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MATERIALSSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGA4852008367–374THEROLEOFFRICTIONSTIRWELDINGTOOLONMATERIALFLOWANDWELDKKUMAR,SATISHINSTITUTEFORMABSTRACTTOOLINTHEREENFLTOGETHERGIBASEDIS2007ELSEVIERBVALLRIGHTSRESERVEDK1CESSALUMINIUMJOININGWITHNOCONSUMABLESINGENERAL,THEPROCESSISCARRIEDOUTBYPLUNGINGAROTATINGFSWTOOLINTOTHEINTERFACEOFTWORIGIDLYCLAMPEDSHEETS,UNTILTHESHOULDERTOUCHESTHESURFACEOFTHEMATERIALBEINGWELDED,ANDTRAVERSEDALONGTHEWELDLINETHEFRICTIONALUNDERFRICTIONALDEFORMATIONETHESIMILARISGEOMETRYTOOLANDMALLYSTIRTURALAFPARENTETERSWHICHCONTROLSTHEMATERIALFLOWANDHEATINPUT,ANDINTURNTHEQUALITYOFTHEWELDBUFFAETAL2NUMERICALLYINVESTIGATEDTHEEFFECTOFTOOLPINANGLEONVARIOUSWELDZONES,GRAINSIZEANDWELDINGFORCES,ANDTHEYHADSHOWNTHATTHEREISAGOOD09215093/DOIHEATANDDEFORMATIONHEATAREUTILIZEDFORTHEBONDINGTHEAPPLIEDNORMALFORCE1THEPRIMARYHEATSOURCEISHEATFROMTOOLSHOULDERANDSECONDARYHEATSOURCEISHEATFROMTHETOOLPIN2THEPROCESSANDTERMINOLOGYOFFSWARESCHEMATICALLYXPLAINEDINFIG1THEADVANCINGSIDEASISTHESIDEWHEREVELOCITYVECTORSOFTOOLROTATIONANDTRAVERSEDIRECTIONAREANDTHESIDEWHERETHEVELOCITYVECTORSAREOPPOSITEREFERREDASRETREATINGSIDETHEPROCESSPARAMETERSARETOOL,AXIALFORCE,TOOLROTATIONSPEED,TRAVERSESPEEDANDTILTANGLETOOLTILTANGLEISTHEANGLEBETWEENTHETOOLAXISTHENORMALTOTHESURFACEOFTHESHEETSBEINGWELDEDNOR∗CORRESPONDINGAUTHORTEL918022932301;FAX918023600648EMAILADDRESSSATVKMECHENGIISCERNETINSVKAILASAGREEMENTBETWEENTHERESULTSOFEXPERIMENTANDTHEMODELTHEEXPERIMENTALWORKCARRIEDOUTBYKUMARANDKAILAS7USINGDIFFERENTTOOLGEOMETRYEXPLAINSTHEEFFECTOFSHOULDERDIAMETER,PINDIAMETERANDPINPROFILESONSIZEANDLOCATIONOFDEFECTS,MECHANICALPROPERTIESANDFINALGRAINSIZEBUT,THEREISNOTENOUGHCONCEPTUALBACKGROUNDAVAILABLEONFSWTOOLDESIGNINMOSTOFTHERESEARCHARTICLESTHETOOLGEOMETRYISNOTREPORTEDDUETOVARIOUSREASONSASMISHRAANDMA8POINTEDOUT,MOSTOFTHETOOLDESIGNISBASEDONINTUITIVECONCEPTSTHEFIRSTSTEPINDERIVINGTHECONCEPTOFFSWTOOLDESIGNISTOUNDERSTANDTHEROLEOFTOOLINFRICTIONSTIRWELDFORMATIONINSOLIDSTATEWELDING,THEACCEPTEDPRINCIPLEOFWELDFORMATIONISSTATEDTHATTHEBONDINGOCCURS,WHENAPAIROFCONTAMINATIONFREESURFACESAREBROUGHTTOGETHERINTHERANGEOFINTERATOMICDISTANCESANDTHEFORCEUTILIZEDFORBONDINGISTHEINTERATOMICFORCE9INMOSTOFTHESOLIDSTATEWELDING–SEEFRONTMATTER2007ELSEVIERBVALLRIGHTSRESERVED101016/JMSEA200708013DEPARTMENTOFMECHANICALENGINEERING,INDIANRECEIVED30JANUARY2007;RECEIVEDINREVISEDINTHISINVESTIGATIONANATTEMPTHASBEENMADETOUNDERSTANDTHEMECHANISMINITTHISHASBEENDONEBYUNDERSTANDINGTHEMATERIALFLOWPATTERNFRICTIONSTIRWELDINGTOOLWITHTHEBASEMATERIALISCONTINUOUSLYINCREASEDGIMESINVOLVEDINTHEFRICTIONSTIRWELDFORMATION;NAMELY“PINDRIVTOFORMADEFECTFREEWELDTHEETCHINGCONTRASTINTHESEREGIMESONTHEMATERIALFLOWCHARACTERISTICSAMECHANISMOFWELDFORMATIONEYWORDSFRICTIONSTIRWELDING;MATERIALFLOW;MECHANISM;DEFECTS;TOOLDESIGNINTRODUCTIONTHEENVIRONMENTFRIENDLYFRICTIONSTIRWELDINGFSWPROISAPOTENTIALANDPROVENMETHODFORWELDINGHIGHSTRENGTHALLOYSTHISSOLIDSTATELOCALIZEDTHERMOMECHANICALPROCESSISPREDOMINANTLYUSEDFORBUTTANDLAPJOINTSFORMATIONVKAILAS∗OFSCIENCE,BANGALORE560012,INDIA30JULY2007;ACCEPTED8AUGUST2007OFFRICTIONSTIRWELDFORMATIONANDTHEROLEOFFRICTIONSTIRWELDINGTHEWELDPRODUCEDINASPECIALEXPERIMENT,WHERETHEINTERACTIONOFTHERESULTSSHOWTHATTHEREARETWODIFFERENTMODESOFMATERIALFLOWOW”AND“SHOULDERDRIVENFLOW”THESEMATERIALFLOWREGIMESMERGEVESRISETOONIONRINGPATTERNINFRICTIONSTIRWELDSINADDITIONTOTHATPROPOSED,THEMICROSTRUCTURALINVESTIGATIONREVEALSTHATTHEFRICTIONWELDMENTHASFOURDIFFERENTREGIONSBASEDONTHEMICROSTRUCFEATURES,NAMELYWELDNUGGETWN,THERMOMECHANICALLYFECTEDZONETMAZ,HEATAFFECTEDZONEHAZANDBASEORMATERIAL3–6TOOLGEOMETRYISCONSIDEREDTOBEONEOFTHEPRIMEPARAM368KKUMAR,SVKAILAS/MATERIALSSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGA4852008367–374PROCESS,ING,THECONTACTINTERFPROCESSISFYADDITIONALBODYARECOALESCEDTURE,THEONLYYSISTHECOMPUTATIONALTHEFSWFLOMARKALSSUITABLEORINITIALMATERIALTHEAND19OFFLOCONTRIBALMICROSTRUCTURALTION20RINGFORMATIONCOFCYLINDERSRESULTSINTHEONIONRINGPATTERNFRATINIETAL20EXPLAINEDTHEREASONFORTHEONIONRINGPATTERNUSINGNUMERICALMODELTHATTHEMATERIALENTERINGFROMTHERETREATINGSIDEENTERSTHEACTIONVOLUMEANDROTATESATTHEBACKOFTHETOOLBUT,INGENERAL,THEREISNOEXPERIMENTALEVIDENCETHATCONFIRMSTHEMECHANISMOFONIONRINGFORMATIONPROPOSEDBYTHERESEARCHERSSTIR23GROOFORMATIONANDFORMATIONINSUFINFORMATIONFORMATIONPOSEDSTIRRESEARCH,MARKMECHANISMSAND2ALLOAL–ZN–MGTURALALLOTHEWITHFRUSTUMDIAMETERPINETRYHDSWELDINGARETHEMACHINEBASEINCREASINGMATERIALANGLEFIG1SCHEMATICOFFRICTIONSTIRWELDINGPROCESSANDTERMINOLOGYLIKEFORGEWELDING,DIFFUSIONWELDING,FRICTIONWELDEXPLOSIVEWELDING,ULTRASONICWELDING,ROLLBONDING,ETC,BONDINGISESTABLISHEDBYGENERATINGFRESHMETALTOMETALBYELIMINATINGOXIDELAYERSANDIMPURITIESFROMTHEACEUNDERREQUIREDPRESSUREANDTEMPERATURE10THESECONDITIONSMODIFYTHEBASEMATERIALINTERFACETOSATTHESOLIDSTATEWELDINGCONDITION,ANDDONOTGENERATEANYSURFACESINTHEMATERIALINCONTRAST,DUETOTHETHIRDTHEFSWTOOLINTERACTIONINFSW,ADDITIONALINTERFACESGENERATEDDURINGTHEPROCESSFINALLY,ALLTHESURFACESAREWITHEACHOTHERBYTHEAPPLIEDPRESSUREANDTEMPERAANDTHUS,THESOUNDSOLIDSTATEWELDISPRODUCEDTHEREFORE,MECHANISMOFWELDFORMATIONINFSWWILLBECLEARLYKNOWNWHENTHEROLEOFTOOLISUND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
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