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外文翻译---高速铣加工中轴转矩的模糊控制.doc外文翻译---高速铣加工中轴转矩的模糊控制.doc

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编号:201311171059315628    类型:共享资源    大小:410.00KB    格式:DOC    上传时间:2013-11-17
  
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附录A:英文资料TechnicalBriefsFuzzyControlofSpindleTorqueinHigh-SpeedMillingProcessesRodolfoHaber-GuerraInstitutodeAutomáticaIndustrial(CSIC),kin.22800N-III,LaProveda,28500Madrid,SpainStevenY.LiangTheGeorgeW.WoodruffSchoolofMechanicalEngineering,GeorgiaInstituteofTechnology,801FerstDrive,N.W.,Atlanta,GA30332-0405JoseR.AliqueInstitutodeAutomáticaIndustrial(CSIC),km.22800N-III,LaProveda,28500Madrid,SpainRodolfoHaber-HaberUniversidaddeOriente,Ave.Americass/n.,SantiagodeCuba,90400CubaThispaperpresentsthedesignandimplementationofatwo-input/two-outputfuzzylogic-basedtorquecontrolsystemembeddedinanopenarchitecturecomputernumericalcontrol(CNC)foroptimizingthematerialremovalrateinhigh-speedmillingprocesses.ThecontrolsystemadjuststhefeedrateandspindlespeedsimultaneouslyasneededtoregulatethecuttingtorqueusingtheCNC'sownresources.Thecontrolsystemconsistsofatwo-input(i.e.,torqueerrorandchangeoferror),two-output(i.e.,feedrateandspindlespeedincrement)fuzzycontroller;whichisembeddedwithinkernelofastandardopencontrol.Twoapproachesaretested,andtheirperformanceisassessedusingseveralperformancemeasurements.Theseapproachesareatwo-input/two-outputfuzzycontrollerandasingle-output(i.e.,feedratemodificationonly)fuzzycontroller.Theresultsdemonstratethattheproposedcontrolstrategyprovidesbetteraccuracyandmachiningcycletimethanotherstrategies,thusincreasingthemetalremovalrate.[DOI:I0.1115/1.2194063]Keywords:fuzzycontrol,torque,high-speedmillingContributedbytheManufacturingEngineeringDivisionofASMEforpublicationintheJOURNALOFMANUFACTURINGSCIENCEANDENGINEERING.ManuscriptreceivedAugust19,2005:finalrevisionreceivedFebruary14,2006.ReviewconductedbyC.J.Li.IntroductionInordertoimprovemachiningefficiencyinahigh-speedmillingprocessthroughahighermaterialremovalrate,thisstudyfocusesonthedesignandimplementationofatwo-input/two-output(TITO)fuzzycontrolsystemforspindletorque.Themajorissuetobedealtwithisthenewdevelopmentandapplicationoffuzzylogic(FL)usingtheCNC'sownresources.Noadditionalhardwareoverheadisrequired,sincethecontrolalgorithmisembeddedwithinthekernelofastandardopencontrol.Fuzzylogic(FL)wasselectedoutofalltheavailabletechniques,becauseithasprovenusefulasahighlypracticaloptimizingtoolforcontrolandindustrialengineering.Tothebestofourknowledge,themainadvantageofthisapproachisthatitincludes:(i)afuzzycontrollerembeddedinanopenarchitectureCNCtodealwiththeproductionenvironment;(ii)asimplecomputationalprocedureforfulfillingthetimerequirements;and(iii)norestrictionsintermsofsensorcost(thetorquesignalisprovidedbytheopenCNC),wiring,orsynchronizationwiththeCNC.Thispaperisorganizedasfollows:InSec.Ⅱwepresentabriefstudyofamechanisticmodelforpredictingcuttingforceandspindletorque;inSec.IIIwedescribethedesignofthefuzzycontrollertooptimizethemillingprocess;inSec.IVwedescribehowthefuzzycontrollercanbeembeddedinopenarchitectureCNCs,andwediscussthekeydesignandprogrammingstages;inSec.Vwereviewtheexperimentalresultsandexploresomeofthecomparativestudies.Finally,wepresentconclusionsinSec.VI.High-SpeedMilling-ProcessControlBasedontheSpindleTorqueSignalThemechanisticmodelestimatescutting-forcevectorsandspindletorqueonthebasisoffeedrate,spindlespeed,andmaterialconstants.Themechanisticmodelofendmillingimplementedinthisresearchisbasedon[1,2].Inordertomakeasimplifiedmodel,weusedthefollowingapproximation[3,4]:Ifthefeed-per-toothvalueftjissmallwithregardtothetoolradiusD/2,thenforatoolfedinthepositiveXdirection,theinstantaneouschipthicknesshjisrelatedtotherotationangleofthecuttingtool.Asthecuttingtoolrotates,chipthicknessvariesasafunctionoftheradialangle(Φ)andaxialangle(κ)ofthecuttingtoolhj(Φj)=fijsinΦj·sinκ(1)Therefore,onthebasisoftheaboveapproximation,andforroughingandsemifinishedcutting,itisnotnecessarytoextracttheinstantaneouschipthicknessfromthevolumeinformation.Certainly,acorrectvalueofthefeedpertoothfijnotonlyincreasestoolperformancebutalsoimprovestheefficiencyofthemachiningprocess.Foracylindricalendmill,thefollowingconditionsaredefinedforfindingthegeneralsolution.r(z)=D2κ=90º(2)Ψ=k0zk0=(2tanθ)/DwhereΨ(z)isthelaganglethatappearsduetothehelixangleθofthecuttingtool.Thisangleisconstantinthecaseofacylindricalendmill,anditvariesforaball-endmill.Thetangential,radial,andaxialforcedifferentials(dFt),(dFr),(dFa)actonaninfinitesimallengthdSofthecuttingedgeofthetool[4]dFt=KtedS+Ktchj(Φ,κ)dbdFr=KredS+Krchj(Φ,κ)db(3)dFa=KaedS+Kachj(Φ,κ)dbItisalsoconsideredthatdb=dzsinκ(4)Furthermore,thecharacteristicsofapointonthecuttingsurfaceareidentifiedusingthepropertiesofkinematicrigidityandthedisplacementsbetweenthetoolandtheworkpiece.Theconstantsorcuttingcoefficients(Ktc,Krc,Kac,Kte,Kre,Kae)canbefoundexperimentallyusingcuttingforcespertoothaveragedforaspecifictypeoftoolandmaterial[5].ThetotalcuttingforcesasafunctionofΦalongtheaxialdepthofcutforallthecuttingedgesthatareincontactwiththeworkpiececanbecalculatedasNfNfz2Fx(Φ)=∑(Fxj(Φj(z))=∑∫[-dFrjsinΦjsinκj-dFijcosΦj-dFajsinΦjcosκj]dzj=1j=1z1NfNfz2(5)Fy(Φ)=∑(Fyj(Φj(z))=∑∫[-dFrjcosΦjsinκj-dFijsinΦj-dFajcosΦjcosκj]dzj=1j=1z1NfNfz2Fz(Φ)=∑(Fzj(Φj(z))=∑∫[-dFrjcosκj-dFajsinκj]dzj=1j=1z1wherez1andz2aretheintegrationlimitsandFx(Φ),Fy(Φ),Fz(Φ)aretheresultingforcesforeachaxis.CuttingtorqueTqeisestimatedonthebasisofthetangentialforcedifferential(dFt)andthetooldiameter(D).TheoverallcuttingtorqueisTqe=Ft·D/2(6)FuzzyControlofSpindleTorqueinaHigh-SpeedMillingProcessThemanipulated(action)variablesweselectedwerethefeedrateincrement(△fasapercentageoftheinitialvalueprogrammedintotheCNC)andthespindlespeedincrement(△sasapercentageoftheinitialvalueprogrammedintotheCNC).Thethreebasictasksknownasfuzzification,decisionmaking,anddefuzzificationwereused.TheerrorandoutputvectorswereeT=[KE·△TqKCE·△2Tq]Fig.1Fuzzypartitionsandmembershipfunctionsfor(a)△Tq,△2Tq,(b)△f,and(c)△su=GC·[△f△s]
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