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英文原文CoordinateMeasuringMachiningOnlinediagnosticsintheMobileSpatialcoordinateMeasuringSystemMScMSFiorenzoFranceschini∗,MaurizioGaletto,DomenicoMaisano,LucaMastrogiacomoPolitecnicodiTorino,DipartimentodiSistemidiProduzioneedEconomiadellAziendaDISPEA,CorsoDucadegliAbruzzi24,10129Torino,ItalyKeywordsMobilemeasuringsystemCoordinatemetrologyDimensionalmeasurementsLargescalemetrologyWirelesssensornetworksLocalizationalgorithmsOnlinediagnosticsAbstractMobileSpatialcoordinateMeasuringSystemMScMSisawirelesssensornetworkbasedsystemdevelopedattheindustrialmetrologyandqualityengineeringlaboratoryofDISPEA–PolitecnicodiTorino.Ithasbeendesignedtoperformsimpleandrapidindoordimensionalmeasurementsoflargesizevolumeslargescalemetrology.ItismadeupofthreebasicpartsaconstellationofwirelessdevicesCrickets,amobileprobe,andaPCtostoreandelaboratedata.CricketsandmobileprobeutilizeultrasoundUStransceiversinordertoevaluatemutualdistances.Thesystemmakesitpossibletocalculatetheposition–intermsofspatialcoordinates–oftheobjectpointstouchedbytheprobe.Acquireddataarethenavailablefordifferenttypesofelaborationdeterminationofdistances,curvesorsurfacesofmeasuredobjects.Inordertoprotectthesystemagainstcausesoferrorsuchas,forexample,USsignaldiffractionandreflection,externaluncontrolledUSsourceskeyjingling,neonblinking,etc.,orsoftwarenonacceptablesolutions,MScMSimplementssomestatisticaltestsforonlinediagnostics.Threeofthemaredeeplyanalyzedinthispaperenergymodelbaseddiagnostics,distancemodelbaseddiagnostics,andsensorphysicaldiagnostics.Foreachmeasurement,ifallthesetestsaresatisfiedatonce,themeasuredresultmaybeconsideredacceptablewithaspecificconfidencecoefficient.Otherwise,themeasurementisrejected.AfterageneraldescriptionoftheMScMS,thepaperfocusesonthedescriptionofthesethreeonlinediagnostictools.Somepreliminaryresultsachievedbythesystemprototypearealsopresentedanddiscussed.1.IntroductionInmanyindustrialfieldsforexample,automotiveandaerospacedimensionalmeasurementsoflargesizeobjectsshouldbeeasilyandrapidlytaken1–5.Nowadays,theproblemcanbehandledusingmanymetrologicalsystems,basedondifferenttechnologiesoptical,mechanical,electromagnetic,etc..Thesesystemsaremoreorlessadequate,dependingonmeasuringconditions,usersexperienceandskill,cost,accuracy,portability,etc.Ingeneralformeasuringmedium–largesizeobjects,portablesystemscanbepreferredtofixedones.Transferringthemeasuringsystemtothemeasuredobjectplaceisoftenmorepracticalthantheviceversa1.ThispaperanalyzestheMobileSpatialcoordinateMeasuringSystemMScMS,whichhasbeendevelopedattheindustrialmetrologyandqualityengineeringlaboratoryofDISPEA–PolitecnicodiTorino6.MScMSisawirelesssensornetworkbasedsystem,designedtoperformdimensionalmeasurementsofmedium–largesizeobjectsforexample,longeronsofrailwayvehicles,airplanewings,fuselages,etc..Theseobjectscanhardlybemeasuredbytraditionalcoordinatemeasurementsystems,suchas,forexample,CoordinateMeasurementMachinesCMMsbecauseoftheirlimitedworkingvolume7,1.MScMSworkingprincipleisverysimilartothatofwellknownNAVSTARGPSNAVigationSatelliteTimingAndRangingGlobalPositioningSystem8.ThemaindifferenceisthatMScMSisbasedonultrasoundUStechnologytoevaluatespatialdistances,insteadofradiofrequencyRF.MScMSiseasilyadaptabletodifferentmeasuringenvironmentsanddoesnotrequirecomplexproceduresforinstallation,startuporcalibration6.Theaimofthispaperistodescribetheonlinediagnosticstoolsimplementedinthesysteminordertocontinuouslymonitormeasurementreliability.2.TheconceptofreliabilityofameasurementIfwerefertothefieldofCMMs,theconceptofonlinemetrologicalperformanceverificationisstrictlyrelatedtothenotionofonlineselfdiagnostics5,9.Inasamesense,thisapproachiscomplementarytothatofuncertaintyevaluation10–15.Ingeneral,theonlinemeasurementverificationisaguaranteeforthepreservationofameasurementsystemcharacteristicsincludingaccuracy,repeatability,andreproducibility16,17.Theeffectofameasuringsystemdegradationistheproductionofnonreliablemeasurements.Ingeneral,wecandefinetheconceptofreliabilityofameasurementasfollows.3.MScMStechnologicalandoperatingfeaturesMScMSprototypeismadeupofthreemaincomponentsseeFig.16aconstellationnetworkofwirelessdevicesCrickets,opportunelyarrangedaroundtheworkingareaameasuringprobe,communicatingviaultrasoundtransceiversUSwithconstellationdevicesinordertoobtainthecoordinatesofthetouchedpointsacomputingandcontrollingsystemPC,receivingandprocessingdatasentbythemobileprobe,inordertoevaluateobjectsgeometricalfeatures.Themeasuringprobeisamobilesystemhostingtwowirelessdevices,atiptotouchthesurfacepointsofthemeasuredobjectsandatriggertoactivatedataacquisitionseeFig.26.Giventhegeometricalcharacteristicsofthemobileprobe,thetipcoordinatescanbeunivocallydeterminedbymeansofthespatialcoordinatesofthetwoprobeCrickets6.4.MScMSdiagnosticsystemFig.5.Anexampleof2Dmass–springsystem.Threereferencenodes_x1,_x2,_x3withknownpositionarelinkedbyspringstothepointtobelocalized_xP.BeingbaseduponUStechnology,MScMSissensibletomanyinfluencingfactors.USsignalsmaybediffractedandreflectedbyobstaclesinterposedbetweentwodevices,externaluncontrolledeventscanbecomeundesirableUSwavesourcesandevenpositioningalgorithmscanleadtononacceptablesolutions.Theseandotherpotentialcausesofaccidentalmeasurementerrorsmustbetakenundercontroltoassureproperlevelsofaccuracy.Withtheaimofprotectingthesystem,MScMSimplementsaseriesofstatisticaltestsforonlinediagnostics.Threeofthemareanalyzedinthefollowingsectionsenergymodelbaseddiagnosticsdistancemodelbaseddiagnosticssensorphysicaldiagnostics.5.ConclusionMScMSisaninnovativewirelessmeasuringsystemcomplementartoCMMs.AprototypeofthissystemhasbeendevelopedattheindustrialmetrologyandqualityengineeringlaboratoryofDISPEAPolitecnicodiTorino.Itisportable,nottoomuchexpensive,andsuitableforlargescalemetrologyuneasyonconventionalCMMs.Someinnovativeaspectsofthesystemconcernitsonlinediagnosticstools.Whendealingwithmeasurementsystems,theimportanceofagooddiagnosticsofproducedmeasuresiscrucialforapplicationsinwhicherrorscanleadtoseriousconsequences.Thediagnosticstoolsdescribedinthispaper,allbasedontheconceptofreliabilityofameasurement,enableMScMSusertorejectmeasurementswhichdonotsatisfyaseriesofstatisticalacceptancetestswithagivenconfidencecoefficient.Foreachmeasurement,ifallthesetestsaresatisfiedatonce,themeasuredresultisconsideredacceptable.Otherwise,themeasurementisrejected.Afterrejection,theoperatorisaskedtoredothemeasurement,changingtheorientation/positioningoftheprobeor,ifitisnecessary,beaconsarrangementinthesystemnetwork.Insamecases,thesystemmightforcetorepeatameasurementtoomanytimes,causinganexcessiveextensionofthemeasurementduration.Thisproblemcanbeovercomebychangingtheconfigurationoftheconstellation.Futurework,aswellasimprovingthepoweroftheexistingtools,willbeaimedtoenrichMScMScontrolsystembyimplementingadditionaltoolsabletosteertheoperatorduringmeasurement.Forexample,suggestingthepositionoftheprobeinthemeasuringvolume,orproposingpossibleextensionsofthenetworkofbeacons,orautomaticallyfilteringand/orcorrectingcorruptedmeasurements.6.ThreecoordinatesmeasuringinstrumentprofileThreedollarsandnameismechanicalmeasuringthreecoordinatesanessentialtool.Triordinatemeasuringmachine,itistopointtoinonehexahedralspacecanbehave,withinthescopeofgeometry,lengthandcircumferentialindexing,etc,andtheinstrumentmeasurementcapabilitiesthreecoordinatesmeasuringinstrumentorcalledthreecoordinatesquantitybed.Triordinatemeasuringinstrumentcanbedefinedasahascanmakethreedirectionofdetectors,canbeinthreemutuallyperpendicularguiderailtomove,theprobecontactornoncontactsignalmeanssuchasthethreeshafttransmitsystemasdisplacementmeasurementbyopticalrulerdataprocessororcomputercalculation,etcallpointcoordinatestheneededpartsX,Y,Zandvariousfunctionmeasurementinstrument.Triordinatemeasuringinstrumentmeasurementfunctionshouldincludesizeaccuracy,positioningaccuracy,geometryprecisionandcontourprecision,etc.Afewdecadesago,threecoordinatesmeasuringinstrumentindustryisonlyfewpeopleknow.Sincethe1960s,becauseelectronic,computerandsensortechnologydevelopment,thethreecoordinatesfunctionsandapplicationofmeasuringapparatus,alsoimprovedmany,makethemanufacturingindustrycanachievehighquality,highefficiencyandmultifunctionaletcmeasurementrequirements.Soqualitymanagementdepartmentcantosizeofworkpiecegeometryandoutline,suchasrapidandaccuratemeasuringreach.ReferFrommechanicalspeaking,coordinatemeasuringmachinethreeyuanadvantagesare1thekey,andtechnologicalprogresscoordinatemeasuringmachinefortheadvancementofscienceandtechnology,makeacoordinatemeasuringmachinepractical,andhavemanydifferentmeasurementfunction.Thekeytechnologicalprogressasfollowsfloatingbearing,eachfaceaxesairfloatbearingmobileuse,makeheadmobilesmooth,measuringprecisionmeasurementcanbeverymovingheadOpticallinearfeet,cooperateinstalledonthemachinecoordinatesystem,opticallinearfeetnubilecanveryprecisecoordinatemeasuringvaluehavetowinComputerequipment,coordinatemeasuringmachineadoptscalculationmethodofobtainingmeasurementsresults,dataprocessorandhasthemeasuringsoftware,increasedthefunctionofcoordinatemeasuringmachine.Duetotheabovethreetechnologicalprogress,makeacoordinatemeasuringmachinehasthesuperiormeasurementfunction.2,theadvantagesofcoordinatemeasuringmachineareasfollowsA,inspacedetectionheadalongtheX,Y,Zthreeaxialmovement,itsarescramblingtorightstandardorpolarsaid.B,workpiececubeoffivesidesaremeasurable,neednottransformworkpieceposition,ifinstalledwithproperjigsandspecialmeasurehead,sixthsurfacecanalsomeasured.C,coordinatemeasuringmachineoperationandmeasurethework,donotneedspecialtechnologycandothejob
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