外文翻译--热泵技术的发展现状与其展望.doc外文翻译--热泵技术的发展现状与其展望.doc

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附录ⅡDEVELOPMENTOFHEATPUMPTECHNOLOGYANDITSPROSPECTS1,thepreambleInrecentyears,Chinahasdevelopedveryrapidlyheatpumps,mainlyinthefollowingaspects.(1)Accordingtostatistics,in1996China'sair-conditioning(hotandcoldwatermeanselectricgeneratingunits,hotandcoldwaterabsorptionunit,roomairconditionerunitsandairconditioningunits,butdoesnotincludeimportedunits)ofthetotalcoolingcapacityofabout20millionkW,Oneoftherefrigerationunitofheatpumpcapacityofabout60percent.Inalltheheatpumpunits,electric-drivenheatpumpcapacityofabout1070kW,accountingfor90percent;absorptionheatpumpcapacityofabout1.3millionkW,accountingfor10percent.(2)Inrecentyears,China'sabsorptionrefrigerationunitisdevelopingrapidly.Accordingtostatistics,the1996salesoflithiumbromideabsorptionchillersaboutmorethan3,000Taiwan,theTaiwanStraightGasTurbine1115.(3)heatpumpinindustryhasaninklingoftheapplication,timber,food(teaandfruit),ceramics,paper,printing,petroleumandchemicalindustrialproductionprocesshadbeenusedsteaminjectionheat,absorbingheatpumpHeatpumpandelectricdrive.Forexample,therearecurrentlysome400heatpump-wooddryingmachineisrunning,thehandlingcapacityof1,000cubicmetersisabout200.2,thebackgroundofthedevelopmentofheatpump2.1energypolicyChina'stotalprimaryenergyinreserve(notincludingbiomassenergyandnewenergysources)to1.4billiontonsofstandardcoal,ofwhich1.46billiontonsofrawcoal,crudeoil170milliontonsand30billioncubicmetersofnaturalgas,hydropower240billionkWh,250kWhofnuclearpower,4-6milliontonsofimportedoil,electricpowerinstalledcapacityofthermalpower2.9-3billionkW(averageannualincreaseofinstalledcapacityof1500kW).Accordingto1997statistics,China'sthermalpowerplantefficiencyof32.95percent,heatingplantefficiency83.68%,thetotalenergyconversionefficiencyof38.07percent.Triplefortheuseofthermoelectriccoolingsystemorthetotalenergysystem(TES-TotalEnergySystem),Gasheatpump(GEHP),passedthefirstlawofthermodynamicsofthethermalefficiencyandeffectivenessofthesecondlawofthermodynamicsrateofnote:Astheuseofwasteheat,GEHPthecomprehensiveutilizationofupto80%-85%;ifthermalpowertransmissionthroughtheshaftPumps,useofthelowheat,theintegratedthermalefficiencycanbeachieved150%-170%.TheTES,toachievetripleforthermoelectriccoolingafteritscomprehensiveutilizationmayreach65to80percent."ThePeople'sRepublicofenergyconservationlaw"Article39ofthermoelectriccoolingwillbeincludedinthenationalco-productiontechnologytoencouragethedevelopmentofGMtechnology,topromotethedevelopmentofthecauseoftheheatpump.2.2EnvironmentalPolicyDrivenbythermalheatpump,CO2emissionshavedecreasedsignificantly.Throughtheheatpumptoimproveperformance,reducetheworkingfluidleakageandtheuseofnewrefrigerants,heatpumpinenvironmentalprotectionwillplayagreaterrole.2.3BuildingEnergyConservationLawTheimplementationof"Buildingenergy-savingdesignstandards"toimprovetheperformanceofbuildinginsulation,reducingenergyconsumptionofheatingthebuilding,resultinginsignificantlyreducingtheheatpumpmodeofheating,runningcosts,increasetheheatpumpheatingandcentralheatingThecompetitivenessoftheway.240citiestochangetheenergystructureFocusonlargeandmedium-sizedurbanpopulation,energyconsumption,pollutionproblemsaremostprominent,andmustthereforebetheimplementationofnationalenergypolicy,improvetheenergystructure,promotingtheuseofcleanhigh-qualityenergyresources,restrictionsontheuseofcoal,whichistheapplicationofheatpumptocreatetheconditions.2.5energypriceadjustment3heatpumptechnologydevelopmentvision3.1heatpumptechnologyinthestatusquoAlltypesofevaporationandcondensationheatpumphastwotemperaturelevels,cuttingexpenditurebyexpansionvalveorcapillary.Onlyincreasethepressureonthedifferentforms,therearemechanicalcompression,thecompressionheat,steaminjectioncompression.Atpresent,China'sdevelopmentofheatpumpTherearethreetrends:Air-cooledheatpumphotwaterunitrapiddevelopmentin1996thanin1995anincreaseofnearlytwicethat.Direct-firedgeneratingunitsforthedevelopmentoflithiumbromidehotandcoldwaterfaster,thetotalnumberoflithiumbromideabsorptionofhotwaterfor56percentofunits.Thelargestproportionofroomairconditioners.Heatpump-typewindow,separatedand10kWcoolingcapacityundertheairconditionerunitofthetotalcoolingcapacityof45percent.Buttechnicallythefollowingareas:Air-cooledheatpumpunitsexistsizelarger,morenoise,defrosttechnologyisnotyetperfect,andsoon.Mainareasofair-cooledheatpumpistheYangtzeRiverBasin,theregionsultrysummer,winterHumidicool,Januaryaveragetemperature0℃-10℃,therelativehumidityisgreaterthan75%.Therefore,theheatpumpmustadapttotherequirementsofthefollowinglow-temperatureandhighhumidity0℃TheclimateandenvironmentLithiumbromideabsorptionrefrigerationunitlowefficiency.Roomairconditionersexistnoisepollution,thermalpollution(alotofheatintoelectricalpowerintotheresidential)andtherefrigerantpollution,especially(Separatedconditioninginstallationanduseoftheleak).1996China'sinstalledabout3millionFentiJiand40millionairconditionerunitstoeachinstallationofemissionsfor50gterms,itwasleakingatotalof170t/year.3.2heatpumptechnologydevelopmentvisionGeneraltrendoftechnologicaldevelopmentisthedevelopmentofhigh-efficiencyheating,coolingandheatpumpheatpumpsystemsuper.3.2.1mechanicalcompressionheatpumpdevelopment(1)refrigerantsideoftheheatpumpcontrol.(2)compressorenergycontrol.(3)compressordesign.(4)ofthenewtechnology.3.2.2absorbheatandabsorbheatconverter3.2.3Compression-absorbheatpump3.2.4high-temperatureheatpump4,heatpumpmarketdevelopmentprospects4.1heatpumpfavorablefactorsforthedevelopmentofthemarket4.1.1China'senergypolicyandenvironmentalpolicyistopromotetherapiddevelopmentofheatpumptechnologyamajorfactor.4.1.2SinceChinaintroducedthereformandopeningupin1978,energypolicy,theYangtzeRiverBasinistherapideconomicdevelopment,livingstandardsalsohasbeensignificantlyimproved.Theregion'sclimateischaracterizedbyhotsummer,nottoocoldinwinter(Januaryaverageoutdoortemperaturerangeof0℃-10℃,theaverageoutdoortemperatureisbeloworequalto5℃timefor0-90days.JulyOutdoorTheaveragetemperaturerangeof25℃-30℃,theaveragetemperatureisabove25℃thenumberofdaysfor40-110days).Accordingtotheabovereasons,tothelargenumberofimportsofforeignproducts,heatpumpsysteminChina'srapidlygrowingapplications,60percentoftotalhouseholdair-conditionersfortheheatpumpeveninthecolderregionsofBeijing,therearemanyuserswanttofocusonheatingBeforeandafterapplicationofheatpump-typeairconditioningunitsforheating,hotwatersupplyinwinterandsummercoldwatersupplytotheelectricair-cooledair-conditioningunitonacentralizedsystemhasbeenwidelyused,theapplicationofthefuturewillbeevenmorepopular.4.1.3China'shugeconstructionmarket,1995-2000,theestimatedannualnationalurbanconstructionofnewresidentialareaofabout240millionsquaremeters,ofwhichthenewShanghaieachyearabout15millionsquaremeters,Beijingabout10millionsquaremeters,about6millionsquaremetersinTianjin,Dalianabout260.2000-2010Millionsquaremetersineachofthenewresidentialconstructionareaofabout340millionsquaremeters.4.1.4China'sindustrialwasteheatisveryrichinresources,useofthegreatpotentialforaverywidedistribution,suchasthechemicalindustryaccountedfor8.8percent,thepetrochemicalindustryaccountedfor30.9percent,andtextileindustriesaccountedfor4.0percent.Petrochemicalplants,papermills,pharmaceuticalPlants,metallurgicalplants,foodprocessingandagriculturalsectorsontheapplicationofaheatpumpdevelopmentresearch,suchastimber,drivenbyahighlyefficientheatpumpdryertoachievethepurposeoftheplantenergy-saving,ifwidelyusedpetrochemicalplantsteamjetHeatpumprecoveryofwasteheatintheproductionprocessfortheproductionandliving,hasmadesignificanteconomicbenefitsforthefuturedevelopmentofheatpumpmarkethascreatedconditions
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