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英文原文COORDINATEMEASURINGMACHININGONLINEDIAGNOSTICSINTHEMOBILESPATIALCOORDINATEMEASURINGSYSTEMMSCMSFIORENZOFRANCESCHINI∗,MAURIZIOGALETTO,DOMENICOMAISANO,LUCAMASTROGIACOMOPOLITECNICODITORINO,DIPARTIMENTODISISTEMIDIPRODUZIONEEDECONOMIADELL’AZIENDADISPEA,CORSODUCADEGLIABRUZZI24,10129TORINO,ITALYKEYWORDSMOBILEMEASURINGSYSTEMCOORDINATEMETROLOGYDIMENSIONALMEASUREMENTSLARGESCALEMETROLOGYWIRELESSSENSORNETWORKSLOCALIZATIONALGORITHMSONLINEDIAGNOSTICSABSTRACTMOBILESPATIALCOORDINATEMEASURINGSYSTEMMSCMSISAWIRELESSSENSORNETWORKBASEDSYSTEMDEVELOPEDATTHEINDUSTRIALMETROLOGYANDQUALITYENGINEERINGLABORATORYOFDISPEA–POLITECNICODITORINOITHASBEENDESIGNEDTOPERFORMSIMPLEANDRAPIDINDOORDIMENSIONALMEASUREMENTSOFLARGESIZEVOLUMESLARGESCALEMETROLOGYITISMADEUPOFTHREEBASICPARTSA“CONSTELLATION”OFWIRELESSDEVICESCRICKETS,AMOBILEPROBE,ANDAPCTOSTOREANDELABORATEDATACRICKETSANDMOBILEPROBEUTILIZEULTRASOUNDUSTRANSCEIVERSINORDERTOEVALUATEMUTUALDISTANCESTHESYSTEMMAKESITPOSSIBLETOCALCULATETHEPOSITION–INTERMSOFSPATIALCOORDINATES–OFTHEOBJECTPOINTS“TOUCHED”BYTHEPROBEACQUIREDDATAARETHENAVAILABLEFORDIFFERENTTYPESOFELABORATIONDETERMINATIONOFDISTANCES,CURVESORSURFACESOFMEASUREDOBJECTSINORDERTOPROTECTTHESYSTEMAGAINSTCAUSESOFERRORSUCHAS,FOREXAMPLE,USSIGNALDIFFRACTIONANDREFLECTION,EXTERNALUNCONTROLLEDUSSOURCESKEYJINGLING,NEONBLINKING,ETC,ORSOFTWARENONACCEPTABLESOLUTIONS,MSCMSIMPLEMENTSSOMESTATISTICALTESTSFORONLINEDIAGNOSTICSTHREEOFTHEMAREDEEPLYANALYZEDINTHISPAPER“ENERGYMODELBASEDDIAGNOSTICS”,“DISTANCEMODELBASEDDIAGNOSTICS”,AND“SENSORPHYSICALDIAGNOSTICS”FOREACHMEASUREMENT,IFALLTHESETESTSARESATISFIEDATONCE,THEMEASUREDRESULTMAYBECONSIDEREDACCEPTABLEWITHASPECIFICCONFIDENCECOEFFICIENTOTHERWISE,THEMEASUREMENTISREJECTEDAFTERAGENERALDESCRIPTIONOFTHEMSCMS,THEPAPERFOCUSESONTHEDESCRIPTIONOFTHESETHREEONLINEDIAGNOSTICTOOLSSOMEPRELIMINARYRESULTSACHIEVEDBYTHESYSTEMPROTOTYPEAREALSOPRESENTEDANDDISCUSSED1INTRODUCTIONINMANYINDUSTRIALFIELDSFOREXAMPLE,AUTOMOTIVEANDAEROSPACEDIMENSIONALMEASUREMENTSOFLARGESIZEOBJECTSSHOULDBEEASILYANDRAPIDLYTAKEN1–5NOWADAYS,THEPROBLEMCANBEHANDLEDUSINGMANYMETROLOGICALSYSTEMS,BASEDONDIFFERENTTECHNOLOGIESOPTICAL,MECHANICAL,ELECTROMAGNETIC,ETCTHESESYSTEMSAREMOREORLESSADEQUATE,DEPENDINGONMEASURINGCONDITIONS,USER’SEXPERIENCEANDSKILL,COST,ACCURACY,PORTABILITY,ETCINGENERALFORMEASURINGMEDIUM–LARGESIZEOBJECTS,PORTABLESYSTEMSCANBEPREFERREDTOFIXEDONESTRANSFERRINGTHEMEASURINGSYSTEMTOTHEMEASUREDOBJECTPLACEISOFTENMOREPRACTICALTHANTHEVICEVERSA1THISPAPERANALYZESTHEMOBILESPATIALCOORDINATEMEASURINGSYSTEMMSCMS,WHICHHASBEENDEVELOPEDATTHEINDUSTRIALMETROLOGYANDQUALITYENGINEERINGLABORATORYOFDISPEA–POLITECNICODITORINO6MSCMSISAWIRELESSSENSORNETWORKBASEDSYSTEM,DESIGNEDTOPERFORMDIMENSIONALMEASUREMENTSOFMEDIUM–LARGESIZEOBJECTSFOREXAMPLE,LONGERONSOFRAILWAYVEHICLES,AIRPLANEWINGS,FUSELAGES,ETCTHESEOBJECTSCANHARDLYBEMEASUREDBYTRADITIONALCOORDINATEMEASUREMENTSYSTEMS,SUCHAS,FOREXAMPLE,COORDINATEMEASUREMENTMACHINESCMMSBECAUSEOFTHEIRLIMITEDWORKINGVOLUME7,1MSCMSWORKINGPRINCIPLEISVERYSIMILARTOTHATOFWELLKNOWNNAVSTARGPSNAVIGATIONSATELLITETIMINGANDRANGINGGLOBALPOSITIONINGSYSTEM8THEMAINDIFFERENCEISTHATMSCMSISBASEDONULTRASOUNDUSTECHNOLOGYTOEVALUATESPATIALDISTANCES,INSTEADOFRADIOFREQUENCYRFMSCMSISEASILYADAPTABLETODIFFERENTMEASURINGENVIRONMENTSANDDOESNOTREQUIRECOMPLEXPROCEDURESFORINSTALLATION,STARTUPORCALIBRATION6THEAIMOFTHISPAPERISTODESCRIBETHEONLINEDIAGNOSTICSTOOLSIMPLEMENTEDINTHESYSTEMINORDERTOCONTINUOUSLYMONITORMEASUREMENTRELIABILITY2THECONCEPTOF“RELIABILITYOFAMEASUREMENT”IFWEREFERTOTHEFIELDOFCMMS,THECONCEPTOF“ONLINEMETROLOGICALPERFORMANCEVERIFICATION”ISSTRICTLYRELATEDTOTHENOTIONOF“ONLINESELFDIAGNOSTICS”5,9INASAMESENSE,THISAPPROACHIS“COMPLEMENTARY”TOTHATOFUNCERTAINTYEVALUATION10–15INGENERAL,THEONLINEMEASUREMENTVERIFICATIONISAGUARANTEEFORTHEPRESERVATIONOFAMEASUREMENTSYSTEMCHARACTERISTICSINCLUDINGACCURACY,REPEATABILITY,ANDREPRODUCIBILITY16,17THEEFFECTOFAMEASURINGSYSTEMDEGRADATIONISTHEPRODUCTIONOF“NONRELIABLEMEASUREMENTS”INGENERAL,WECANDEFINETHECONCEPTOF“RELIABILITYOFAMEASUREMENT”ASFOLLOWS3MSCMSTECHNOLOGICALANDOPERATINGFEATURESMSCMSPROTOTYPEISMADEUPOFTHREEMAINCOMPONENTSSEEFIG16ACONSTELLATIONNETWORKOFWIRELESSDEVICESCRICKETS,OPPORTUNELYARRANGEDAROUNDTHEWORKINGAREA;AMEASURINGPROBE,COMMUNICATINGVIAULTRASOUNDTRANSCEIVERSUSWITHCONSTELLATIONDEVICESINORDERTOOBTAINTHECOORDINATESOFTHETOUCHEDPOINTS;ACOMPUTINGANDCONTROLLINGSYSTEMPC,RECEIVINGANDPROCESSINGDATASENTBYTHEMOBILEPROBE,INORDERTOEVALUATEOBJECTSGEOMETRICALFEATURESTHEMEASURINGPROBEISAMOBILESYSTEMHOSTINGTWOWIRELESSDEVICES,ATIPTOTOUCHTHESURFACEPOINTSOFTHEMEASUREDOBJECTSANDATRIGGERTOACTIVATEDATAACQUISITIONSEEFIG26GIVENTHEGEOMETRICALCHARACTERISTICSOFTHEMOBILEPROBE,THETIPCOORDINATESCANBEUNIVOCALLYDETERMINEDBYMEANSOFTHESPATIALCOORDINATESOFTHETWOPROBECRICKETS64MSCMSDIAGNOSTICSYSTEMFIG5ANEXAMPLEOF2DMASS–SPRINGSYSTEMTHREEREFERENCENODES_X1,_X2,_X3WITHKNOWNPOSITIONARELINKEDBYSPRINGSTOTHEPOINTTOBELOCALIZED_XPBEINGBASEDUPONUSTECHNOLOGY,MSCMSISSENSIBLETOMANYINFLUENCINGFACTORSUSSIGNALSMAYBEDIFFRACTEDANDREFLECTEDBYOBSTACLESINTERPOSEDBETWEENTWODEVICES,EXTERNALUNCONTROLLEDEVENTSCANBECOMEUNDESIRABLEUSWAVESOURCESANDEVENPOSITIONINGALGORITHMSCANLEADTONONACCEPTABLESOLUTIONSTHESEANDOTHERPOTENTIALCAUSESOFACCIDENTALMEASUREMENTERRORSMUSTBETAKENUNDERCONTROLTOASSUREPROPERLEVELSOFACCURACYWITHTHEAIMOFPROTECTINGTHESYSTEM,MSCMSIMPLEMENTSASERIESOFSTATISTICALTESTSFORONLINEDIAGNOSTICSTHREEOFTHEMAREANALYZEDINTHEFOLLOWINGSECTIONS“ENERGYMODELBASEDDIAGNOSTICS”;“DISTANCEMODELBASEDDIAGNOSTICS”;“SENSORPHYSICALDIAGNOSTICS”5CONCLUSIONMSCMSISANINNOVATIVEWIRELESSMEASURINGSYSTEMCOMPLEMENTARTOCMMSAPROTOTYPEOFTHISSYSTEMHASBEENDEVELOPEDATTHEINDUSTRIALMETROLOGYANDQUALITYENGINEERINGLABORATORYOFDISPEAPOLITECNICODITORINOITISPORTABLE,NOTTOOMUCHEXPENSIVE,ANDSUITABLEFORLARGESCALEMETROLOGYUNEASYONCONVENTIONALCMMSSOMEINNOVATIVEASPECTSOFTHESYSTEMCONCERNITSONLINEDIAGNOSTICSTOOLSWHENDEALINGWITHMEASUREMENTSYSTEMS,THEIMPORTANCEOFAGOODDIAGNOSTICSOFPRODUCEDMEASURESISCRUCIALFORAPPLICATIONSINWHICHERRORSCANLEADTOSERIOUSCONSEQUENCESTHEDIAGNOSTICSTOOLSDESCRIBEDINTHISPAPER,ALLBASEDONTHECONCEPTOF“RELIABILITYOFAMEASUREMENT”,ENABLEMSCMSUSERTOREJECTMEASUREMENTSWHICHDONOTSATISFYASERIESOFSTATISTICALACCEPTANCETESTSWITHAGIVENCONFIDENCECOEFFICIENTFOREACHMEASUREMENT,IFALLTHESETESTSARESATISFIEDATONCE,THEMEASUREDRESULTISCONSIDEREDACCEPTABLEOTHERWISE,THEMEASUREMENTISREJECTEDAFTERREJECTION,THEOPERATORISASKEDTOREDOTHEMEASUREMENT,CHANGINGTHEORIENTATION/POSITIONINGOFTHEPROBEOR,IFITISNECESSARY,BEACONSARRANGEMENTINTHESYSTEMNETWORKINSAMECASES,THESYSTEMMIGHTFORCETOREPEATAMEASUREMENTTOOMANYTIMES,CAUSINGANEXCESSIVEEXTENSIONOFTHEMEASUREMENTDURATIONTHISPROBLEMCANBEOVERCOMEBYCHANGINGTHECONFIGURATIONOFTHECONSTELLATIONFUTUREWORK,ASWELLASIMPROVINGTHEPOWEROFTHEEXISTINGTOOLS,WILLBEAIMEDTOENRICHMSCMSCONTROLSYSTEMBYIMPLEMENTINGADDITIONALTOOLSABLETOSTEERTHEOPERATORDURINGMEASUREMENTFOREXAMPLE,SUGGESTINGTHEPOSITIONOFTHEPROBEINTHEMEASURINGVOLUME,ORPROPOSINGPOSSIBLEEXTENSIONSOFTHENETWORKOFBEACONS,ORAUTOMATICALLYFILTERINGAND/ORCORRECTINGCORRUPTEDMEASUREMENTS6THREECOORDINATESMEASURINGINSTRUMENTPROFILETHREEDOLLARSANDNAMEISMECHANICALMEASURINGTHREECOORDINATESANESSENTIALTOOLTRIORDINATEMEASURINGMACHINE,ITISTOPOINTTOINONEHEXAHEDRALSPACECANBEHAVE,WITHINTHESCOPEOFGEOMETRY,LENGTHANDCIRCUMFERENTIALINDEXING,ETC,ANDTHEINSTRUMENTMEASUREMENTCAPABILITIESTHREECOORDINATESMEASURINGINSTRUMENTORCALLEDTHREECOORDINATESQUANTITYBEDTRIORDINATEMEASURINGINSTRUMENTCANBEDEFINEDASAHASCANMAKETHREEDIRECTIONOFDETECTORS,CANBEINTHREEMUTUALLYPERPENDICULARGUIDERAILTOMOVE,THEPROBECONTACTORNONCONTACTSIGNALMEANSSUCHASTHETHREESHAFTTRANSMITSYSTEMASDISPLACEMENTMEASUREMENTBYOPTICALRULERDATAPROCESSORORCOMPUTERCALCULATION,ETCALLPOINTCOORDINATESTHENEEDEDPARTSX,Y,ZANDVARIOUSFUNCTIONMEASUREMENTINSTRUMENTTRIORDINATEMEASURINGINSTRUMENTMEASUREMENTFUNCTIONSHOULDINCLUDESIZEACCURACY,POSITIONINGACCURACY,GEOMETRYPRECISIONANDCONTOURPRECISION,ETCAFEWDECADESAGO,THREECOORDINATESMEASURINGINSTRUMENTINDUSTRYISONLYFEWPEOPLEKNOWSINCETHE1960S,BECAUSEELECTRONIC,COMPUTERANDSENSORTECHNOLOGYDEVELOPMENT,THETHREECOORDINATESFUNCTIONSANDAPPLICATIONOFMEASURINGAPPARATUS,ALSOIMPROVEDMANY,MAKETHEMANUFACTURINGINDUSTRYCANACHIEVEHIGHQUALITY,HIGHEFFICIENCYANDMULTIFUNCTIONALETCMEASUREMENTREQUIREMENTSSOQUALITYMANAGEMENTDEPARTMENTCANTOSIZEOFWORKPIECEGEOMETRYANDOUTLINE,SUCHASRAPIDANDACCURATEMEASURINGREACHREFERFROMMECHANICALSPEAKING,COORDINATEMEASURINGMACHINETHREEYUANADVANTAGESARE1THEKEY,ANDTECHNOLOGICALPROGRESSCOORDINATEMEASURINGMACHINEFORTHEADVANCEMENTOFSCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGY,MAKEACOORDINATEMEASURINGMACHINEPRACTICAL,ANDHAVEMANYDIFFERENTMEASUREMENTFUNCTIONTHEKEYTECHNOLOGICALPROGRESSASFOLLOWSFLOATINGBEARING,EACHFACEAXESAIRFLOATBEARINGMOBILEUSE,MAKEHEADMOBILESMOOTH,MEASURINGPRECISIONMEASUREMENTCANBEVERYMOVINGHEAD;OPTICALLINEARFEET,COOPERATEINSTALLEDONTHEMACHINECOORDINATESYSTEM,OPTICALLINEARFEETNUBILECANVERYPRECISECOORDINATEMEASURINGVALUE;HAVETOWINCOMPUTEREQUIPMENT,COORDINATEMEASURINGMACHINEADOPTSCALCULATIONMETHODOFOBTAININGMEASUREMENTSRESULTS,DATAPROCESSORANDHASTHEMEASURINGSOFTWARE,INCREASEDTHEFUNCTIONOFCOORDINATEMEASURINGMACHINEDUETOTHEABOVETHREETECHNOLOGICALPROGRESS,MAKEACOORDINATEMEASURINGMACHINEHASTHESUPERIORMEASUREMENTFUNCTION2,THEADVANTAGESOFCOORDINATEMEASURINGMACHINEAREASFOLLOWSA,INSPACEDETECTIONHEADALONGTHEX,Y,ZTHREEAXIALMOVEMENT,ITSARESCRAMBLINGTORIGHTSTANDARDORPOLARSAIDB,WORKPIECECUBEOFFIVESIDESAREMEASURABLE,NEEDNOTTRANSFORMWORKPIECEPOSITION,IFINSTALLEDWITHPROPERJIGSANDSPECIALMEASUREHEAD,SIXTHSURFACECANALSOMEASUREDC,COORDINATEMEASURINGMACHINEOPERATIONANDMEASURETHEWORK,DONOTNEEDSPECIALTECHNOLOGYCANDOTHEJOB
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