机械外文翻译--我国渗透铸造技术的发展.doc机械外文翻译--我国渗透铸造技术的发展.doc

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THEDEVELOPMENTOFCASTINGPENETRATIONTECHNOLOGYINOURCOUNTRYINFILTRATIONCASTINGISSOLIDIFIEDINTHECASTINGPROCESSTOACHIEVESURFACEALLOYINGOFAPRODUCTIONTECHNOLOGY,BECAUSEOFTHEDEPTHOFALLOYING,ANDPRODUCTIONPROCESSISSIMPLE,LOWCOSTADVANTAGES,INMANYUNIQUESURFACEENHANCEMENTTECHNOLOGY,MOREANDMOREPEOPLEIMPORTANCETHEBASICIDEAISTOALLOWLIQUIDMETALTOINFILTRATETHROUGHTHEPOROUSALLOYCOATING,THESIEGEOFALLOYPARTICLES,FLUXANDOTHERADDITIVESINCOMMONUNDERTHEMATERIALIZEDTHROUGHASERIESOFHIGHTEMPERATUREMETALLURGICALREACTIONINTHEORIGINALLOCATIONOFTHEFORMATIONOFALLOYCOATINGLAYER,THEMODELTHEKEYISINSIDETHEMETALTOPENETRATETHECOATINGASARESULTOFINFILTRATIONOFMCINTERFACEAFTERTHERAPIDEXPANSIONOFALLOYINGELEMENTSCONDUCIVETOTHESPREADOFTHELIQUIDMETALHASACERTAINDEPTHANDTHESTABILITYOFTHEALLOYLAYERTHISNEWPROCESSAPPLIESTOCHROMIUM,BORON,TUNGSTEN,ETCASTHEMAINALLOYINGELEMENTSINSTEEL,CASTIRONOFTHEANTIWEAR,HEATRESISTANTALLOYLAYERTOOBTAINGOODRESULTSHOWEVER,THETECHNOLOGYSTILLEXISTSASFOLLOWS1ALLOYINGPROCESSGAS,SLAG,ETCCANNOTBEDISCHARGEDINTIME,INTHEALLOYLAYERGENERATEDPORES,INCLUSIONS,AFFECTINGTHEQUALITYOFALLOYLAYER,2THEEFFECTOFALLOYINGONTHEPROCESSMORESENSITIVETOCHANGESINPARAMETERS,THEEQUIPMENTMUSTHAVEGOODCONDITIONSANDSTRICTPRODUCTIONPROCESSINORDERTOBEINMASSPRODUCTIONTHEQUALITYOFTHESURFACEALLOYISSTABLEANDRELIABLEPRODUCTINRESPONSETOTHESEPROBLEMS,THE20THCENTURY,SINCETHE90S,THEDOMESTICMATERIALINFILTRATIONCASTINGTECHNOLOGYWORKERSCARRIEDOUTEXTENSIVEANDINDEPTHRESEARCH,ANDHAVEACHIEVEDGOODRESULTS,ANDINMINING,METALLURGYANDOTHERFIELDSSHOWTHATABROADAPPLICATIONPROSPECTS1THECHOICEOFMATERIALSINORDERTOOBTAINSPECIALPROPERTIESOFCASTALLOYSURFACEINFILTRATION,USUALLYAGOODCHOICEOFABRASIONRESISTANCE,HIGHHARDNESSOFTHEANTIWEARALLOYFORINFILTRATIONCASTINGAGENTS,METALMATRIXCASTIRONORSTEELUSEDKEVINPERMEABILITYMATERIALBETWEENELEMENTSOFTHEMATCHINGCOEFFICIENTOFTHERMALEXPANSION,ANDWETTINGANDPHASERESPONSEASLOWASPOSSIBLEISOURFIRSTANDFOREMOSTTHEPRINCIPLEOFSELECTION11CASTINGAGENTDIALYSISOPTIONSINORDERTOOBTAINHIGHHARDNESSOFTHEANTIWEARALLOYLAYER,ALARGENUMBEROFSTUDIESUSEDBYWCHV2400,CRFE,BFEINFILTRATIONCASTINGAGENT,ETC,BUTALSOJOINEDTHETI,NB,CO,NIANDOTHERELEMENTSTOIMPROVETHEPERMEABILITYALLOYCASTINGANDOTHERPERFORMANCEINFILTRATIONCASTINGAGENTADDEDCOSOLVENTITSROLEISTOPROMOTETHEALLOYMELTTOFORMTHEFUNCTIONOFREDUCINGATMOSPHERE,TOENSURETHERAPIDFORMATIONOFALLOYLAYER,DENSEWITHOUTDEFECTS,ALLMATERIALSPREPAREDINACCORDANCEWITHASPECIFICFORMOFTECHNOLOGY,ALARGENUMBEROFSTUDIESHAVEPROVEDINORDERTOREDUCETHELAYEROFCASTINGPOROSITYANDFOLDERSJAVAFLAW,SHOULDMINIMIZETHEAMOUNTOFBINDERWCCANBEDESCRIBEDASTHELARGESTNUMBEROFPEOPLECURRENTLYUSINGACASTINGAGENTPERMEABILITY,COMPAREDWITHTHEIRONANDSTEELMATERIALS,WCHASHIGHHARDNESSANDHIGHREDHARDNESS,THECOMPRESSIVESTRENGTHOFWCATTHESAMETIME,THERMALCONDUCTIVITYANDYOUNGSMODULUSRATIOOFHIGHSTEELMATERIAL24TIMESTHESAMEHIGHSPEEDSTEELWITHHIGHSTRENGTHANDHIGHTOUGHNESS,WCOWNDECISIONMANYADVANTAGESINCUTTINGTOOLS,WEARPARTSANDHIGHSPEEDROLLINGMILLTHEEXTENSIVEAPPLICATION12METALMATRIXSELECTIONINADDITIONTOTHEMETALSUBSTRATESHOULDHAVESUFFICIENTSTRENGTHANDTOUGHNESS,BUTMOREIMPORTANTLY,ISTHEWC,CRFE,BFEALLOY,SUCHASCASTINGAGENTSDIALYSISAGOODWETTABILITYANDACERTAINDEGREEOFSOLUBILITYINORDERTOENSURETHEFORMATIONOFINTERFACIALENERGYFORTHEIRONGROUPOFTHESOLIDSOLUTIONMATRIX,THATISTOSAYSOTHATMETALLURGICALBONDINGINTERFACEWASTOENHANCETHEBONDSTRENGTHRESEARCHISOFTENUSEDFORCASTIRONSTEELALLOYORMETALMATRIXCASTIRONTHANSTEEL,ITSLOWMELTINGPOINT,GOODLIQUIDITY,WHICHISCONDUCIVETOINFILTRATION,BUTWITHCANDTHEIMPURITYELEMENTSINHIGHTEMPERATUREUNDERTHEINTENSEREACTION,THUSAFFECTINGTHEINTERFACIALBONDING,PRACTICEPROVEDTHATCASTIRONBASEDINFILTRATIONRESISTANCEOFMATERIALSUSEDTOMAKEMORELOWSTRESSABRASIVEWEAROFTHEWEARRESISTANTCONDITIONSWEREMOREAPPROPRIATE,ANDTHEOVERALLREQUIREMENTSFORSOMEGOODCOMPREHENSIVEMECHANICALPROPERTIES,ANDASPECIALPERFORMANCEOFTHEWORKSURFACESUCHASCORROSIONRESISTANCE,HEATRESISTANCE,WEARRESISTANCEOFTHEWORKPIECE,THEMATRIXMETALMUSTBECASTSTEEL,INORDERTOMEETTHETOUGHPARTSINTHEPERFORMANCEOFTHEHARDWAREREQUIREMENTSOFSTEELCASTINGSWITHAHIGHSOLIDIFICATIONTEMPERATURE,RAPIDSOLIDIFICATION,THECHARACTERISTICSOFPOORLIQUIDITYANDHENCETHEFORMATIONOFQUALIFIEDCASTALLOYLAYERINFILTRATIONDIFFICULTIFTHEMETALCOATINGORCASTINGMOLDWITHTHENEGATIVEPRESSUREVACUUMSUCTION,TOTHEFORMATIONOF45MMDIFFUSIONOFALLOYINGELEMENTSORTHEMOTHERLIQUORTOINFILTRATEINTOTHESURFACEOFALLOYSTEELCASTINGTYPELAYERXINJIANGINSTITUTEOFTECHNOLOGYDEVELOPEDUNDERTHECONDITIONSINTHEGRAVITATIONALFIELD,THROUGHTHESUPPRESSIONOFALLOY粉膏FASTERMACHINES,AREASONABLECHOICEOFALLOYPOWDERCOMPOSITION,THEUSEOFHOTMOLTENSTEELASTRONGROLEINTHESURFACELAYEROFSTEELCASTINGS78MMTHICKLAYEROFALLOY,LAYERANDBETTERQUALITYCASTING2INFILTRATIONCASTINGPROCESSINFILTRATIONCASTINGPROCESSSTATUSOF2ISPREALLOYPOWDERWILLBEFIXEDINTHEMOLDOFASPECIFICLOCATIONONTHEWALL,THROUGHTHEMETHODOFPOURINGACASTINGSURFACETOFORMAWEARRESISTANT,CORROSIONRESISTANCE,HIGHTEMPERATUREANDOTHERSPECIALPROPERTIESOFTHESURFACE,THECURRENTPROCESSESUSEDMAINLYUSESTHEFOLLOWINGTECHNIQUESBYCASTINGAGENTINFILTRATIONINTOTHEFORMATIONOFDIFFERENTCOATINGMETHOD,PLASTERBLOCKMETHOD,CASTINGANEGATIVEPERMEABILITY;BYCASTINGGRAVITYFIELDCANBEDIVIDEDINTODIFFERENTPOURING,POURINGHYPERGRAVITYFIELD3DOMESTICRESEARCHANDAPPLICATION20THCENTURY80S,TSINGHUAUNIVERSITYANDOTHERVULNERABLEPEOPLEINTHESOUTHANDCASTDIALYSISWERESTUDIEDTHEMTOHIGHCHROMIUMWHITEIRONBASED,ADIFFERENTNUMBEROFEMBEDDEDWCPARTICLESASAPERCOLATIONCASTMATERIALANDSURFACELAYERCASTINGMATERIALSTHATMATCHTHESELECTIONOFWEARRESISTANTSTEELCASTINGMETAL30NNSITI,THESTEELSTRENGTHWITHGOODTOUGHNESS,LOWCONTENTOFALLOYINGELEMENTS,THEPRICECHEAP,QUENCHINGTEMPERATURETHEBASICLAYERFORTHESURFACEOFCASTINGREQUIREMENTSTHEYUSEDTHISPROCESSONTHEPERMEABILITYOFHIGHCHROMIUMWHITECASTIRONCOMPOSITEMATERIALIMPACTONTHEFANBOARDMILLEXPERIMENTALRESULTSSHOWTHATTHEWEARRESISTANCEOFCOMPOSITEMATERIALSTHANTHEIMPACTOFRAWMATERIALSZG50M2BOARDTOIMPROVETHEWEARRESISTANCEOF28WCPERCOLATIONOFTHESURFACEWEARRESISTANCECASTHIGHCHROMIUMWHITECASTIRONSURFACELAYEROFTHEWEARRESISTANCEINCREASED7TIMESLITERATURE1THESTUDYALSOSHOWEDTHATWCANDAGOODMETALWETTINGLIQUID,EASYTORESTORETHESURFACEOXIDES,THECASTHASGOODPERMEABILITYPROPERTIESWCLAYERCANBEADJUSTEDBECAUSEOFTHEIRSIZE,DISTRIBUTION,HIGHMICROHARDNESS,ITHASEXCELLENTANTIWEARPERFORMANCEINFILTRATIONCASTINGWC,DUCTILEIRONMATERIALSSELECTED,HIGHMANGANESESTEEL,CARBONSTEELCANBESATISFIEDWITHTHELAYER,TOFACILITATETHEPRODUCTIONANDAPPLICATIONOFRESEARCHRESULTSGUIDEMILL,CEMENTSHOTCRETELININGOFTHEDEVELOPMENTOFROTATINGMACHINES,ANDACHIEVEDGOODRESULTS90STOTHE20THCENTURY,CASTDIALYSISTECHNOLOGYRESEARCHANDDEVELOPMENTHASBEENFURTHERDEVELOPEDSHENYANGINSTITUTEOFCASTINGDUCTILEIRONWITHWCAND40CRSTRENGTHENEDTOINCREASE35TIMESBEIJINGUNIVERSITYOFSCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGYINTHEGRAYCASTIRONINGOTMOLDSURFACEBORONIZING,FUXINMININGINSTITUTEINTHESURFACEOFCASTDUCTILEIRONHAMMERANDTITANIUMVANADIZINGHAVEINCREASEDTHELIFEOFTHEWORKPIECE,LIAONINGINSTITUTEOFMECHANICALENGINEERINGTECHNOLOGYXUZHIMINGANDOTHERSCHOOSETOCRFE,TIFE,VFE,MOFEALLOY,SUCHASCASTIRONASAPERCOLATIONAGENTATTHESAMETIMEADDINGASMALLAMOUNTOFRAREEARTHALLOY,CANHAMMERTHEBALLTHEFIRSTPARTOFTHEFORMATIONOFTHESURFACELAYEROFINFILTRATIONCASTINGALLOYWHITECASTIRONLAYERANDCONTROLLAYEROFWHITECASTIRONALLOYCARBIDEMORPHOLOGYANDDISTRIBUTIONIRONSURFACEINTHEBALLWAS4MMTHICKWHITEIRONALLOYLAYERENHANCEDBYTHEABRASIVEWEARTESTSCONFIRMEDTHATTHESURFACEOFTHEWEARRESISTANCEOFDUCTILEIRONIS201TIMESNEEDTOSPECIFICALLYPOINTOUTTHATSINCETHE20THCENTURY,SINCETHE90S,XINJIANGINSTITUTEOFTECHNOLOGYPERMEABILITYOFCRCASTAUSEFUL,VALUABLEDISCUSSION,INORDERTOFURTHERIMPROVETHECASTLAYERTHICKNESSANDLAYERTORETAINMOREOFTHEALLOYPARTICLESASAHARDQUALITATIVEPHASE,WITHAVIEWTOIMPROVETHEWEARRESISTANCE,THEYBOTHEXPERIMENTALANDPRODUCTIONBLOCKSINPLACEOFTHEUSEOFALLOYALLOYCOATINGPASTECHROMIZINGLAYERFORTHECASTIRON,CASTIRONMADEBYTHEFUSIONLAYERCRPERMEABILITYLAYER,BRAZINGLAYERANDTHESINTEREDLAYERCONSTITUTETHETHREEDIFFERENTREGIONS,EACHDISTINCTREGIONOFTHEFORMATIONMECHANISMOFTHENEWTHEORY,THESTUDYOFPEOPLEWITHLESSSTEELCASTINGINFILTRATIONPROCESSALSOCARRIEDOUTRESEARCHCHROMIZINGSTEELLAYERFORMEDBYFUSION,SINTERINGLAYERCONSISTINGOFANEWTHEORYTHEESTABLISHMENTOFTHEPROCESSFACTORSONTHEIMPACTOFCASTALLOYLAYERPERMEABILITYOFONEDIMENSIONALDIGITALMODEL,ANDVERIFIEDBYTESTSINADDITIONTOTHECASTALLOYLAYERPERMEABILITYCHARACTERISTICSOFCRDEPTHANALYSISOFTHEQUALITYOFDIALYSISANDITSEFFECTSCASTASYSTEMATICSTUDYOFTHEFACTORSTHERESULTSOFTHEIRRESEARCHHASBEENSUCCESSFULLYUSEDFORINDUSTRIALPRODUCTION,BRICKMAKINGMACHINEINTHEGRAYCASTIRONMOLDSURFACECR,ITSSERVICELIFETHANTHEORIGINALLIFEOFGRAYCASTIRONMATERIALISINCREASEDBY810TIMESINRECENTYEARS,INORDERTOOBTAINTHEQUALITYOFTHECASTLAYERSTABILITY,THEELIMINATIONOFSLAGLAYERPOROSITY,SOMESCIENTIFICANDTECHNOLOGICALWORKERSTOAVARIETYOFNEWTECHNOLOGYCASTINGINFILTRATIONLEASINGCO,LTDOFCHINAZHAOJIANHUACASTINGCOMPANIESCASTINGANEGATIVEPERMEABILITYKEVINDIALYSISASARESULTOFTHISPROCESSDOESNOTDEPENDONTHEBINDERALLOYPARTICLESATTACHEDTOTHEMOLDSURFACE,BUTBYNEGATIVEPRESSUREINTHEABOVEADSORPTION,SOLIDCASTLAYERANDTHEQUALITYISMUCHHIGHERTHANTHETRADITIONALMETHODOFCASTINGINFILTRATIONINADDITIONTHELITERATURE6THROUGHTHEVACUUMOFTHETHEORYOFPERCOLATIONANALYSISOFTHEIMPACTOFNEGATIVEFACTORSCASTINGINFILTRATIONDEPTHANDSHADOWLAWWITHWC,ALUMINAANDNICKELPACKAGESFORDIFFERENTPARTICLESIZEALUMINACERAMICPARTICLES,HEATRESISTANTSTEELFORCASTINGNEGATIVEMATRIXPERMEABILITYEXPERIMENTSCONDUCTEDBYTHEPARTICLES,SUCHASNO4LIUCHINASCASTDIALYSISRECENTRESEARCHCOMPLEXDISTRIBUTION295MATERIALS,REVEALEDANDCONFIRMEDTHEMETALPARTICLESANDTHEWETTINGPROPERTIESBETWEENLIQUIDANDPARTICLESONTHEIMPACTOFTHELAWOFINFILTRATIONCASTINGHUAZHONGUNIVERSITYOFSCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGYUNDERTHEGRAVITYFIELDFORTHEPERFORMANCEOFCASTALLOYINFILTRATIONOFTHEPROBLEMS,THEDEVELOPMENTOFOVERWEIGHTPERMEABILITYFIELDCASTSURFACEALLOYINGTECHNOLOGY,SUCCESSFULLYUSEDFORGRAYCASTIRONCRUCIBLESURFACEWASDIFFICULTTOOBTAINTRADITIONALCRAFTSOFHIGHALUMINA,SILICONCASTLAYERCRUCIBLELIFEANDORDINARYGRAYIRONCRUCIBLEMATERIAL3TIMESEXCESSOFFIELDCASTALLOYHASAPERMEABILITYOFMACROANDMICROINFILTRATIONOFTHEPROLIFERATIONOFTWOWAYMODELALLOYS,CANSIGNIFICANTLYENHANCETHEPERMEABILITYINTHEPROCESSOFCASTINGQUALITYANDENERGYTRANSFERTOOVERCOMETHETRADITIONALGRAVITYCASTALLOYOFTHEEFFECTOFINFILTRATIONOFPROCESSPARAMETER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