外文翻译建筑的组成部分.doc外文翻译建筑的组成部分.doc

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河北科技师范学院毕业论文(设计)错误未找到引用源。题目COMPONENTSOFABUILDINGANDTALLBUILDINGS学生姓名指导教师系别错误未找到引用源。专业班级河北科技师范学院教务处制1COMPONENTSOFABUILDINGANDTALLBUILDINGS1ABSTRACTMATERIALSANDSTRUCTURALFORMSARECOMBINEDTOMAKEUPTHEVARIOUSPARTSOFABUILDING,INCLUDINGTHELOADCARRYINGFRAME,SKIN,FLOORS,ANDPARTITIONSTHEBUILDINGALSOHASMECHANICALANDELECTRICALSYSTEMS,SUCHASELEVATORS,HEATINGANDCOOLINGSYSTEMS,ANDLIGHTINGSYSTEMSTHESUPERSTRUCTUREISTHATPARTOFABUILDINGABOVEGROUND,ANDTHESUBSTRUCTUREANDFOUNDATIONISTHATPARTOFABUILDINGBELOWGROUNDTHESKYSCRAPEROWESITSEXISTENCETOTWODEVELOPMENTSOFTHE19THCENTURYSTEELSKELETONCONSTRUCTIONANDTHEPASSENGERELEVATORSTEELASACONSTRUCTIONMATERIALDATESFROMTHEINTRODUCTIONOFTHEBESSEMERCONVERTERIN1885GUSTAVEEIFFEL18321932INTRODUCEDSTEELCONSTRUCTIONINFRANCEHISDESIGNSFORTHEGALERIEDESMACHINESANDTHETOWERFORTHEPARISEXPOSITIONOF1889EXPRESSEDTHELIGHTNESSOFTHESTEELFRAMEWORKTHEEIFFELTOWER,984FEET300METERSHIGH,WASTHETALLESTSTRUCTUREBUILTBYMANANDWASNOTSURPASSEDUNTIL40YEARSLATERBYASERIESOFAMERICANSKYSCRAPERSELISHAOTISINSTALLEDTHEFIRSTELEVATORINADEPARTMENTSTOREINNEWYORKIN1857IN1889,EIFFELINSTALLEDTHEFIRSTELEVATORSONAGRANDSCALEINTHEEIFFELTOWER,WHOSEHYDRAULICELEVATORSCOULDTRANSPORT2,350PASSENGERSTOTHESUMMITEVERYHOUR2LOADCARRYINGFRAMEUNTILTHELATE19THCENTURY,THEEXTERIORWALLSOFABUILDINGWEREUSEDASBEARINGWALLSTOSUPPORTTHEFLOORSTHISCONSTRUCTIONISESSENTIALLYAPOSTANDLINTELTYPE,ANDITISSTILLUSEDINFRAMECONSTRUCTIONFORHOUSESBEARINGWALLCONSTRUCTIONLIMITEDTHEHEIGHTOFBUILDINGBECAUSEOFTHEENORMOUSWALLTHICKNESSREQUIRED;FORINSTANCE,THE16STORYMONADNOCKBUILDINGBUILTINTHE1880’SINCHICAGOHADWALLS5FEET15METERSTHICKATTHELOWERFLOORSIN1883,WILLIAMLEBARONJENNEY18321907SUPPORTEDFLOORSONCASTIRONCOLUMNSTOFORMACAGELIKECONSTRUCTIONSKELETONCONSTRUCTION,CONSISTINGOFSTEELBEAMSANDCOLUMNS,WASFIRSTUSEDIN1889ASACONSEQUENCEOFSKELETONCONSTRUCTION,THEENCLOSINGWALLSBECOMEA“CURTAINWALL”RATHERTHANSERVINGASUPPORTINGFUNCTIONMASONRYWASTHECURTAINWALLMATERIALUNTILTHE1930’S,WHENLIGHTMETALANDGLASSCURTAINWALLSWEREUSEDAFTERTHEINTRODUCTIONOFBUILDINGSCONTINUEDTOINCREASERAPIDLYALLTALLBUILDINGSWEREBUILTWITHASKELETONOFSTEELUNTILWORLDWARⅡAFTERTHEWAR,THESHORTAGEOFSTEELANDTHEIMPROVEDQUALITYOFCONCRETELEDTOTALLBUILDINGBEINGBUILTOFREINFORCEDCONCRETEMARINATOWER1962INCHICAGOISTHETALLESTCONCRETEBUILDINGINTHEUNITEDSTATES;ITSHEIGHT588FEET179METERSISEXCEEDEDBYTHE650FOOT198METERPOSTOFFICETOWERINLONDONANDBYOTHERTOWERS2ACHANGEINATTITUDEABOUTSKYSCRAPERCONSTRUCTIONHASBROUGHTARETURNTOTHEUSEOFTHEBEARINGWALLINNEWYORKCITY,THECOLUMBIABROADCASTINGSYSTEMBUILDING,DESIGNEDBYEEROSAARINENIN1962,HASAPERIMETERWALLCONSISTINGOF5FOOT15METERWIDECONCRETECOLUMNSSPACED10FEET3METERSFROMCOLUMNCENTERTOCENTERTHISPERIMETERWALL,INEFFECT,CONSTITUTESABEARINGWALLONEREASONFORTHISTRENDISTHATSTIFFNESSAGAINSTTHEACTIONOFWINDCANBEECONOMICALLYOBTAINEDBYUSINGTHEWALLSOFTHEBUILDINGASATUBE;THEWORLDTRADECENTERBUILDINGISANOTHEREXAMPLEOFTHISTUBEAPPROACHINCONTRAST,RIGIDFRAMESORVERTICALTRUSSESAREUSUALLYPROVIDEDTOGIVELATERALSTABILITY3SKINTHESKINOFABUILDINGCONSISTSOFBOTHTRANSPARENTELEMENTSWINDOWSANDOPAQUEELEMENTSWALLSWINDOWSARETRADITIONALLYGLASS,ALTHOUGHPLASTICSAREBEINGUSED,ESPECIALLYINSCHOOLSWHEREBREAKAGECREATESAMAINTENANCEPROBLEMTHEWALLELEMENTS,WHICHAREUSEDTOCOVERTHESTRUCTUREANDARESUPPORTEDBYIT,AREBUILTOFAVARIETYOFMATERIALSBRICK,PRECASTCONCRETE,STONE,OPAQUEGLASS,PLASTICS,STEEL,ANDALUMINUMWOODISUSEDMAINLYINHOUSECONSTRUCTION;ITISNOTGENERALLYUSEDFORCOMMERCIAL,INDUSTRIAL,ORPUBLICBUILDINGBECAUSEOFTHEFIREHAZARD4FLOORSTHECONSTRUCTIONOFTHEFLOORSINABUILDINGDEPENDSONTHEBASICSTRUCTURALFRAMETHATISUSEDINSTEELSKELETONCONSTRUCTION,FLOORSAREEITHERSLABSOFCONCRETERESTINGONSTEELBEAMSORADECKCONSISTINGOFCORRUGATEDSTEELWITHACONCRETETOPPINGINCONCRETECONSTRUCTION,THEFLOORSAREEITHERSLABSOFCONCRETEONCONCRETEBEAMSORASERIESOFCLOSELYSPACEDCONCRETEBEAMSRIBSINTWODIRECTIONSTOPPEDWITHATHINCONCRETESLAB,GIVINGTHEAPPEARANCEOFAWAFFLEONITSUNDERSIDETHEKINDOFFLOORTHATISUSEDDEPENDSONTHESPANBETWEENSUPPORTINGCOLUMNSORWALLSANDTHEFUNCTIONOFTHESPACEINANAPARTMENTBUILDING,FORINSTANCE,WHEREWALLSANDCOLUMNSARESPACEDAT12TO18FEET37TO55METERS,THEMOSTPOPULARCONSTRUCTIONISASOLIDCONCRETESLABWITHNOBEAMSTHEUNDERSIDEOFTHESLABSERVESASTHECEILINGFORTHESPACEBELOWITCORRUGATEDSTEELDECKSAREOFTENUSEDINOFFICEBUILDINGSBECAUSETHECORRUGATIONS,WHENENCLOSEDBYANOTHERSHEETOFMETAL,FORMDUCTSFORTELEPHONEANDELECTRICALLINES5MECHANICALANDELECTRICALSYSTEMSAMODERNBUILDINGNOTONLYCONTAINSTHESPACEFORWHICHITISINTENDEDOFFICE,CLASSROOM,APARTMENTBUTALSOCONTAINSANCILLARYSPACEFORMECHANICALANDELECTRICALSYSTEMSTHATHELPTOPROVIDEACOMFORTABLEENVIRONMENTTHESEANCILLARYSPACESINASKYSCRAPEROFFICEBUILDINGMAYCONSTITUTE25OFTHETOTALBUILDINGAREATHEIMPORTANCEOFHEATING,VENTILATING,ELECTRICAL,ANDPLUMBINGSYSTEMSINANOFFICEBUILDINGISSHOWNBYTHEFACTTHAT40OFTHECONSTRUCTIONBUDGETISALLOCATEDTOTHEMBECAUSEOFTHEINCREASEDUSEOFSEALEDBUILDINGWITHWINDOWSTHATCANNOTBEOPENED,ELABORATEMECHANICALSYSTEMSAREPROVIDEDFORVENTILATIONANDAIRCONDITIONINGDUCTSANDPIPESCARRYFRESHAIRFROMCENTRALFANROOMSANDAIRCONDITIONINGMACHINERYTHECEILING,WHICHIS3SUSPENDEDBELOWTHEUPPERFLOORCONSTRUCTION,CONCEALSTHEDUCTWORKANDCONTAINSTHELIGHTINGUNITSELECTRICALWIRINGFORPOWERANDFORTELEPHONECOMMUNICATIONMAYALSOBELOCATEDINTHISCEILINGSPACEORMAYBEBURIEDINTHEFLOORCONSTRUCTIONINPIPESORCONDUITSTHEREHAVEBEENATTEMPTSTOINCORPORATETHEMECHANICALANDELECTRICALSYSTEMSINTOTHEARCHITECTUREOFBUILDINGBYFRANKLYEXPRESSINGTHEM;FOREXAMPLE,THEAMERICANREPUBLICINSURANCECOMPANYBUILDING1965INDESMOINES,IOWA,EXPOSESBOTHTHEDUCTSANDTHEFLOORSTRUCTUREINANORGANIZEDANDELEGANTPATTERNANDDISPENSESWITHTHESUSPENDEDCEILINGTHISTYPEOFAPPROACHMAKESITPOSSIBLETOREDUCETHECOSTOFTHEBUILDINGANDPERMITSINNOVATIONS,SUCHASINTHESPANOFTHESTRUCTURE6SOILSANDFOUNDATIONSALLBUILDINGARESUPPORTEDONTHEGROUND,ANDTHEREFORETHENATUREOFTHESOILBECOMESANEXTREMELYIMPORTANTCONSIDERATIONINTHEDESIGNOFANYBUILDINGTHEDESIGNOFAFOUNDATIONDEPENDSONMANYSOILFACTORS,SUCHASTYPEOFSOIL,SOILSTRATIFICATION,THICKNESSOFSOILLAVERSANDTHEIRCOMPACTION,ANDGROUNDWATERCONDITIONSSOILSRARELYHAVEASINGLECOMPOSITION;THEYGENERALLYAREMIXTURESINLAYERSOFVARYINGTHICKNESSFOREVALUATION,SOILSAREGRADEDACCORDINGTOPARTICLESIZE,WHICHINCREASESFROMSILTTOCLAYTOSANDTOGRAVELTOROCKINGENERAL,THELARGERPARTICLESOILSWILLSUPPORTHEAVIERLOADSTHANTHESMALLERONESTHEHARDESTROCKCANSUPPORTLOADSUPTO100TONSPERSQUAREFOOT9765METRICTONS/SQMETER,BUTTHESOFTESTSILTCANSUPPORTALOADOFONLY025TONPERSQUAREFOOT244METRICTONS/SQMETERALLSOILSBENEATHTHESURFACEAREINASTATEOFCOMPACTION;THATIS,THEYAREUNDERAPRESSURETHATISEQUALTOTHEWEIGHTOFTHESOILCOLUMNABOVEITMANYSOILSEXCEPTFORMOSTSANDSANDGAVELSEXHIBITELASTICPROPERTIESTHEYDEFORMWHENCOMPRESSEDUNDERLOADANDREBOUNDWHENTHELOADISREMOVEDTHEELASTICITYOFSOILSISOFTENTIMEDEPENDENT,THATIS,DEFORMATIONSOFTHESOILOCCUROVERALENGTHOFTIMEWHICHMAYVARYFROMMINUTESTOYEARSAFTERALOADISIMPOSEDOVERAPERIODOFTIME,ABUILDINGMAYSETTLEIFITIMPOSESALOADONTHESOILGREATERTHANTHENATURALCOMPACTIONWEIGHTOFTHESOILCONVERSELY,ABUILDINGMAYHEAVEIFITIMPOSESLOADSONTHESOILSMALLERTHANTHENATURALCOMPACTIONWEIGHTTHESOILMAYALSOFLOWUNDERTHEWEIGHTOFABUILDING;THATIS,ITTENDSTOBESQUEEZEDOUTDUETOBOTHTHECOMPACTIONANDFLOWEFFECTS,BUILDINGSTENDSETTLEUNEVENSETTLEMENTS,EXEMPLIFIEDBYTHELEANINGTOWERSINPISAANDBOLOGNA,CANHAVEDAMAGINGEFFECTSTHEBUILDINGMAYLEAN,WALLSANDPARTITIONSMAYCRACK,WINDOWSANDDOORSMAYBECOMEINOPERATIVE,AND,INTHEEXTREME,ABUILDINGMAYCOLLAPSEUNIFORMSETTLEMENTSARENOTSOSERIOUS,ALTHOUGHEXTREMECONDITIONS,SUCHASTHOSEINMEXICOCITY,CANHAVESERIOUSCONSEQUENCESOVERTHEPAST100YEARS,ACHANGEINTHEGROUNDWATERLEVELTHEREHASCAUSEDSOMEBUILDINGSTOSETTLEMORETHAN10FEET3METERSBECAUSESUCHMOVEMENTSCANOCCURDURINGANDAFTERCONSTRUCTION,CAREFULANALYSISOFTHEBEHAVIOROFSOILSUNDERABUILDINGISVITALTHEGREATVARIABILITYOFSOILSHASLEDTOAVARIETYOFSOLUTIONSTOTHEFOUNDATIONPROBLEMWHERE
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