外文翻译对聚氨酯反应注射成型(RIM)工艺的分析和优化.pdf外文翻译对聚氨酯反应注射成型(RIM)工艺的分析和优化.pdf

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ANALYSISANDOPTIMIZATIONOFAPOLYURETHANEREACTIONINJECTIONMOLDINGRIMPROCESSUSINGMULTIVARIATEPROJECTIONMETHODSFYACOUB,JFMACGREGORCHEMICALENGINEERINGDEPARTMENT,MCMASTERUNIVERSITY,1280MAINSTREETWEST,JHE374,HAMILTON,ON,CANADAL8S4L7RECEIVED13APRIL2002;RECEIVEDINREVISEDFORM20AUGUST2002;ACCEPTED25AUGUST2002ABSTRACTPRINCIPALCOMPONENTANALYSISPCAANDPROJECTIONTOLATENTSTRUCTUREPLSMETHODSAREUSEDWITHINDUSTRIALDATATOSUCCESSFULLYDIAGNOSESEVERALDIFFERENTPROBLEMSARISINGINTHEMANUFACTURINGOFRIGIDPOLYURETHANEFOAMINSULATIONPANELSTHEPCAANDPLSMODELSAREUSEDTOREVEALTHESPATIALVARIATIONOFQUALITYVARIABLESTHROUGHOUTTHEFOAMEDPRODUCT,ANDTHEIRRELATIONSWITHTHEPROCESSVARIABLESDESIGNEDEXPERIMENTSAREPERFORMEDINTHEKEYPROCESSVARIABLESIDENTIFIEDFROMTHEPCASTUDIESANDTHERESULTSAREUSEDTOOPTIMIZETHEPROCESSD2002ELSEVIERSCIENCEBVALLRIGHTSRESERVEDKEYWORDSPOLYURETHANE;REACTIONINJECTIONMOLDING;PROJECTIONMETHOD1INTRODUCTIONINTHELASTTWODECADES,CHEMICALPROCESSES,LIKEMANYOTHERINDUSTRIES,HAVEBEENGOINGTHROUGHAREVOLUTIONINTHEIRDATACOLLECTIONSYSTEMSMACHINEINTELLIGENCE,IMMENSEDATASTORAGECAPACITY,ANDHIGHTHROUGHPUTDATAACQUISITIONSYSTEMSHAVEDRIVENTHECOSTPERDATAPOINTDOWNTOAVERYLOWLEVELMASSESOFDATAARENOWAVAILABLEBYMEASURINGPROCESSVARIABLESASWELLASQUALITYVARIABLESEITHERONLINEORINQUALITYCONTROLLABSPROJECTIONMETHODSSUCHASPRINCIPALCOMPONENTANALYSISPCAANDPROJECTIONTOLATENTSTRUCTUREPLSPROVIDEAWAYTOHANDLETHEHIGHLYCORRELATEDDATACOLLECTEDBYTHESESYSTEMSINADDITION,THEYDEALEFFECTIVELYWITHMULTIPLERESPONSEVARIABLESANDWITHMISSINGDATA,ANDTHEYPROVIDEAGOODTOOLTOEXTRACTANDHIGHLIGHTTHESYSTEMATICVARIATIONINTHESEMULTIVARIATEDATASETSTHEMOSTIMPORTANTPROPERTYOFPROJECTIONMETHODSISTHECAPABILITYTOREDUCETHEMULTIVARIATEDIMENSIONOFAPROBLEMINTOALOWDIMENSIONALSPACE,USUALLYCONSISTINGOFTHREETOFOURDIMENSIONSTHESIMCA_P80SOFTWAREOFUMETRICSWASUSEDFORTHEPCA/PLSANALYSESPERFORMEDINTHISWORKTHEFOCUSOFTHISSTUDYISTHEAPPLICATIONOFTHEMULTIVARIATEPROJECTIONMETHODSFORTHEDIAGNOSISANDANALYSISOFAPOLYURETHANEREACTIONINJECTIONPROCESSTHEMAINOBJECTIVESOFTHISRESEARCHARETOUNDERSTANDTHESPATIALVARIATIONINTHEPROCESS,CORRECTTHECAUSESOFTHISVARIATION,ANDOPTIMIZETHEQUALITYVARIABLES01697439/02/SEEFRONTMATTERD2002ELSEVIERSCIENCEBVALLRIGHTSRESERVEDPIIS0169743902000886CORRESPONDINGAUTHORTEL19055259140;FAX19055211350EMAILADDRESSMACGREGMCMASTERCAJFMACGREGORWWWELSEVIERCOM/LOCATE/CHEMOMETRICSCHEMOMETRICSANDINTELLIGENTLABORATORYSYSTEMS65200317–332THEMECHANISMOFPOLYURETHANEFORMATIONTHEPROCESSOFINSULATINGREFRIGERATORSINVOLVESREACTIONINJECTIONMOLDINGRIMTOFORMPOLYURETHANEFOAMEACHREFRIGERATORCAVITYSERVESASACHEMICALREACTORWHERETWODIFFERENTSETSOFREACTIONSTAKEPLACESIMULTANEOUSLYONEISTHEPOLYMERIZATIONREACTION,INWHICHSUCHBONDSASURETHANEANDUREAMAYBEFORMEDTHEOTHERISTHEFOAMINGREACTION,WHICHINVOLVESTHEEVOLUTIONOFCARBONDIOXIDEANDTHEVAPORIZATIONOFBLOWINGAGENTCHEMICALSFLOWFROMDAYTANKSTHROUGHHEATEXCHANGERSTOCONTROLTHETEMPERATUREANDTHENINTOTHEMIXHEADUNDERHIGHPRESSURETOINSUREGOODMIXINGANDTHENTHEMIXTUREISINJECTEDINSIDETHEMOLD1INANYREACTINGPOLYURETHANEFOAM,MANYPHYSICALANDCHEMICALCHANGESOCCUR,ANDTHESEVARYWITHTIMEANDEXTENTOFREACTIONASSHOWNINFIG1THETEMPERATUREWITHINTHEFOAMRISESASTHEREACTIONPROCEEDSAND,BECAUSETHEFOAMISAGOODTHERMALINSULATOR,TEMPERATUREGRADIENTSARISEANDCANRESULTINMANYPROBLEMSASDISCUSSEDLATERINTHEPAPERINGENERAL,THEMANUFACTUREOFPOLYURETHANERIGIDFOAMCANBECHARACTERIZEDBYTHEFOLLOWINGFOURSTAGES2IMIXINGSTEP,WHERETHEMASTERBATCHWHICHCONTAINTHEPOLYOL,ACATALYST,ASURFACTANTANDABLOWINGAGENTISMIXEDUNDERHIGHPRESSUREWITHTHEISOCYANATEINTHEMIXHEADIICREAMPERIOD,INWHICHTHETEMPERATUREINCREASECAUSEDBYTHEEXOTHERMICCHEMICALREACTION,ISSUFFICIENTTOPROMOTETHEACTIVITYOFTHEBLOWINGAGENTIIIRISEPERIOD,INWHICHTHEBLOWINGAGENTEVAPORATESRAISINGTHEFOAMUNTILASUFFICIENTRIGIDITYISREACHEDBYEITHERFREERISINGORWHENTHEMOLDISFILLEDIVPOSTCURINGSTEP,INWHICHTHEPOLYMERISTREATEDBYAHIGHTEMPERATUREFORACERTAINTIMETHEMECHANICALSYSTEMCONSISTSOFAROTARYDRUMUNITTHATHASASIXSTATIONROTARYFRAMEFOAMFIXTURESAREPLACEDINEACHFRAMESTATIONREFRIGERATORDOORSOROTHERCAVITIESTOBEFOAMEDAREPLACEDINSIDETHEFIXTURESWHERETHEYAREPREHEATED,THENINJECTEDWITHTHEREACTIONMIXTUREINONEPOSITIONONTHEDRUMUNITONCEFOAMED,THEDRUMUNITROTATESTHEFIXTURETHROUGHFIVEOTHERPOSITIONSFORCURING,WHILETHEOTHERPOSITIONSAREFOAMED,ANDEVENTUALLYRETURNSTHEFIXTURETOTHEFOAMPOSITIONEACHDRUMUNITHASTWOFIG1POLYURETHANEFOAMFORMATIONFYACOUB,JFMACGREGOR/CHEMOMETRICSANDINTELLIGENTLABORATORYSYSTEMS65200317–3318POLYURETHANEFOAMMIXHEADCARRIAGESEACHCARRIAGEFOAMSADIFFERENTDOOR21PROBLEMDESCRIPTIONTHEINSTABILITYOFTHEFOAMINGPROCESSANDTHECOMPLEXITYOFCONTROLLINGTHEQUALITYVARIABLESCREATEDTHENEEDANDMOTIVATIONFORTHISWORKTWOPROBLEMSONTHISPROCESSAREDISCUSSEDSEPARATELYASTHEYAROSEATDIFFERENTTIMESTHEFIRSTPROJECTWASTOOPTIMIZETHEFUNCTIONALITYOFTHEPOLYURETHANEFOAMPANELSEXPRESSEDBYTHESPATIALVARIATIONOFITSTHERMALCONDUCTIVITYANDDENSITYTHEINSULATIONFUNCTIONOFTHEFOAM,MEASUREDBYTHERMALCONDUCTIVITYKFACTOR,ISCONSIDEREDASAVITALVARIABLETOBECONTROLLEDITHASADIRECTEFFECTONTHEREFRIGERATORPERFORMANCEANDENERGYCONSUMPTIONINTHEORY,WHENTHEMASTERBATCHISMIXEDWITHTHEISOCYANATEATACERTAINTEMPERATURE,THEBLOWINGAGENTBOILS,ANDCREATESAVAPORTHATBLOWSTHEFOAMANDREDUCESTHEDENSITYINRIGIDFOAM,THECELLSFORMEDBYTHEBLOWINGAGENTREDUCETHETRANSMISSIONOFHEATTHELOWERTHEKFACTORIS,THEBETTERTHEINSULATIONANDTHEREFRIGERATORPERFORMANCEDENSITY,WHICHISANINDICATIONOFFOAMSTRENGTH,ISIMPORTANTINKEEPINGTHESTRUCTURALRIGIDITYOFTHEREFRIGERATORITISARESULTOFTHEPRESSURETHATTHEVAPORFROMTHEBLOWINGAGENTSEXERTSINTHECELLTHECELLGASPRESSURECAUSESTHEFOAMTORESISTSHRINKAGEINORDERTOREDUCETHESCRAPRATEOFTHISPROCESS,UNACCEPTABLEVOIDSANDLEAKSHAVETOBEMINIMIZEDTHEOBJECTIVEOFTHESECONDPROJECTTREATEDINTHISPAPERISTOMINIMIZETHEDISTORTIONPHENOMENAINTHEFOAMEDPANELSKNOWNASOUTERBOWOBOUTERBOWISMAINLYCAUSEDBYTHEMOVEMENTRESTRICTIONOFTHESTEELANDABSPLASTICPANELSTHEPANELSAREUNABLETOEXPANDORCONTRACTRELATIVETOEACHOTHERSINCETHEDISTANCESEPARATINGTHEMISRELATIVELYSMALLIFMOVEMENTISTOOCCUR,ITWILLRESULTINTHEWARPINGOFTHEPANELSORSHEARDEFORMATION22QUALITYMEASUREMENTSQUALITYVARIABLESAREMEASUREDOFFLINEONAWEEKLYBASISINQUALITYCONTROLLABSTHEUPPERSPECIFICATIONLIMITOFTHETHERMALCONDUCTIVITYISBASEDONENERGYCALCULATIONS,ANDTHELOWERSPECIFICATIONLIMITOFDENSITYISDEFINEDASTHEMINIMUMDENSITYTOMAINTAINSTRUCTURALSTRENGTHALLMEASUREMENTSAREPERFORMEDATEIGHTLOCATIONSAROUNDTHEFOAMEDPANELSTHECRITERIONISTOHAVEALLSAMPLESWITHINTHESPECIFIEDCONTROLLIMITSTHERMALDISTORTIONISMEASUREDUSINGACOORDINATEMEASURINGMACHINECMMBYDEFININGAPLANETHATPASSESTHROUGHPOINTSLOCATEDINTHECORNERSOFTHEPANELANDMEASURESTHEDEVIATIONFROMTHISPLANEATSEVERALPOINTSACROSSTHEPANELSURFACETODETERMINETHESHAPEANDMAGNITUDEOFSURFACEBOWTHEFOLLOWINGQUALITYVARIABLESAREMEASURED23PROCESSVARIABLESPROCESSVARIABLESWERESELECTEDANDRETRIEVEDFROMTHEDATABASETHEANALYSISWASPERFORMEDONSIXDIFFERENTFIXTURESFROMPRODUCTIONTOUNDERSTANDTHEVARIATIONBETWEENFIXTURESANDTHEEFFECTOFCHANGESINTHEPROCESSVARIABLESASUMMARYOFPROCESSVARIABLESUSEDINTHEANALYSISANDTHECORRESPONDINGNOMENCLATUREPRESENTEDINTHEPAPERISGIVENASFOLLOWSTIMETOTESTT_TAMBIENTTEMPERATUREA_TMASTERBATCHDENSITYMB_DMASTERBATCHFLOWMB_FISOCYANATEFLOWI_FRATIOBETWEENMASTERBATCHANDISOCYANATEMB/IISOCYANATEPRESSUREI_PMASTERBATCHPRESSUREMB_PMIXHEADPRESSUREMH_PSHOTSIZESSISOCYANATETEMPERATUREI_TMASTERBATCHTEMPERATUREMB_TISOCYANATETEMPERATUREATMIXHEADI_T_MHMASTERBATCHTEMPERATUREATMIXHEADMB_T_MHSURFACTANTTYPESBLOWINGAGENTTYPEBFIXTURECORETEMPERATURECORE_TFIXTURESIDEWALLTEMPERATURESIDEWALL_TFIXTUREPREHEATTEMPERATUREPREHEAT_TKKFACTORVALUESATVARIOUSSPATIALLOCATIONS1–8DDENSITYVALUESATVARIOUSSPATIALLOCATIONS1–8VOIDSIDENTIFIEDBYSINKMARKSINTHEOUTERSTEELLEAKSIDENTIFIEDVISUALLYFACEBOWMAXIMUMWARPAGEOFTHEFACEFOAMEDOBJECTSSIDEBOWMAXIMUMWARPAGEOFTHESIDEFOAMEDOBJECTSFYACOUB,JFMACGREGOR/CHEMOMETRICSANDINTELLIGENTLABORATORYSYSTEMS65200317–33193PROBLEM1ELIMINATINGSPATIALVARIATIONINTHERMALCONDUCTIVITYANDDENSITY31PRINCIPALCOMPONENTANALYSISONQUALITYVARIABLESY’STHEMAINOBJECTIVESBEHINDFITTINGAPCAMODELONTHEY’SARETOUNDERSTANDTHESPATIALPATTERNSANDTHECORRELATIONSTRUCTUREAMONGTHEVARIABLESMEASUREMENTSMADEONATOTALOF64SETSOFPANELSTHREEPRINCIPALCOMPONENTSARESIGNIFICANTBYCROSSVALIDATION3ANDTHEYEXPLAIN76OFTHEVARIATIONSOMEOUTLIERSAREEVIDENTINTHESCOREPLOTSANDRESIDUALDMODXPLOTSSHOWNINFIGS2AND3,RESPECTIVELYOUTLIERSARECONSIDEREDVERYINTERESTINGOBSERVATIONSTHATHOLDVALUABLEINFORMATIONTHATCANBEUNDERSTOODUSINGCONTRIBUTIONPLOTSFURTHERANALYSISANDINTERPRETATIONSOFTHESEOUTLIERSWILLBEDISCUSSEDINALATERSECTIONTHELOADINGPLOT,SHOWNINFIG4,REVEALSTHATTHEREARETWOMAINGROUPSTHERMALCONDUCTIVITYISPOSITIVELYCORRELATEDWITHLEAKSANDNEGATIVELYCORRELATEDWITHBOTHDENSITYANDVOIDSFURTHERMORE,FROMTHELOADINGPLOTFIG4,APATTERNDISTRIBUTIONOFDENSITYANDTHERMALCONDUCTIVITYVARIATIONINSIDETHECAVITYANDINRELATIONTOTHEAVERAGEVALUEISEVIDENTITISWORTHNOTINGTHATATTHEINJECTIONSIDELOCATIONS1AND8THEDENSITYWASHIGHERANDTHEKFACTORWASLOWERTHANAROUNDTHEEDGESOFTHEMOLD32PROJECTIONTOLATENTSTRUCTUREPLSBETWEENFIXTURESANDQUALITYVARIABLESINORDERTOUNDERSTANDTHEEFFECTOFTHESIXFIXTURESUSEDINPRODUCTION,APLSMODELISBUILTTORELATETHEEVENTOFUSINGASPECIFICFIXTURETOTHEQUALITYVARIABLESTHEXMATRIXCONSISTEDOFSIXINDICATOR0,1VARIABLESINDICATINGTHEPRESENCEORABSENCEOFANYPARTICULARFIXTUREDURINGANINJECTIONTHEYMATRIXCONSISTEDOFTHEAVERAGEKFACTOR,THEAVERAGEDENSITY,VOIDS,ANDLEAKSFOREACHOFTHE64PANELSTHEPLSMODELEXPLAINED725THEVARIATIONRY2INTHEY’SUSINGONLYTHEINFORMATIONONWHICHFIXTUREWASUSEDFORTHEMOLDINGPROCESS,IMPLYINGTHATTHEFIG2T1–T2SCORESFROMPCAONTHEQUALITYVARIABLESY’SFYACOUB,JFMACGREGOR/CHEMOMETRICSANDINTELLIGENTLABORATORYSYSTEMS65200317–3320
编号:201311171417086509    类型:共享资源    大小:797.91KB    格式:PDF    上传时间:2013-11-17
  
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