOTHERJPEGCOMPRESSION.28412.3TAMPERINGDETECTIONFORSCENARIO1INTHISSECTION,WEINTRODUCETHESIMULATIONCURVESOFCOPYPASTETAMPERINGDETECTIONFORSCENARIOI。ANDPROVIDEANEXAMPLETOILLUSTRATEHOWTODETECTTHETAMPEREDREGION.TOFACILITATEOURANALYSIS,WEOBTAINASEQUENCEOFCOEFFICIENTSTHEPIXELVALUESFROMA512512UNCOMPRESSEDGRAYSCALELENAIMAGECOLUMNBYCOLUMNFROM,E.G.,LEFTTORIGHTANDDENOTETHESECOEFFICIENTSBYCOWEAPPLYDOUBLEJPEGCOMPRESSIONTOTHESECOEFFICIENTSWITHTHEFIRSTQUANTIZATIONSTEP,G1Z,TOOBTAINCOEFFICIENTSC1F,ANDTHENTHESECONDQUANTIZATIONSTEP,Q2F,TOYIELDCOEFFICIENTSC2F.WECOMPUTETHEASADVALUEBETWEENC2IANDC1ASSADF512512厶一NLC2,Z一C1I,F0,1LETGLDENOTEINTEGERSFROM9TO23INANINCREMENTOF7,Q2AQ2KL6,ANDQ2A一G2G.THESOLIDDASHCURVEINEACHGRAPHOFFIG.1SHOWSTHEASADVALUEBETWEENC2ANDC】C】/7ASAFUNCTIONOFQRANGINGFROM1TO30INANINCREMENTOF1.ITCANBEOBSERVEDTHATCURVES6CANDINEACHGRAPHDONOTOVERLAPEXCEPTWHENG1N1,ASSHOWNINFIG.1B.THECURVECREACHESITSMINIMUMIFQLNGIISINTEGERMULTIPLESOFG,ANDCURVEREACHESITSLOCA1MAXIMUMWHENQISDOUBLEOF1D,I.E.Q2Q218,ASSHOWNINFIG.1A.FROMFIGS.1AANDFC1。WEALSOOBSERVEANOTHERCHARACTERISTICTHAT,THEDIFFERENCEBETWEENCURVESAND,DENOTEDBYD,ISOBVIOUSATSOMEQUANTIZATIONSTEPSQ.ITISOBSERVEDFROMTHEABOVESIMULATIONTHATIFTHESAME1.DDATASEQUENCEISQUANTIZEDWITHTWODIFFERENTQUANTIZATIONSTEPS,ONECANDOUBLYQUANFIZETHESETWOSEQUENCESWITHASERIESOFDIFFERENTQUANTIZATIONSTEPSANDOBTAI
编号:201403101438519298    类型:共享资源    大小:2.21MB    格式:PDF    上传时间:2014-03-10
  
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passive detection of copy paste forgery between jpeg images
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本文标题:Passive detection of copy-paste forgery between JPEG images
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