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Ultrasonics38200072–76www.elsevier.nl/locate/ultrasOnedimensionallongitudinal–torsionalvibrationconverterwithmultiplediagonallyslittedpartsJiromaruTsujino,TetsugiUeoka,KenichiOtoda,AtsushiFujimiFacultyofEngineering,KanagawaUniversity,Yokohama2218686,JapanAbstractForincreasingtheavailablevibrationvelocityoftheonedimensionallongitudinal–torsionalvibrationconverter,anewtypeofcomplexvibrationconverterwithmultipleslittedpartsinstalledinthepositionsavoidinglongitudinalnodalpositionsalongtheconverterfordecreasingthemaximumvibrationstresslevelatthevibrationnodalpartwasstudied.Thefreeendoftheconvertervibratesinanellipticalorcircularlocus.ComplexvibrationsystemswithellipticaltocircularorrectangulartosquarelocicanbeappliedeVectivelyforvarioushighpowerapplications,includingultrasonicweldingofmetalorplastics,ultrasonicwirebondingofIC,LSIandelectronicdevices,andalsoultrasonicmotors.Theconverterwithmultipleslittedpartswasimprovedinthevibrationstresslevelandthequalityfactorcomparedwiththeconverterwithsingleslittedpart.©2000ElsevierScienceB.V.Allrightsreserved.KeywordsCircularvibrationlocusComplexvibrationComplexvibrationultrasonicweldingLongitudinal–torsionalvibrationconverterUltrasonicmotorUltrasonicplasticweldingVibrationconverterwithdiagonalslits1.Introductionvibrationcharacteristicsbecausethemaximumvibrationstressalongtheconverterisdecreasedincomparisontotheconverterwithaslittedpart,andthemaximumComplexvibrationsystemswithellipticaltocircularvibrationamplitudeoftheconverterincreasessignifiorrectangulartosquarelociareeVectiveforvariouscantly.Vibrationlocus,andvibrationvelocityandphasehighpowerapplications.Aonedimensionallongitudidistributionsalongtheconverterweremeasuredbytwonal–torsionalvibrationconverterwithaslittedpartatlaserDopplervibrometers.Thenewtypeconverterslongitudinalvibrationnodalareadrivenbyalongitudiwereusedforultrasonicplasticweldingandultrasonicnalvibrationsystemisusefulforhighpowerapplicamotors.tionsincludingultrasonicweldingofvariousmaterials,ThemaximumavailablevibrationvelocityincreasedultrasonicwirebondingofbondingofIC,LSIandsignificantlywiththenewconverter.Weldingcharacterelectronicdevices,andalsoultrasonicmotors1–4.Aisticsofplasticmaterialswereimprovedbythecomplexnewtypeofconverterwithmultipleslittedparts,forvibrationconverter.improvingthevibrationcharacteristicsandincreasingThelongitudinalandtorsionalvibrationamplitudestheavailablevibrationvelocityoftheconverter,isofa15mmdiameterofanewconverterforanultrasonicstudied.Theslittedpartsareinstalledinmultipleposimotorincreasedtoabout12mmpeaktozerovaluetionsavoidinglongitudinalnodalpositionsalongthefrom6mmwithaformerconverterunderthesameconverterfordecreasingthemaximumvibrationstressdrivingvoltage60Vrmsat55kHz.levelatthevibrationnodalpart.UsingmultipleslittedTheconverterwithmultipleslittedpartswasfoundparts,themaximumvibrationstressalongaconvertertobeeVectiveforimprovingthevibrationcharacteristicsdecreasesandthequalityfactorincreases,andtheandincreasingtheavailablecomplexvibrationvelocity.maximumvibrationamplitudeincreasessignificantlyatthesamedrivingvoltage5.Theconverterhassuperior2.ConfigurationsofvibrationconvertersCorrespondingauthor.Tel.81454815661Configurationsoftwoexamplesofthevibrationfax81454917915.Emailaddresstsujinocc.kanagawau.ac.jpJ.Tsujinoconverters20mmindiameterand79mminlength,with0041624X/00/seefrontmatter©2000ElsevierScienceB.V.Allrightsreserved.PIIS0041624X9900175473J.Tsujinoetal./Ultrasonics38200072–764.Complexvibrationultrasonicplasticwelding4.1.VibrationcharacteristicsofacomplexvibrationconvertersFig.2showstherelationshipbetweendrivingfrequencyandlongitudinalandtorsionalvibrationvelocityofacomplexvibrationsystemwiththevibrationconvertera.Thedrivingvoltageiskeptconstantat20Vrms.LongitudinalandtorsionalvibrationvelocitieshavemaximumvaluesatdiVerentfrequenciesataround26.3and26.4kHz.Theellipticallocusisobtainedatthefreeedgeoftheconverter.Torsionalandradialvibrationvelocitydistributionsat26.8kHzalongacomplexvibrationconverterwithFig.1.VariousonedimensionallongitudinaltotorsionalvibrationdoubleslittedpartsaandbareshowninFig.3.Oneconverterswithdoubleslittedparts.torsionalvibrationvelocitynodalpartiswithinaleftslittedarea,andthevibrationvelocitieshavemaximumvaluesatthefreeedge.Theradialvibrationvelocitydistributionalongaslittedpartsthatwereinstalledavoidingalongitudinalcomplexvibrationconverterwithdoubleslittedpartsnodalpart,areshowninFig.1.Thecylindricallongitudinal–torsionalvibrationconverters,madeofaluminumalloyJISA7075B,hadtwoslittedpartsonbothsidesofalongitudinalvibrationnodalpartatitscircumference.Theconvertersweredrivenbyalongitudinalvibrationsource.VariousconverterswithadiVerentandbthesameanglediagonallyslittedpartsweremadeinthetrials.Thevibrationconverterparthad18diagonalslitsof45or135°,10mmwidthand0.5mmwidthwerecutalongitscircumferenceusinganelectrosparkingmachine.Theslitdepthwasalteredfrom1.0to3.0mm.Thefreeedgepartoftheconvertervibratedlongitudinallyandtorsionallyandvibratedinanellipticallocus.Fig.2.Torsionalandradialvibrationvelocitydistributionsalongcomplexvibrationconvertersaandb.Drivingvoltage20Vrms.3.VibrationcharacteristicsoftheconverterswithtwoslittedpartsThefreeadmittanceloopsofthetotalvibrationsystemswiththeconvertersFig.1aandbweremeasured.Thequalityfactorandmotionaladmittance,|Ymo|,ofthevibrationsystemwithaconverterwithdiVerentangleslittedpartsaandthesameangleslittedpartsbwereabout600and30mSunderweldingconditionsoftwo1.0mmthickpolypropyrenesheetswithastaticpressureof890kPa.Theadmittanceloopsofthevibrationsystemwiththeconvertersshowsinglecircularshapesbecausetheresonancefrequenciesofthelongitudinalandtorsionalvibrationsareclose.ThequalityfactorsandmotionaladmittancesofthebothFig.3.Relationshipbetweendrivingfrequency,andlongitudinalandsystemsarelarge.EllipticallociwereobtainedatthetorsionalvibrationvelocityofacomplexvibrationsystemwithavibrationconverterA.Drivingvoltage20Vrms.freeedgesoftheconverters.74J.Tsujinoetal./Ultrasonics38200072–76aisalsoshowninFig.3dottedline.Aradialanddoubleslittedparts.Inthecaseoftheconverterwithsingleslittedpart,theslittedpartispositionedatvibrationvelocitymaximumpositionmeansalongitudianodalpositionofthelongitudinalvibrationalongthenalvibrationnodalposition,andthelongitudinalnodalcylindricallongitudinal–torsionalvibrationconverters.positionispositionedbetweentwoslittedparts.TheOnthecontrary,inthecaseoftheconverterwithtwotwoslittedareasexistoutofthelongitudinalnodalslittedparts,theslittedpartsarepositionedavoidingpositionwherethevibrationstresshasamaximumvaluethelongitudinalvibrationnodalposition.Theconverteralongtheconverter.withdiagonalslitsisdrivenbyalongitudinalvibrationsourceoftwopiezoelectricceramiclead–zircon–tita4.2.WeldingcharacteristicsofcomplexvibrationnatePZTdisks,15mmindiameterand5.0mminultrasonicplasticweldingthickness.Thevibrationconverterslittedparthas12diagonalslitsof45or135°and0.5mminwidthand10Therelationshipbetweenweldingtime,specimenor5mminlength,cutbyanelectrosparkingmachinedeformedthicknessattheweldedpartsandtheweldalongthecircumferenceoftheseconvertersfabricatedstrengthofthelappedpolypropyrenesheets1.0mminfromaluminumalloyJISA7075B.Theslitdepthsofthickness,weldedusinga27kHzcomplexvibrationthe15mmdiameterconverterarealteredfrom1.5tosystemwithaconverteraandb,isshowninFig.4.3.5mm.ThefreeedgeoftheconvertervibrateslongituTheweldstrengthsobtainedbythesystemwithcondinallyandtorsionallyandvibratesinanellipticallocus.verteraarelargerthanthosewithaconverterb.ThePZTlongitudinalvibrationtransducers,alongiTheweldingtimerequiredbecomesshorterusingthetudinalvibrationrodwithaflangeforsupportingthevibrationsystemawithalargertorsionalvibrationmotorandaslittedcylinderareclampedbyaconnectingcomponent.Thedecreaseinspecimendeformedthickbolt.Thedrivingpartoftheconverterandtherotornessattheweldedpartsroughlycorrespondstothepartarestaticallypressedusingcorneddiskspringsbyobtainedweldstrength.Specimenswereweldedinaacenterboltandnuts.ThedrivingsurfacesoftheshorterweldingtimeusingacomplexvibrationsystemconverterJISA7075BandtherotorsteelSKD61orcomparedwithalongitudinalvibrationsystem.ComplexSK4temperedaregroundtobeflatandsmoothusingvibrationiseVectiveforultrasonicweldingofplastic1500–2000meshpolishingpowder.materialsasformetalmaterials.5.2.Vibrationcharacteristicsof15mmdiameterultrasonicmotors5.Ultrasonicmotorswithalongitudinal–torsionalconverterThelongitudinalandtorsionalvibrationamplitudesatthefreeedgeoftheseconvertersweremeasuredby5.1.ConfigurationofultrasonicmotorstwolaserDopplervibrometerswhenthedrivingfrequencywasaltered.TheseconvertershavenearresoTheconfigurationsoftheultrasonicmotorsandnancefrequenciesofthelongitudinalandtorsionalvibrationconverters,15mmindiameter,areshowninvibrationssimilartoFig.2.ThelargestlongitudinalFig.5.Fig.5aandbshowtheconfigurationsofvibrationamplitudesoftheconverterofsingleandtwo15mmdiametermotorsusingaconverterwithsingleslittedpartswithoutarotorpartwereabout6and12mmpeaktozerovalueatfrequenciesof50–55kHz.Thelargestlongitudinalvibrationamplitudesoftheseconverterswitharotorpartareabout3and9mmatfrequenciesnearto55kHz.Thelargestvibrationamplitudesofaconverterwithdoubleslittedpartsareabouttwotothreetimescomparedwiththeamplitudesofaconverterwithsingleslittedpart.5.3.VibrationlociatthedrivingsurfaceoftheconverterInthesecases,thelongitudinalvibrationispartiallyconvertedtotorsionalvibrationattheslittedparts,andthecylinderpartoftheconvertervibrateslongitudinallyandtorsionally.ThevibrationlocusatthefreeedgeisdeterminedbythevibrationphasediVerencebetweenFig.4.Relationshipbetweenweldingtime,deformedweldmentheightthesevibrations.Vibrationlociatthedrivingsurfacesandweldstrengthofthelappedpolypropyrenesheets1.0mminthickoflongitudinal–torsionalconvertersweremeasuredness,weldedusinga27kHzcomplexvibrationsystemwithaconverteraandb.usingtwolaserDopplervibrometers20MHzthat75J.Tsujinoetal./Ultrasonics38200072–76Fig.5.Configurationsof15mmdiameterultrasonicmotorsusingalongitudinal–torsionalvibrationconverterwithsingleslittedpartaanddoubleslittedpartsb.detectlongitudinalandtorsionalvibrationsindepenlengthoftheultrasonicmotorof15mmdiameterinthedrivingfrequency55.1kHzwithoutarotoranddently.ThevibrationlocusisshownonadigitalmemoryoscilloscopescreenasaLissajousfigure.Fig.6shows54.26kHzwitharotor.Thevibrationlocusamplitudeatthedrivingsurfacesofconverterdecreasesslightlythevibrationlociatthedrivingsurfacesofconverterswithdoubleslittedpartsof3.3mmdepthand5mmwhentheultrasonicmotorrotates.Fig.6.Vibrationlociatadrivingpartofa15mmdiameterconverterwithandwithoutarotorpart.
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