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RESEARCHARTICLEZHIBINLIU,HAIBOXIE,HUAYONGYANGSIMULATIONANALYSISOFPRESSUREREGULATIONOFHYDRAULICTHRUSTSYSTEMONASHIELDTUNNELINGMACHINEHIGHEREDUCATIONPRESSANDSPRINGERVERLAGBERLINHEIDELBERG2011ABSTRACTHYDRAULICTHRUSTSYSTEMISANIMPORTANTSYSTEMINASHIELDTUNNELINGMACHINEPRESSUREREGULATIONOFTHRUSTCYLINDERSISTHEMOSTIMPORTANTFUNCTIONFORTHRUSTSYSTEMDURINGTUNNELEXCAVATIONINTHISPAPER,AHYDRAULICTHRUSTSYSTEMISEXPLAINED,ANDACORRESPONDINGSIMULATIONMODELISCARRIEDOUTINORDERTOSTUDYTHESYSTEMCHARACTERISTICSPRESSUREREGULATIONOFACERTAINGROUP’SCYLINDERSHASLITTLEINflUENCEONREGULATIONOFTHEOTHERGROUPS’CYLINDERSTHEINflUENCEWILLNOTAFFECTTHEPROCESSMUCHDURINGTUNNELEXCAVATIONPUMPDISPLACEMENTMAYHAVEAGREATEREFFECTONPRESSUREREGULATIONANDOILSUPPLYflOWRATESHOULDBEADAPTIVETOTHESYSTEM’SDEMANDAEXACTINGSITUATIONISSIMULATEDTOEXPLAINHOWPRESSUREREGULATIONWORKSDURINGTUNNELEXCAVATIONKEYWORDSTUNNEL,HYDRAULICTHRUSTSYSTEM,PRESSUREREGULATION,SIMULATION1INTRODUCTIONASHIELDTUNNELMACHINEISALARGEANDCOMPLEXMACHINEUSEDINUNDERGROUNDTUNNELEXCAVATIONITISUSEDINCONSTRUCTIONPROJECTSSUCHASUNDERGROUNDRAILLINES,URBANPIPELINES,SUBMARINETUNNELS,ANDSOONHYDRAULICTECHNIQUEISWIDELYAPPLIEDINASHIELDTUNNELINGMACHINEFORINSTANCE,ITISUSEDINTHETHRUSTSYSTEM,THECUTTERHEADDRIVESYSTEM,THESCREWCONVEYOR,ANDTHESEGMENTERECTORRESEARCHWORKSABOUTTUNNELEXCAVATIONHAVEBEENCARRIEDOUTSUGIMOTOANDSRAMOONBUILTATHEORETICALMODELFORTUNNELEXCAVATIONBASEDONMECHANICSANALYSIS1;THEIRSIMULATIONRESULTSAREINGOODAGREEMENTWITHOBSERVEDDATA2MAYNARANDRODRIGUEZUSEDADISCRETENUMERICALMODELTOANALYZETHEEXCAVATIONPROCESSSOMESTUDIESABOUTTHRUSTFORCEANDTORQUEWEREALSOCARRIEDOUT3XUETALHAVEDISCOVEREDSOMERELATIONSHIPBETWEENWORKINGPARAMETERSDURINGTUNNELEXCAVATION4ONLYAFEWSTUDIESABOUTTHEHYDRAULICSYSTEMONTHEMACHINEHAVEBEENDONEHUETALHAVEDONESOMEWORKONATHRUSTSYSTEMOFAMACHINEPRESSUREANDflOWCOMPOUNDCONTROLHAVEALSOBEENRESEARCHED5ADIFFERENTSYSTEMINREF5ISSTUDIEDINTHISRESEARCHPRESSUREREGULATIONOFTHRUSTSYSTEMISSTUDIEDBYUSINGASIMPLIfiEDSIMULATIONMODELANDCASESOFSUCHREGULATIONAREDISCUSSED2THRUSTSYSTEMATHRUSTSYSTEMISANIMPORTANTPARTOFASHIELDTUNNELINGMACHINETHESYSTEMCONSISTSOFPOWERUNITSELECTRICMOTORANDHYDRAULICPUMP,HYDRAULICVALVES,ANDHYDRAULICCYLINDERSASACTUATORSTHENUMBEROFTHRUSTHYDRAULICCYLINDERSISUSUALLY16OR32IFINDIVIDUALCONTROLOFHYDRAULICCYLINDERSISAPPLIED,AHIGHNUMBEROFPROPORTIONALCONTROLVALVESANDPRESSURESENSORSAREREQUIREDMOREOVER,THEMACHINEOPERATORHASTOCONTROL16OR32PRESSUREPARAMETERSDURINGEXCAVATIONINDIVIDUALCONTROLISRATHERCOMPLICATEDANDEXPENSIVENOWADAYS,THRUSTCYLINDERSAREUSUALLYDIVIDEDINTOFOURORfiVEGROUPS,WITHTHEFOURGROUPARRANGEMENTMORECOMMONFOURGROUPCYLINDERSAREDIVIDEDINTOGROUPA,GROUPB,GROUPC,ANDGROUPD,CORRESPONDINGTORIGHTZONE,LOWERZONE,LEFTZONEANDUPPERZONETHEPROPORTIONOFA∶B∶C∶DISUSUALLY4∶5∶4∶3,ASSHOWNINFIG1MORECYLINDERSAREREQUIREDINGROUPBSOASTOCOUNTERTHEWEIGHTOFCUTTERHEADANDTHEHIGHEREARTHPRESSUREINTHELOWERZONEOILPRESSURESINDIFFERENTCYLINDERSARETHESAMEIFTHEYAREINTHESAMEGROUPINTHISCASE,ONLYFOURPROPORTIONALCONTROLVALVESAREREQUIRED,ANDTHEMACHINEOPERATORONLYHASTOCONTROLFOURPRESSUREPARAMETERSDURINGTUNNELEXCAVATION,HYDRAULICCYLINDERSARESUPPLIEDWITHHIGHPRESSUREHYDRAULICOIL,WHICHEXERTSONTHESEGMENTSTOGENERATEATHRUSTFORCETOPUSHTHEMACHINERECEIVEDJANUARY28,2011;ACCEPTEDJUNE10,2011ZHIBINLIU,HAIBOXIE✉,HUAYONGYANGSTATEKEYLABORATORYOFFLUIDPOWERTRANSMISSIONANDCONTROL,ZHEJIANGUNIVERSITY,HANGZHOU310027,CHINAEMAILHBXIEZJUEDUCNFRONTMECHENG2011,63377–382DOI101007/S114650110226YFORWARDTHEMACHINEOPERATORMAYADJUSTHYDRAULICPRESSURESOFTHRUSTCYLINDERSTOACHIEVESTEERINGCONTROLANDMACHINEPOSTUREADJUSTMENTAFTERATHRUSTPROCESSISOVER,SEGMENTSWILLBEINSTALLEDTOCOMPOSEANEWRINGOFTUNNELMEANWHILE,THRUSTCYLINDERSARERETRACTEDINORDERTOMAKEROOMFORTHOSESEGMENTSWHENASEGMENTISLOCATED,CORRESPONDINGCYLINDERSAREEXTENDEDOUTTHESECYLINDERSEXERTONTHESEGMENT,SUPPORTINGTHESEGMENTWITHASMALLFORCETOCOMPLETETHEINSTALLATIONPROCESS3HYDRAULICCIRCUITANDMODELINGTHEHYDRAULICCIRCUITDIAGRAMFORTHETHRUSTSYSTEMISSHOWNINFIG2THESYSTEMMAINLYCONSISTSOFAVARIABLEDISPLACEMENTPUMP1,APRESSURERELIEFVALVE2,ADIRECTIONALCONTROLVALVE3,FOURPRESSUREREDUCINGVALVES4ANDSIXTEENHYDRAULICCYLINDERS7PUMPDISPLACEMENTISPROPORTIONALTOTHEINPUTSIGNALAPRESSURERELIEFVALVEKICKSINTOACTIONWHENTHESYSTEMISOVERLOADED,ANDADIRECTIONALCONTROLVALVEISUSEDTOCONTROLTHEEXTENSIONMOTIONORRETRACTIONMOTIONOFCYLINDERSTHEPRESSUREREDUCINGVALVEISTHEMOSTIMPORTANTCOMPONENTANDISUSEDTOADJUSTTHEHYDRAULICPRESSUREOFTHECYLINDERSWHENTHECYLINDERISEXTENDING,HIGHPRESSUREOILCOMESFROMHYDRAULICPUMP1,ANDTHENflOWSTHROUGHDIRECTIONALCONTROLVALVE3,PRESSUREREDUCINGVALVE4,CHECKVALVE5,ON/OFFVALVE6,fiNALLYENTERINGTHEREARCHAMBEROFHYDRAULICCYLINDER7THEBACKPRESSUREOILflOWSOUTOFTHERODCHAMBEROFCYLINDER7,THENTHROUGHDIRECTIONALCONTROLVALVE3ANDBACKINTOTHEOILTANKWHENTHECYLINDERISRETRACTING,OILflOWSTHROUGHDIRECTIONALCONTROLVALVE3,THENINTOTHERODCHAMBEROFHYDRAULICCYLINDER7THEBACKPRESSUREOILflOWOUTOFTHEREARCHAMBER,THENTHROUGHON/OFFVALVE6,CHECKVALVE8,DIRECTIONALCONTROLVALVE3,ANDfiNALLYINTOTHEOILTANKCOMMERCIALSOFTWAREAMESIMISUSEDASTHEANALYSISTOOLFORTHESIMULATIONTOSIMPLIFYTHEMODEL,TWOGROUPSOFHYDRAULICCYLINDERSTYPICALLYLEFTZONEANDRIGHTZONEARECONSIDEREDFORANALYSISBYUSINGTHESETWOZONES,ITISPOSSIBLETOSIMULATETHESTEERINGMOTIONOFTHESHIELDMACHINETHESIMULATIONMODELISSHOWNASFIG3ALLTHEHYDRAULICMODELSARETHENORMALMODELSPROVIDEDBYTHESOFTWAREEXCEPTFORTHEPRESSUREREDUCINGVALVESTHEVALVEISBUILTASA“SUPERCOMPONENT”BYCOMPOSITINGSEVERALNORMALMODELSTHEVALVEGIVESMOREDETAILSABOUTNOTONLYTHEWORKINGPARAMETERSBUTALSOTHEINTERNALSTRUCTURESAVARIABLEDISPLACEMENTPUMPISAPPLIEDASPROPORTIONALDISPLACEMENTCONTROLPUMPASITHASTHESAMEFUNCTIONASTHATONAWORKINGSHIELDMACHINETHEPUMPDISPLACEMENTISPROPORTIONALTOTHEINPUTSIGNALTHREEKINDSOFFORCESARECONSIDEREDINTHECYLINDERLOADMODELEARTHPRESSUREFORCE,FRICTION,ANDTHEFORCECAUSEDBYTHETHRUSTMOTIONEARTHPRESSUREEXERTSONTHECUTTERHEADANDLININGSOFTHEMACHINETHEPRESSUREFORCEEXERTEDONTHECUTTERHEADAFFECTSTHETHRUSTMOTION,ANDTHEPRESSUREFORCEONTHELININGCANBEIGNOREDTHEFRICTIONFORCEONLININGSOFTHEMACHINECAUSEDBYTHEEARTHPRESSUREISCONSIDERABLE,ACCOUNTINGFORABOUTHALFORMOREOFTHETHRUSTFORCEDURINGEXCAVATION,HOWEVER,THEPRESSUREFORCEANDFRICTIONFORCEALMOSTMAINTAINCONSTANTLYTHUS,THESETWOFORCESARESETASCONSTANTINTHEMODELEARTHPRESSUREISSETBYTHEINPUTSIGNALOFTHELOADMODEL,ANDFRICTIONISSETINTHEMASSMODELOFCYLINDERTHEREISALINEARRELATIONSHIPBETWEENADVANCINGSPEEDANDTHRUSTFORCE,ASSHOWNINFIG44THEBLACKSTARDOTSREPRESENTTHEEXPERIMENTALRESULTSFORA68OPENRATIOCUTTERHEAD,ANDTHEWHITESQUAREDOTSREPRESENTTHERESULTSFOR36OPENRATIOEACHSOLIDLINESHOWSTHELINEARRELATIONSHIPBETWEENADVANCINGSPEEDANDTHRUSTFORCETHELINEARRELATIONSHIPHASAGOODAGREEMENTWITHTHEOBSERVEDDATAINCONSTRUCTIONOFLINENO3INTHEGUANGZHOUMETRO6FIG1ARRANGEMENTOF4GROUPHYDRAULICCYLINDERSFIG2HYDRAULICCIRCUITOFTHRUSTSYSTEM378FRONTMECHENG2011,63377–382AGREATERTHRUSTFORCECAUSESAHIGHERADVANCINGSPEEDTHATISBECAUSEGREATERFORCEINDUCESAGREATERFEEDRATEOFCUTTERS,ANDMORESOILWILLBECUTOFFINAfiXEDTIMEINTERVALTHETHRUSTFORCESHOULDBEGREATERTHANEARTHPRESSUREEXERTEDONTHECUTTERHEADTOGETHERWITHFRICTIONFORCEONTHELINING,INORDERTOPUSHTHEMACHINETOADVANCEIFTHRUSTFORCEISNOTGREATENOUGH,THEMACHINEWILLNOTADVANCEINFIG3,THEREISADEADBANDINTHELOADMODELTHEDEADBANDREPRESENTSTHESITUATIONINWHICHTHRUSTFORCEISNOTGREATENOUGHTOPUSHTHEMACHINEFORWARD;SUCHASITUATIONISREFERREDTOINREF6WHILETHEMACHINEISADVANCING,ANINCREASEOFTHETHRUSTFORCEWILLCAUSEANINCREASEOFADVANCINGSPEEDTHISEXPERIMENTRESULTISAPPLIEDTOTHELOADMODELTHEORIENTATIONOFMACHINEADVANCEISINflUENCEDBYTHEPRESSUREDISTRIBUTIONOFTHRUSTCYLINDERSSOPRESSUREREGULATIONDETERMINESTHEPROCESSIONOFEXCAVATIONTHEMACHINEOPERATORMAYCONTROLTHEPOSTUREOFTHEMACHINEBYADJUSTINGTHEPRESSURESOFCYLINDERGROUPSTHEMACHINEMAYSTEERLEFTORRIGHT,ORADVANCEALONGASMALLANGLEOFSLOPEIFCORRESPONDINGSETTINGSOFPRESSUREREGULATIONAREGIVENNORMALLY,ATTHEENDOFATUNNELEXCAVATION,THEDIFFERENCEBETWEENACTUALTUNNELAXISANDDESIGNEDTUNNELAXISSHOULDBENOMORETHAN20MMTHEMACHINEOPERATORWILLADJUSTTHEMACHINEADVANCINGAXISTOAGREEWITHTHEDESIGNEDAXISASARESULT,PRESSUREREGULATIONISAVERYIMPORTANTFUNCTIONDURINGTUNNELEXCAVATION4SIMULATIONTHESIMULATIONPARAMETERSSHOWNINTABLE1AREOBTAINEDFROMASHIELDTUNNELINGMACHINEUSEDINTHECONSTRUCTIONOFTHENANJINGMETROTHELEFTANDRIGHTTHRUSTGROUPSAREUSEDFORSIMULATION,ANDSIXTEENHYDRAULICCYLINDERSAREREDUCEDTOEIGHTA63CC/REVMAXIMUMDISPLACEMENTPUMPSHOULDBEREDUCEDTO315CC/REVPISTONDIAMETEROFAREALCYLINDERIS300MM,ANDRODDIAMETERIS240MMEITHERTHELEFTORRIGHTTHRUSTGROUP,EACHOFWHICHCONTAINSFOURHYDRAULICCYLINDERS,ISSIMPLIfiEDTOONEHYDRAULICCYLINDER,WHICHHASTHESAMEWORKAREAASTHEORIGINALCYLINDERGROUPASARESULT,THEPISTONDIAMETERANDRODDIAMETEROFSIMULATIONCYLINDERARE600AND480MM,RESPECTIVELYWHENOILPRESSUREISABOUT8MPA,WHICHSUPPLIESABOUT9200KNOFTHRUSTFORCE,THEMACHINEBEGINSTOMOVEREFERENCE7REFERSTHATFRICTIONFORCEACCOUNTSFORABOUT535–73OFTHRUSTFORCEACCORDINGLY,FRICTIONFORCEISSETAT6000KN,ABOUT65OFTHRUSTFORCETHEREMAINING3200KNISEXERTEDONTHECUTTERHEADFORTUNNELEXCAVATION41PRESSUREREGULATIONSTEERINGCONTROLISSIMULATEDINTHISCASEBOTHHYDRAULICCYLINDERSAREINITIALLYSETTOABOUT14MPATHEMACHINEADVANCESSTRAIGHTANDISEXPECTEDTOSTEERLEFTTHEPRESSUREOFRIGHTCYLINDERPRIGHTSHOULDBEHIGHERTHANTHATOFTHELEFTPLEFTPLEFTMAYMAINTAINAT14MPAPRIGHTISSETTO20MPASIMULATIONRESULTISSHOWNINFIGS5AND6PRIGHTISADJUSTEDTO20MPAASTHESTEPSIGNALISGIVENTHEREISASMALLOVERSHOOTOFTHEPRESSUREINFIG5ASTHEREISAMASSSPRINGSYSTEMINTHEPILOTSTAGEOVERSHOOTOFTHEFIG3SIMULATIONMODELOFTHETHRUSTSYSTEMFIG4THRUSTFORCEVERSUSADVANCINGSPEEDINSOFTGROUND4TABLE1MAINSIMULATIONPARAMETERSITEMSETTINGVALUEPUMPMAXIMUMDISPLACEMENT30CC/REVRELIEFPRESSURE353MPANOMINALPUMPSPEED1500REVPISTONDIAMETEROFCYLINDER600MMRODDIAMETEROFCYLINDER480MMFORCEEXERTEDONCUTTERHEAD3200KNFRICTIONFORCE6000KNZHIBINLIUETALSIMULATIONANALYSISOFPRESSUREREGULATIONOFHYDRAULICTHRUSTSYSTEM379MASSSPRINGSYSTEMCAUSESOVERSHOOTOFTHEOUTLETPRESSUREINTHEMAINSTAGEPLEFTHASAPULSEWHENPRIGHTISADJUSTEDANDINCREASESSLIGHTLYAFTERADJUSTMENTTHESUDDENCHANGEININLETPRESSUREWILLCAUSETHESAMEPULSEINOUTLETPRESSUREATfiRSTBECAUSETHEPILOTSTAGEFREQUENCYRESPONSEISNOTHIGHENOUGH,WHENTHEPILOTSTAGEMECHANISMSTARTSADJUSTINGTHEVALVE’SOPENINGAREA,OUTLETPRESSUREWILLDECREASETOTHESETVALUETHESMALLINCREASEOFPLEFTMIGHTBECAUSEDBYTHEINCREASEOFPUMPOUTLETflOWRATETHEP
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