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CNCCuttingTechnologyReviewNumericalcontrolhighspeedcuttingtechnologyHighSpeedMachining,HSM,orHighSpeedCutting,HSC,isoneoftheadvancedmanufacturingtechnologytoimprovethemachiningefficiencyandquality,thestudyofrelatedtechnologyhasbecomeanimportantresearchdirectionofadvancedmanufacturingtechnologyathomeandabroad.Chinaisabigmanufacturingcountry,intheworldofindustrytransfertoacceptthefrontinsteadofbackendofthetransfer,tomasterthecoretechnologyofadvancedmanufacturing,orinanewroundofinternationalindustrialstructureadjustment,ourcountrymanufacturingindustrywillfurtherbehind.Imminentresearchonthetheoryandapplicationofadvancedtechnology.1,highspeedCNCmachiningmeaningHighspeedcuttingtheoryputforwardbytheGermanphysicistCarl.J.Salomoninthelastcenturyandearlythirtys.Heconcludedbyalotofexperimentsinthenormalrangeofcuttingspeed,cuttingspeediftheincrease,willcausethecuttingtemperaturerise,exacerbatingthewearofcuttingtoolhowever,whenthecuttingspeedisincreasedtoacertainvalue,aslongasmorethantheinflectionpoint,withtheincreaseofthecuttingspeed,cuttingtemperaturecannotrise,butwilldecline,soaslongasthecuttingspeedishighenough,itcanbesolvedverywellinhighcuttingtemperaturecausedbytoolwearisnotconducivetothecuttingproblem,obtainedgoodprocessingefficiency.Withthedevelopmentofmanufacturingindustry,thistheoryisgraduallypaidmoreattentionto,andattractedalotofattention,onthebasisofthistheoryhasgraduallyformedthefieldofhighspeedcuttingtechnologyofNC,relativelyearlyresearchonNCHighspeedMachiningTechnologyindevelopedcountries,throughthetheoreticalbasisoftheresearch,basicresearchandappliedresearchanddevelopmentapplication,atpresentapplicationshaveenteredthesubstantivestageinsomeareas.Thehighspeedcuttingprocessingcategory,generallyhavethefollowingseveralkindsofclassificationmethods,oneistoseethatcuttingspeed,cuttingspeedoverconventionalcuttingspeedis510timesofhighspeedcutting.Alsohasthescholartospindlespeedasthedefinitionofhighspeedprocessingstandards,thatthespindlespeedishigherthanthatof8000r\/minforhighspeedmachining.Andfromthemachinetoolspindledesignpointofview,withtheproductofDNdiameterofspindleandspindlespeed,ifthevalueofDNto52000105mm.r\/min,isconsideredtobeofhighspeedmachining.Inpractice,differentprocessingmethods,differentmaterials,highspeedcuttingspeedcorrespondingtodifferent.Isgenerallybelievedthattheturningspeedof7007000m\/min,millingspeedreachesm\/min3006000,thatisinthehighspeedcutting.Inaddition,fromthepracticalconsiderations,highspeedmachiningconceptnotonlycontainsthehighspeedcuttingprocess,integrationandoptimizationalsocontainstheprocessofcutting,isacanobtaingoodeconomicbenefitsandhighspeed,istheunityoftechnologyandbenefit.Highspeedcuttingtechnologyisinthemachinetoolstructureandmaterials,machinetooldesign,manufacturingtechnology,highspeedspindlesystem,highperformanceandfastfeedingsystem,ahighperformanceCNCsystem,toolholdersystem,highperformancetoolmaterialandtooldesignandmanufacturingtechnology,highefficiencyandhighprecisionmeasurementandtestingtechnology,themechanismofhighspeedcutting,highspeedcuttingprocessandotherrelatedhardwareandsoftwaretechnologyarefullyintegratedintothedevelopmentfoundation.Therefore,highspeedcuttingtechnologyisacomplexsystemengineering,isawiththerelatedtechnologydevelopmentandthedevelopmentoftheconceptof.2,thesuperiorityofhighspeedCNCmachiningDuetothelargeamplitudeoftheincreaseofthecuttingspeed,highspeedmachiningtechnologynotonlyimprovesthecuttingproductivity,andcomparedwiththeconventionalcuttingalsohassomeobviousadvantagesfirst,smallcuttingforceinhighspeedmilling,cuttingadoptstheformofsmallquantities,highcuttingspeed,thecuttingforceisreducedby30comparedtotheconventionalcutting,especiallytheradialcuttingforcegreatlyspindlebearing,tool,workpieceisreduced.Bothtoreducetoolwear,andeffectivecontrolofthevibrationmachiningsystem,improvethemachiningaccuracy.Second,thematerialremovalrateishightheuseofhighspeedcutting,cuttingspeedandfeedrateareimprovedgreatly,thesametimethematerialremovalrateisimprovedgreatly.Thusgreatlyimprovetheprocessingefficiency.Third,thermaldeformationsmallinthehighspeedcutting,cuttingheat,mostofthetimetotheworkpiecebytheoutflowofhighspeedchipaway,sotheheatingtimeofthemachinedsurfaceisshort,notbecauseofthetemperatureriseleadstothermaldeformation,ishelpfultoimprovethesurfaceaccuracy,physicalandmechanicalpropertiesofthemachinedsurfaceprocessingmethodisbetterthanthecommon.Fourth,highprecisionmachininghighspeedcuttingusuallyfeedisrelativelysmall,sothatthemachinedsurfaceroughnessisgreatlyreduced,atthesametimeasthecuttingforceissmallerthantheconventionalvibrationcutting,machiningsystemisreduced,themachiningprocessmoresmoothly,sothatgoodquality,canrealizehighaccuracy,lowdegreeofroughmachining.Fifth,thegreenenvironmentalprotectionwhenhighspeedcutting,workpiecemachiningtimeisshortened,theuseofenergyandequipmentrate,highprocessingefficiency,lowprocessingenergyconsumption,atthesametime,duetothehighspeedcuttingcanbeachievedevenwithoutdrycutting,reducethecuttingfluid,reducepollutionandconsumption.Researchandapplicationofnumericalcontrolhighspeedcuttingtechnology,3Inviewoftheabovecharacteristicsofhighspeedmachining,thetechnologyhasgreatapplicationpotentialinthefieldoftraditionalprocessingweak.Firstofall,theworkpieceforthinwallpartsandslender,usesthehighspeedcutting,thecuttingforceissignificantlyreduced,theheatischippingaway,canbeverygoodforusingthetraditionalmethodofthedeformationproblemcausedduetotheinfluenceofcuttingforceandcuttingheat,greatlyimprovingtheprocessingquality.Secondly,becauseofthecuttingresistanceissmall,toreducetoolwear,materialsofhighmanganesesteel,hardenedsteel,austeniticstainlesssteel,compositematerials,wearresistantcastironisdifficulttobeprocessedbytraditionalmethods,canbestudiedusingnumericalcontrolhighspeedcuttingtechnologytoprocess.Inaddition,intheautomotive,aerospace,mold,manufacturingfield,someintegralcomponentsrequirerelativelylargematerialremovalrate,thefeedspeedCNChighspeedcuttingwiththecuttingspeedincreaseandthecorrespondingincreaseinunittime,sothatthematerialremovalrateisgreatlyimproved,thusinthemoldmanufacturing,automobilemanufacturing,aerospacemanufacturingapplicationofnumericalcontrolhighspeedcuttingtechnology,willproducetheenormouseconomicbenefits.Fourth,becauseofthehighspeedcutting,machiningprocessisstable,thevibrationissmall,comparedwiththeconventionalcutting,highspeedcuttingcansignificantlyimprovetheprecisionof12,canbecancelledcompletelyfinishing,andsubsequent,adoptnumericalcontrolhighspeedcuttingtechnology,canachieveandrough,finishingontheoverallstructureofcomplexpartsinamachine,reducesthelikelihoodoflocatingerrortransferprocess,whichisalsoconducivetoimprovethemachiningaccuracy.Therefore,highspeedcuttingtechnologyhasawideapplicationprospectinprecisionmanufacturing.Aluminiummouldsuchasabusinessprocess,themoldcavitylengthis1500mm,therequiredsizeerrorof±0.05mm,surfaceroughnessRa0.8μm,manufacturingprocesstheoriginalroughplaningsemifinishplaningfinishingManualscrapingmanualpolishing,manufacturingcycleis60hours.Usinghighspeedmilling,aftersemifinishmachiningandfinishmachining,theprocessingcycleisonly6hours,notonlyimproveefficiency,butalsogreatlyimprovethequalityofmold.4,researchonKeyTechnologiesofhighspeedCNCmachiningNCHighspeedmachiningisacomplexsystemsengineering,involvescuttingmechanism,cuttingmachine,cutter,cuttingprocessmonitoringandprocessingtechnologyandotherrelatedhardwareandsoftwaretechnology,implementationanddevelopmentofnumericalcontrolhighspeedcuttingtechnology,relyonthissystemofvariouselements,thekeytechnologytorealizehighspeedCNCcuttingtechnologycannotdowithout,specificallyinthefollowingaspects1themechanismofhighspeedcuttingthevariousmaterialsinhighspeedmachiningconditions,thechipformationmechanism,variationofcuttingforce,cuttingheat,toolwearpatternsandeffectsonthesurfacequality,thebasictheoryaboveexperimentsandresearch,willbeconducivetopromotingthehighspeedcuttingprocessfordeterminingandcuttingtheamountofchoice,andprovideatheoreticalbasisfortheprocessingofspecificpartsandmaterialformulation,whichbelongstothetechnicalprinciple.Atpresent,todeterminetheprocessspecificationofhighspeedcuttingandcuttingferrousmetalsanddifficulttomachinematerials,isoneofthedifficultiesintheproductionofhighspeedcutting,andisalsothefocusofresearchinthefieldofhighspeedmachining.2technologyofhighspeedcuttingmachinetoolmodulehighspeedcuttingmachineneedshighspeedspindlesystem,feedingsystemandhighspeedCNCcontrolsystem.Abletoworkinveryhighspeedunderthehighspeedprocessingrequirementsofspindleunit,theabovegeneralspindlespeed10000r\/min,someevenashighas60000100000r\/min,andtoensuregooddynamicandthermalproperties.Thekeypartisthemainshaftbearing,itdecidesthelifeofhighspeedspindleandloadcapacity,oneofthecorecomponentsandhighspeedcuttingmachinetoolspindlestructure,improvementandperformanceimprovementisoneofthemostimportanttechnologyofhighspeedmachinetools.Anotherimportantelementofthetechnologyishighspeedfeedsystem.Withthedevelopmentofmachinetoolspindlespeedincreasing,inordertoensureeachcutterteethorfeedingamountperrotationinvariant,machinetoolfeedspeedandaccelerationisalsoacorrespondingincrease,thesametimetoimprovetravelspeed.Therefore,machinetoolfeedsystemmustmovequicklyandfastandaccuratepositioning,whichisobviouslyonthemachinetoolguide,servosystem,workingtable,putforwardnewandhigherrequirements,isthekeytechnologyofhighspeedmachinetooltechnologycontrolunit.3thehighspeedcuttingtooltechnologymodulehighspeedmachiningprocesssystemcomposedofmachinetools,toolandworkpiece,toolisthemostactivefactor.Thecuttingtoolisoneofthekeytechnologytoensurehighspeedcuttingsmoothly.Withthesubstantialincreaseofcuttingvelocity,haveputforwarddifferentfromtraditionalspeedcuttingrequirementsofcuttingtoolmaterials,geometricparametersofcuttingtool,cutterbodystructure,highspeedcuttingtoolmaterialandtoolmanufacturingtechnologyhasundergonetremendouschanges,highspeedmachining,toensureproductivityandhighmachiningprecision,butalsototoensuresafetyandreliability.Therefore,highspeedcuttingtoolsystemmustmeetwithaclamprepeatpositioningaccuracyofgeometricaccuracygoodandhighloading,clampingrigidity,goodhighspeedwhentheequilibriumstateandsafeandreliable.Asfaraspossibletoreducetheknifebodyquality,inordertoreducethehighspeedrotatingcentrifugalforcebysecurity,meettherequirementforhighspeedcuttingtool,clampingmethodimprovement.TechnologyresearchanddevelopmenttoolsystemisoneofthekeytasksofhighspeedCNCmachining.4numericalcontrolhighspeedcuttingprocesshighspeedcuttingasanewcuttingmethod,tobeappliedtoactualproduction,thelackofapplicationexamplesforreference,nottheamountofcuttingandprocessingparameterdatabase,parameteroptimizationtechnologyofhighspeedmachiningisoneofthekeytechnologiesofthecurrentconstraintsshouldbeused.Inaddition,thehighspeedcuttingpartsNCprogrammustensurestableloadinthewholecuttingprocess,butmostCNCsoftwareisnowusedintheautomaticprogrammingfunctionstillcannotmeettherequirements,needstobeaddedandoptimizedbymanualprogramming,whichreducesthehighspeedcuttingvalueinacertainextent,muststudyanewprogrammingmethod,sothatthecuttingdatapowercharacteristiccurveforhighspeedspindle,givefullplaytotheadvantagesofnumericalcontrolhighspeedcutting.Developmentandcomprehensivedevelopmentandapplicationofhighspeedmachiningtechnologydependsonthekeytechnologyoftheaboveprinciples,machinetool,cuttingtool,the
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